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Shadow (σκιαν). The contrast here between σκια (shadow, shade caused by interruption of light as by trees, Mr 4:32 ) and εικων (image or picture) is striking. Christ is the εικων of God (2Co 4:4; Col 1:15 ). In Col 2:17 Paul draws a distinction between σκια for the Jewish rites and ceremonies and σωμα for the reality in Christ. Children are fond of shadow pictures. The law gives only a dim outline of the good things to come ( 9:11).
They can (δυναντα). This reading leaves ο νομος a nominativus pendens (an anacoluthon). But many MSS. read δυνατα (it--the law--can). For the idea and use of τελειωσα see 9:9.
Else they would not have ceased? (επε ουκ αν επαυσαντο;). Ellipsis of condition after επε (since if they really did perfect) with the conclusion of the second-class condition (αν and the aorist middle indicative of παυομα).
To be offered (προσφερομενα). Regular idiom, participle (present passive) with παυομα (Ac 5:42 ).
Because (δια το). Δια with the accusative of the articular infinitive, "because of the having" (εχειν) as to the worshippers (τους λατρευοντας, accusative of general reference of the articular participle), not "would have had."
No more conscience of sins (μηδεμιαν ετ συνειδησιν αμαρτιων). Rather "consciousness of sins" as in 9:14.
Having been once cleansed (απαξ κεκαθαρισμενους). Perfect passive participle of καθαριζω, "if they had once for all been cleansed."
When he cometh into the world (εισερχομενος εις τον κοσμον). Reference to the Incarnation of Christ who is represented as quoting Ps 40:7-9 which is quoted. The text of the LXX is followed in the main which differs from the Hebrew chiefly in having σωμα (body) rather than ωτια (ears). The LXX translation has not altered the sense of the Psalm, "that there was a sacrifice which answered to the will of God as no animal sacrifice could" (Moffatt). So the writer of Hebrews "argues that the Son's offering of himself is the true and final offering for sin, because it is the sacrifice, which, according to prophecy, God desired to be made" (Davidson).
A body didst thou prepare for me (σωμα κατηρτισω μο). First aorist middle indicative second person singular of καταρτιζω, to make ready, equip. Using σωμα (body) for ωτια (ears) does not change the sense, for the ears were the point of contact with God's will.
Thou hadst no pleasure (ουκ ευδοκησας). First aorist active indicative of ευδοκεω, common for God's good pleasure (Mt 3:17 ). God took no pleasure in the animal offering (θυσιαν), the meal-offering (προσφοραν), the burnt-offering (ολοκαυτωματα), the sin-offering (περ αμαρτιας, concerning sin).
Then (τοτε). When it was plain that God could not be propitiated by such sacrifices.
Lo, I am come (Ιδου ηκω). The Messiah is represented as offering himself to do God's will (του ποιησα το θελημα σου, the genitive articular infinitive of purpose).
In the roll of the book it is written of me (εν κεφαλιδ βιβλιου γεγραπτα περ εμου). Stands written (γεγραπτα, perfect passive indicative). Κεφαλις is a diminutive of κεφαλη (head), a little head, then roll only here in N.T., but in the papyri. Here it refers "to the O.T. as a prediction of Christ's higher sacrifice" (Moffatt).
The which (αιτινες). "Which very things" (θυσια).
Then hath he said (τοτε ειρηκεν). That is Christ. Perfect active indicative with which compare τοτε ειπον (second aorist active) in verse 7 which is quoted again.
He taketh away the first (αναιρε το πρωτον). Present active indicative of αναιρεω, to take up, to abolish, of a man to kill (Mt 2:16 ). By "the first" (το πρωτον) he means the system of animal sacrifices in verse 8.
That he may establish the second (ινα το δευτερον στηση). Purpose clause with ινα and the first aorist active (transitive) subjunctive of ιστημ, to place. By "the second" (το δευτερον) he means doing God's will as shown in verse 9 (following verse 8). This is the author's exegesis of the Psalm.
