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Under the yoke (υπο ζυγον). As slaves (δουλο, bondsmen). Perhaps under heathen masters (1Pe 2:18 ). For the slave problem, see also Phm 1; Col 3:22; Eph 6:5; Tit 2:9 . See Mt 11:29 for Christ's "yoke" (ζυγον, from ζευγνυμ, to join).
Their own masters (τους ιδιους δεσποτας). That is always where the shoe pinches. Our "despot" is this very Greek word, the strict correlative of slave (δουλος), while κυριος has a wider outlook. Old word only here, Tit 2:9; 2Ti 2:21; 1Pe 2:18 for human masters. Applied to God in Lu 2:29; Ac 4:24,29 and to Christ in 2 Peter 2:1 .
The name of God (το ονομα του θεου). See Ro 2:24 . If the heathen could say that Christian slaves were not as dependable as non-Christian slaves. Negative purpose with ινα μη and present passive subjunctive (βλασφημητα).
Let not despise them (μη καταφρονειτωσαν). Negative imperative active third plural of καταφρονεω, to think down on. See 4:12. He must not presume on the equality of Christian brotherhood not allowed by the state's laws. Some of these Christian slaves might be pastors of churches to which the master belonged. For the difficulty of the Christian master's position, see 1Co 7:22; Phm 1:16 .
But rather (αλλα μαλλον). Render the Christian Master better service.
They that partake of the benefit (ο της ενεργεσιας αντιλαμβανομενο). For ευεργεσιας (genitive case after participle) see Ac 4:9 , only other N.T. example of this old word. Present middle participle of αντιλαμβανω, old verb, to take in turn, to lay fast hold of, in N.T. only here, Lu 1:54; Ac 20:35 .
Teacheth a different doctrine (ετεροδιδασκαλε). See 1:3 for this verb, present active indicative here in condition of first class.
Consenteth not (μη προσερχετα). Also condition of first class with μη instead of ου. Προσερχομα (old verb, to come to, to approach, with dative) is common enough in N.T. (Heb 4:16; 7:25 , etc.), but in the metaphorical sense of coming to one's ideas, assenting to, here only in N.T., but is so used in Philo and Irenaeus (Ellicott).
Sound words (υγιαινουσιν λογοις). See 1:10 for υγιαινω.
The words of our Lord Jesus Christ (τοις του κυριου ημων Ιησου Χριστου). Either subjective genitive (the words from the Lord Jesus, a collection of his sayings in Lock's opinion like 5:18; Ac 20:35 , at least in the Spirit of Jesus as Ac 16:7; 1Co 11:23 ) or objective genitive about Jesus like 2Ti 1:8; 1Co 1:18 .
According to godliness (κατα ευσεβειαν). Promoting (designed for) godliness as in Tit 1:1 .
He is puffed up (τετυφωτα). Perfect passive indicative of τυφοω, for which see 3:6.
Knowing nothing (μηδεν επισταμενος). Present middle participle of επισταμα. Ignorance is a frequent companion of conceit.
Doting (νοσων). Present active participle of νοσεω, to be sick, to be morbid over, old word, only here in N.T.
Disputes of words (λογομαχιας). Our "logomachy." From λογομαχεω (2Ti 2:14 ), and that from λογος and μαχομα, to fight over words, late and rare word, here only in N.T. See Plato (Tim. 1085 F) for "wars in words" (μαχας εν λογοις).
Whereof (εξ ων). "From which things."
Surmisings (υπονοια). Old word from υπονοεω, to surmise, to suspect (Ac 25:18 ), only here in N.T. All these words are akin (envy, φθονος, strife, ερις, railings or slanders, βλασφημια), all products of an ignorant and conceited mind.
Wranglings (διαπαρατριβα). Late and rare (Clem. of Alex.) double compound (δια, mutual or thorough, παρατριβα, irritations or rubbings alongside). "Mutual irritations" (Field).