We have been sanctified (ηγιασμενο εσμεν). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of αγιαζω, to set apart, to sanctify. The divine will, unfulfilled in animal sacrifices, is realized in Christ's offering of himself. "He came to be a great High Priest, and the body was prepared for him, that by the offering of it he might put sinful men for ever into the perfect religious relation to God" (Denney, The Death of Christ, p. 234).
Standeth (εστηκεν). Perfect active indicative of ιστημ (intransitive), vivid picture.
Ministering and offering (λειτουργων κα προσφερων). Present active participles graphically describing the priest.
Take away (περιελειν). Second aorist active infinitive of περιαιρεω, old verb to take from around, to remove utterly as in Ac 27:20 .
When he had offered (προσενεγκας). Second aorist active participle (with first aorist ending -ας in place of -ον) of προσφερω, single act in contrast to present participle προσφερων above.
One sacrifice (μιαν θυσιαν). This the main point. The one sacrifice does the work that the many failed to do. One wonders how priests who claim that the "mass" is the sacrifice of Christ's body repeated explain this verse.
For ever (εις το διηνεκες). Can be construed either with μιαν θυσιαν or with εκαθισεν (sat down). See 1:3 for εκαθισεν.
Henceforth expecting (το λοιπον εκδεχομενος). "For the rest" or "for the future" (το λοιπον, accusative of extent of time). The expectant attitude of Christ here is that of final and certain victory (Joh 16:33; 1Co 15:24-28 ).
Till his enemies be made (εως τεθωσιν ο εχθρο αυτου). Purpose and temporal clause with εως and the first aorist passive subjunctive of τιθημ. He quotes Ps 110:1 again.
He hath perfected (τετελειωκεν). Perfect active indicative of τελειοω. He has done what the old sacrifices failed to do (verse 1).
Them that are sanctified (τους αγιαζομενους). Articular participle (accusative case) present passive of αγιαζω (note perfect in verse 10) either because of the process still going on or because of the repetition in so many persons as in 2:11.
And the Holy Ghost also beareth witness to us (μαρτυρε δε ημιν κα το πνευμα το αγιον). Μαρτυρεω is common in Philo for Scripture quotation. The author confirms his interpretation of Ps 40:7-9 by repeating from Jeremiah (Jer 31:31ff. ) what he had already quoted ( 8:8-12).
After he hath said (μετα το ειρηκενα). Accusative case after μετα of the articular infinitive perfect active, "after the having said."
Here again the writer adds "their iniquities" (των ανομιων) to "sins" of 8:12 and reads μνησθησομα (first future passive) with ου μη rather than μνησθω (first aorist passive subjunctive) of 8:12 (the more common idiom). It is uncertain also whether the writer means verse 17 to be the principal clause with 15,16 as subordinate or the whole quotation to be subordinate to μετα το ειρηκενα of verse 15 with anacoluthon in verse 18. At any rate verse 17 in the quotation does not follow immediately after verse 16 as one can see in 8:10-12 (skipping part of 8:10 and all of 8:11).
There is no more offering for sin (ουκετ προσφορα περ αμαρτιας). This is the logical and triumphant conclusion concerning the better sacrifice offered by Christ ( 9:13-10:18). As Jeremiah had prophesied, there is actually remission (αφεσις, removal) of sins. Repetition of the sacrifice is needless.
Having therefore (εχοντες ουν). The author now gives a second (the first in 8:1-6) resume of the five arguments concerning the superior priestly work of Christ ( 10:19-25) coupled with an earnest exhortation like that in 4:14-16, with which he began the discussion, before he proceeds to treat at length the fifth and last one, the better promises in Christ ( 10:26-12:3).
By the blood of Jesus (εν τω αιματ Ιησου). This is the better sacrifice just discussed ( 9:13-10:18).
By the way which he dedicated for us (ην ενεκαινισεν ημιν οδον). This "new" (προσφατον, freshly killed, newly made, from προς and the root of φατος, in the papyri, only here in N.T.) and "living" (ζωσαν) Jesus opened ("dedicated") for us by his Incarnation and Death for us. Thus he fulfilled God's promise of the "New Covenant" ( 8:7-13) in Jeremiah. The language is highly symbolic here and "through the veil" here is explained as meaning the flesh of Christ, his humanity, not the veil opening into heaven ( 6:20). Some do take "veil" here as obscuring the deity of Christ rather than the revelation of God in the human body of Christ (Joh 1:18; 14:9 ). At any rate because of the coming of Christ in the flesh we have the new way opened for access to God (Heb 2:17f.; 4:16 ).
A great priest (ιερεα μεγαν). As has been shown in 4:14-7:28.
Over the house of God (επ τον οικον του θεου). As God's Son (3:5f. ).
Let us draw near (προσερχωμεθα). Present middle volitive subjunctive as in 4:16 with which exhortation the discussion began. There are three exhortations in verses 22:25 (Let us draw near, προσερχωμεθα, let us hold fast, κατεχωμεν, let us consider one another, κατανοωμεν αλληλους). Four items are added to this first exhortation.
With a true heart (μετα αληθινης καρδιας). With loyalty and fealty.
In fulness of faith (εν πληροφορια πιστεως). See 6:11 for this very phrase.
Having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience (ρεραντισμενο τας καρδιας απο συνειδησεως πονηρας). Perfect passive participle of ραντιζω with the accusative retained in the passive, an evident allusion to the sprinkling of blood in the old tabernacle ( 9:18-22) and the shedding of Christ's blood for the cleansing of our consciences ( 10:1-4). Cf. 1Pe 1:2 for "the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ."
Our body washed with pure water (λελουσμενο το σωμα υδατ καθαρω). Perfect passive (or middle) of λουω, old verb to bathe, to wash. Accusative also retained if passive. Hυδατ can be either locative (in) or instrumental (with). See Eph 5:26; Tit 3:5 for the use of λουτρον. If the reference here is to baptism (quite doubtful), the meaning is a symbol (Dods) of the previous cleansing by the blood of Christ.
That it waver not (ακλινη). Common compound adjective (alpha privative and κλινω, unwavering, not leaning, here only in N.T. It is a confession of hope, not of despair.
That promised (ο επαγγειλαμενος). First aorist middle articular participle of επαγγελλω. This is the argument remaining to be discussed ( 10:26-12:3) and already alluded to (6:13f.; 8:6 ). The ministry of Jesus rests upon "better promises." How better? God is "faithful," but he made the other promises also. We shall see.
Let us consider one another (κατανοωμεν αλληλους). Present (keep on doing so) active volitive subjunctive of κατανοεω. The verb used about Jesus in 3:1.
To provoke (εις παροξυσμον). Our very word "paroxysm," from παροξυνω (παρα, οξυνω from οξυς, sharp), to sharpen, to stimulate, to incite. So here in good sense (for incitement to), but in Ac 15:39 the word is used of irritation or contention as in the LXX and Demosthenes. Hippocrates uses it for "paroxysm" in disease (so in the papyri).
Unto love and good works (αγαπης κα καλων εργων). Objective genitive. So Paul seeks to stir up the Corinthians by the example of the Macedonians (2Co 8:1-7 ).
Not forsaking (μη εγκαταλειποντες). "Not leaving behind, not leaving in the lurch" (2Ti 4:10 ).
The assembling of yourselves together (την επισυναγωγην εαυτων). Late double compound from επισυναγω, to gather together (συν) besides (επ) as in Mt 23:37; Lu 17:27 . In N.T. only here and 2Th 2:1 . In an inscription 100 B.C. for collection of money (Deissmann, Light, etc., p. 103).
As the custom of some is (καθως εθος τισιν). "As is custom to some." For εθος (custom) see Lu 22:39; Joh 19:40 . Already some Christians had formed the habit of not attending public worship, a perilous habit then and now.
So much the more as (τοσουτω μαλλον οσω). Instrumental case of measure or degree, "by so much the more as," both with τοσουτω and οσω.
The day drawing nigh (εγγιζουσαν την ημεραν). The Second Coming of Christ which draws nearer all the time (Ro 13:12 ).
If we sin wilfully (εκουσιως αμαρτανοντων ημων). Genitive absolute with the present active participle of αμαρτανω, circumstantial participle here in a conditional sense.