Corrupted in mind (διεφθαρμενων τον νουν). Perfect passive participle of διαφθειρω, to corrupt, genitive case agreeing with ανθρωπων (of men) and retaining the accusative τον νουν.
Bereft of the truth (απεστερημενων της αληθειας). Perfect passive participle of αποστερεω, old verb (1Co 6:8 ) with the ablative case after it (αληθειας).
A way of gain (πορισμον). Late word from ποριζω, to provide, to gain. Only here in N.T. "Rich Christians." Predicate accusative with εινα (indirect assertion) in apposition with ευσεβειαν, the accusative of general reference.
Brought into (εισηνεγκαμεν, second aorist active stem with first aorist ending, common in the Koine),
carry out (εξενεγκειν, second aorist active infinitive). Note play on the prepositions εισ- and εξ-.
Food (διατροφας). Plural, supports or nourishments (from διατρεφω, to support). Old word, here only in N.T.
Covering (σκεπασματα). Plural, "coverings." Late word from σκεπαζω, to cover. Here only in N.T.
There with (τουτοις). Associative instrumental case, "with these."
Desire to be rich (βουλομενο πλουτειν). The will (βουλομα) to be rich at any cost and in haste (Pr 28:20 ). Some MSS. have "trust in riches" in Mr 10:24 . Possibly Paul still has teachers and preachers in mind.
Hurtful (βλαβερας). Old adjective from βλαπτω, to injure, here alone in N.T.
Drown (βυθιζουσιν). Late word (literary Koine) from βυθος (bottom), to drag to the bottom. In N.T. only here and Lu 5:7 (of the boat). Drown in the lusts with the issue "in destruction and perdition" (εις ολεθρον κα απωλειαν). Not annihilation, but eternal punishment. The combination only here, but for ολεθρος, see 1Th 5:3; 2Th 1:9; 1Co 5:5 and for απωλεια, see 2Th 2:3; Php 3:19 .
A root of all kinds of evil (ριζα παντων των κακων). A root (ριζα). Old word, common in literal (Mt 3:10 ) and metaphorical sense (Ro 11:11-18 ). Field (Ot. Norv.) argues for "the root" as the idea of this predicate without saying that it is the only root. Undoubtedly a proverb that Paul here quotes, attributed to Bion and to Democritus (την φιλαργυριαν εινα μητροπολιν παντων των κακων), where "metropolis" takes the place of "root." Surely men today need no proof of the fact that men and women will commit any sin or crime for money.
Reaching after (ορεγομενο). Present middle participle of ορεγω (see 3:1) with genitive ης (which).
Have been led astray (απεπλανηθησαν). First aorist passive indicative of αποπλαναω, old compound verb, in N.T. only here and Mr 13:22 .
Have pierced themselves through (εαυτους περιεπειραν). First aorist active (with reflexive pronoun) of late compound περιπειρω, only here in N.T. Perfective use of περ (around, completely to pierce).
With many sorrows (οδυναις πολλαις). Instrumental case of οδυνη (consuming, eating grief). In N.T. only here and Ro 9:2 .
follow after (διωκε). Vivid verbs in present active imperative. The preacher can not afford to parley with such temptations.
Meekness (πραυπαθιαν). Late compound from πραυπαθης, in Philo about Abraham, here only in N.T.
Lay hold on (επιλαβου). Second (ingressive) aorist middle imperative of επιλαμβανω, "get a grip on." See same verb with genitive also in verse 19.
The good confession (την καλην ομολογιαν). Cognate accusative with ωμολογησας (first aorist active indicative of ομολογεω, the public confession in baptism which many witnessed. See it also in verse 13 of Jesus.
Who quickeneth all things (του ζωογονουντος τα παντα). Present active participle of ζωογονεω (ζωογονος, from ζωοσ, γενω), late word to give life, to bring forth alive, in N.T. only here and Ac 7:19 . See 1Sa 2:6 .