After that we have received (μετα το λαβειν). "After the receiving" (accusative case of the articular infinitive second aorist active of λαμβανω after μετα).
Knowledge (επιγνωσιν). "Full knowledge," as in 6:4f .
There remaineth no more (ουκετ απολειπετα). "No longer is there left behind" (present passive indicative as in 4:9), for one has renounced the one and only sacrifice for sin that does or can remove sin ( 10:1-18).
Expectation (εκδοχη). Usually reception or interpretation from εκδεχομα (Heb 11:10 ), only here in N.T. and in unusual sense like προσδοκια, like απεκδεχομα (Ro 8:19,23,25 ), this sense apparently "coined by the writer" (Moffatt) from his use of εκδεχομα in 10:13. The papyri have it in the sense of interpretation.
A fierceness of fire (πυρος ζηλος). An anger (zeal, jealousy) marked (genitive) by fire. Language kin to that in Isa 26:11; Zep 1:19; Ps 79:5 . See also 2Th 1:8-10 for a like picture of destined doom.
Devour (εσθιειν). "To eat" (figuratively), present active infinitive.
The adversaries (τους υπεναντιους). Old double compound adjective (υπο, εν, αντιος), in N.T. only here and Col 2:14 . Those directly opposite.
Hath set at naught (αθετησας). First aorist active participle of αθετεω, late compound, very common in LXX, from alpha privative and τιθημ, to render null and void, to set aside, only here in Hebrews (see Mr 7:9 ), but note αθετησις (Heb 7:18; 9:26 ).
On the word of two or three (επ δυσιν η τρισιν). "On the basis of two or three." For this use of επ with the locative see 9:17.
How much (ποσω). Instrumental case of degree or measure. An argument from the less to the greater, "the first of Hillel's seven rules for exegesis" (Moffatt).
Think ye (δοκειτε). An appeal to their own sense of justice about apostates from Christ.
Sorer (χειρονος). "Worse," comparative of κακος (bad).
Punishment (τιμωριας). Genitive case with αξιωθησετα (first future passive of αξιοω, to deem worthy). The word τιμωρια originally meant vengeance. Old word, in LXX, only here in N.T.
Who hath trodden under foot the Son of God (ο τον υιον του θεου καταπατησας). First aorist active articular participle of καταπατεω, old verb (Mt 5:13 ) for scornful neglect like Zec 12:3 . See same idea in Heb 6:6 .
Wherewith he was sanctified (εν ω ηγιασθη). First aorist passive indicative of αγιαζω. It is an unspeakable tragedy that should warn every follower of Christ not to play with treachery to Christ (cf. 6:4-8).
An unholy thing (κοινον). Common in the sense of uncleanness as Peter used it in Ac 10:14 . Think of one who thus despises "the blood of Christ wherewith he was sanctified." And yet there are a few today who sneer at the blood of Christ and the gospel based on his atoning sacrifice as "a slaughter house" religion!
Hath done despite (ενυβρισας). First aorist active participle of ενυβριζω, old verb to treat with contumely, to give insult to, here only in the N.T. It is a powerful word for insulting the Holy Spirit after receiving his blessings ( 6:4).
We know him that said (οιδαμεν τον ειποντα). God lives and is true to his word. He quotes De 32:35 (cf. Ro 12:19 ). For εκδικησις see Lu 18:7f . God is the God of justice. He is patient, but he will punish.
And again (κα παλιν). De 32:36 .
To fall (το εμπεσειν). "The falling" (articular infinitive second aorist active of εμπιπτω, to fall in, followed here by εις). We are not dealing with a dead or an absentee God, but one who is alive and alert ( 3:12).
Call to remembrance (αναμιμνησκεσθε). Present middle imperative of αναμιμνησκω, as in 2Co 7:15 "remind yourselves." The former days were some distance in the past ( 5:12), some years at any rate. It is a definite experience of people in a certain place. Jerusalem Christians had had experiences of this nature, but so had others.
Conflict (αθλησιν). Late word from αθλεω, to engage in a public contest in the games (2Ti 2:5 ), only here in the N.T. It occurs in the inscriptions. Cf. 2:10 for the benefit of "sufferings" in training.
Partly (τουτο μεν)
and partly (τουτο δε). Accusative of general reference (τουτο) with μεν and δε for contrast.
Being made a gazing-stock (θεατριζομενο). Late verb to bring upon the stage, to hold up to derision. See Paul's use of θεατρον of himself in 1Co 4:9 .
By reproaches and afflictions (ονειδισμοις τε κα θλιψεσιν). Instrumental case. See Ro 15:3 .
Partakers (κοινωνο). Partners (Lu 5:10 ) with those (των objective genitive).
So used (ουτως αναστρεφομενων). Present middle articular participle of αναστρεφω, to conduct oneself (2Co 1:12 ).
Ye had compassion on (συνεπαθησατε). First aorist active indicative of συνπαθεω, old verb to have a feeling with, to sympathize with.
The spoiling (την αρπαγην). "The seizing," "the plundering." Old word from αρπαζω. See Mt 23:35 .
Of your possessions (των υπαρχοντων υμων). "Of your belongings." Genitive of the articular present active neuter plural participle of υπαρχω used as a substantive (cf. υμων genitive) as in Mt 19:21 .
That ye yourselves have (εχειν εαυτους). Infinitive (present active of εχω) in indirect discourse after γινωσκοντες (knowing) with the accusative of general reference (εαυτους, as to yourselves), though some MSS. omit εαυτους, some have εαυτοις (dative, for yourselves), and some εν εαυτοις (in yourselves). The predicate nominative αυτο could have been used agreeing with γινωσκοντες (cf. Ro 1:22 ).
A better possession (κρεισσονα υπαρξιν). Common word in the same sense as τα υπαρχοντα above, in N.T. only here and Ac 2:45 . In place of their plundered property they have treasures in heaven (Mt 6:20 ).
Abiding (μενουσαν). Present active participle of μενω. No oppressors (legal or illegal) can rob them of this (Mt 6:19ff. ).
Cast not away therefore your boldness (μη αποβαλητε ουν την παρρησιαν υμων). Prohibition with μη and the second aorist active subjunctive of αποβαλλω. Old verb to throw away from one as worthless, only twice in the N.T., here in a figurative sense and Mr 10:50 in a literal sense (garment by Bartimaeus). The Jewish Christians in question were in peril of a panic and of stampeding away from Christ. Recall κατεχωμεν in verse 23.
Which (ητις). Your boldness of verse 35.
Of patience (υπομονης). Old word for remaining under trial (Lu 8:15 ). This was the call of the hour then as now.
Having done the will of God (το θελημα του θεου). This is an essential prerequisite to the exercise of patience and to obtain the promised blessing. There is no promise to those who patiently keep on doing wrong.
That ye may receive the promise (ινα κομισησθε την επαγγελιαν) Purpose clause with ινα and the first aorist middle subjunctive of κομιζω, old verb to carry (Lu 7:37 ), in the middle to get back one's own (Mt 25:27 ), to receive. See also 11:39. Now the author is ready to develop this great idea of receiving the promise in Christ.
He that cometh (ο ερχομενος). The article ο is added to ερχομενος in Hab 2:3 and is given here a Messianic application.
If he shrink back (εαν υποστειλητα). Condition of third class with εαν and the first aorist middle subjunctive of υποστελλω, old verb to draw oneself under or back, to withdraw, as already in Ac 20:20,27; Ga 2:12 . See Ro 1:17 for the quotation also of "the just shall live by faith."
But we (ημεις δε). In contrast to renegades who do flicker and turn back from Christ.
Of them that shrink back unto perdition (υποστολης εις απωλειαν). Predicate genitive of υποστολη, as in 12:11, from υποστελλω with same sense here, stealthy retreat in Plutarch, dissimulation in Josephus. Here alone in the N.T.
Unto the saving of the soul (εις περιποιησιν ψυχης). Old word from περιποιεω, to reserve, to preserve (Lu 17:33 ) to purchase (Ac 20:28 ). So here preserving or saving one's life as in Plato, but possession in Eph 1:14 , obtaining in 1Th 4:9 . Papyri have it in sense of preservation.
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