Before Pontius Pilate (επ Ποντιου Πειλατου). Not "in the time of," but "in the presence of."
That thou keep (τηρησα σε). First aorist active infinitive of τηρεω, with accusative of general reference (σε) in indirect command after παραγγελλω.
Without spot (ασπιλον). Late adjective (α privative, σπιλος, spot, Eph 5:27 ). In inscription and papyri.
Until the appearing (μεχρ της επιφανειας). "Until the epiphany" (the second epiphany or coming of Christ). Late word in inscriptions for important event like the epiphany of Caligula, in the papyri as a medical term. In 2Th 2:18 we have both επιφανεια and παρουσια. See Tit 2:13; 2Ti 1:10; 4:1,8 .
In its own times (καιροις ιδιοις). Locative case. May be "in his own times." See 2:6. Clearly not for us to figure out.
The King of kings (ο βασιλευς των βασιλευοντων). "The King of those who rule as kings." Oriental title. So with "Lord of lords." See Re 10:16 .
Who only hath immortality (ο μονος εχων αθανασιαν). "The one who alone has immortality." Αθανασια (αθανατος, α privative and θανατος), old word, in N.T. only here and 1Co 15:53f . Domitian demanded that he be addressed as "Dominus et Deus noster." Emperor worship may be behind the use of μονος (alone) here.
Unapproachable (απροσιτον). See Ps 104:2 . Late compound verbal adjective (α privative, προσ, ιενα, to go). Here only in N.T. Literary Koine word.
In this present world (εν τω νυν αιων). "In the now age," in contrast with the future.
That they be not high-minded (μη υψηλοφρονειν). Present active infinitive with negative in indirect command after παραγγελλε, "not to be high-minded." Only instance of the word save some MSS. of Ro 11:20 (for μη υψηλαφρονε) and a scholion on Pindar.
Have their hope set (ηλπικενα). Perfect active infinitive of ελπιζω.
On the uncertainty of riches (επ πλουτου αδηλοτητ). Literary Koine word (αδηλοτης), only here in N.T. A "vigorous oxymoron" (White). Cf. Ro 6:4 . Riches have wings.
But on God (αλλ' επ θεω). He alone is stable, not wealth.
Richly all things to enjoy (παντα πλουσιως εις απολαυσιν). "A lavish emphasis to the generosity of God" (Parry). Απολαυσις is old word from απολαυω, to enjoy, in N.T. only here and Heb 11:25 .
That they do good (αγαθοεργειν). Late word (αγαθος, εργω), in N.T. only here and Ac 14:17 .
Ready to distribute (ευμεταδοτους). Late and rare verbal (ευ, μετα, διδωμ). Free to give, liberal. Only here in N.T.
Laying up in store (αποθησαυριζοντας). Late literary word (απο and θησαυριζω), only here in N.T. Same paradox as in Mt 6:19f. , "laying up in store" by giving it away.
Which is life indeed (της οντως ζωης). See 5:3 for οντως. This life is merely the shadow of the eternal reality to come.
Guard that which is committed unto thee (την παραθηκην φυλαξον). "Keep (aorist of urgency) the deposit." Παραθηκην (from παρατιθημ, to place beside as a deposit, 2Ti 2:2 ), a banking figure, common in the papyri in this sense for the Attic παρακαταθηκη (Textus Receptus here, 2Ti 1:12,14 ). See substantive also in 2Ti 1:12,14 .
Babblings (κενοφωνιας). From κενοφωνος, uttering emptiness. Late and rare compound, in N.T. only here and 2Ti 2:16 .
Oppositions (αντιθεσεις). Old word (αντι, θεσις), antithesis, only here in N.T.
Of the knowledge which is falsely so called (της ψευδωνυμου γνωσεως). "Of the falsely named knowledge." Old word (ψευδησ, ονομα). Our "pseudonymous." Only here in N.T.
Have erred (ηστοχησαν). First aorist active indicative of αστοχεω. See 1:6 for this word.
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