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Acts 23


Acts 23:1

Looking steadfastly (ατενισας). See on this word 1:10; 3:12; 6:15; 7:55; 13:9 . Paul may have had weak eyes, but probably the earnest gaze was to see if he recognized any faces that were in the body that tried Stephen and to which he apparently once belonged.

I have lived before God (πεπολιτευμα τω θεω). Perfect middle indicative of πολιτευω, old verb to manage affairs of city (πολις) or state, to be a citizen, behave as a citizen. In the N.T. only here and Php 1:27 . The idea of citizenship was Greek and Roman, not Jewish. "He had lived as God's citizen, as a member of God's commonwealth" (Rackham). God (θεω) is the dative of personal interest. As God looked at it and in his relation to God.

In all good conscience unto this day (παση συνειδησε αγαθη αχρ ταυτης της ημερας). This claim seems to lack tact, but for brevity's sake Paul sums up a whole speech in it. He may have said much more than Luke here reports along the line of his speech the day before, but Paul did not make this claim without consideration. It appears to contradict his confession as the chief of sinners (1Ti 1:13-16 ). But that depends on one's interpretation of "good conscience." The word συνειδησις is literally "joint-knowledge" in Greek, Latin (conscientia) and English "conscience" from the Latin. It is a late word from συνοιδα, to know together, common in O.T., Apocrypha, Philo, Plutarch, New Testament, Stoics, ecclesiastical writers. In itself the word simply means consciousness of one's own thoughts (Heb 10:2 ), or of one's own self, then consciousness of the distinction between right and wrong (Ro 2:15 ) with approval or disapproval. But the conscience is not an infallible guide and acts according to the light that it has (1Co 8:7,10; 1Pe 2:19 ). The conscience can be contaminated (Heb 10:22 , evil πονηρας). All this and more must be borne in mind in trying to understand Paul's description of his motives as a persecutor. Alleviation of his guilt comes thereby, but not removal of guilt as he himself felt (1Ti 1:13-16 ). He means to say to the Sanhedrin that he persecuted Christians as a conscientious (though mistaken) Jew (Pharisee) just as he followed his conscience in turning from Judaism to Christianity. It is a pointed disclaimer against the charge that he is a renegade Jew, an opposer of the law, the people, the temple. Paul addresses the Sanhedrin as an equal and has no "apologies" (in our sense) to make for his career as a whole. The golden thread of consistency runs through, as a good citizen in God's commonwealth. He had the consolation of a good conscience (1Pe 3:16 ). The word does not occur in the Gospels and chiefly in Paul's Epistles, but we see it at work in Joh 8:9 (the interpolation 7:53-8:11).


Acts 23:2

Ananias (Hανανιας). Not the one in Lu 3:2; Joh 18:13; Ac 4:7 , but the son of Nebedaeus, nominated high priest by Herod, King of Chalcis, A.D. 48 and till A.D. 59. He was called to Rome A.D. 52 to answer "a charge of rapine and cruelty made against him by the Samaritans, but honourably acquitted" (Page). Though high priest, he was a man of bad character.

Them that stood by him (τοις παρεστωσιν αυτω). Dative case of second perfect participle of παριστημ, to place, and intransitive. See the same form in verse 4 (παρεστωτες).

To smite him on the mouth (τυπτειν αυτου το στομα). See on 12:45; 18:17 . Cf. the treatment of Jesus (Joh 18:22 ). Ananias was provoked by Paul's self-assertion while on trial before his judges. "The act was illegal and peculiarly offensive to a Jew at the hands of a Jew" (Knowling). More self-control might have served Paul better. Smiting the mouth or cheek is a peculiarly irritating offence and one not uncommon among the Jews and this fact gives point to the command of Jesus to turn the other check (Lu 6:29 where τυπτω is also used).


Acts 23:3

Thou whited wall (τοιχε κεκονιαμενε). Perfect passive participle of κονιαω (from κονια, dust or lime). The same word used in Mt 23:27 for "whited sepulchres" (ταφο κεκονιαμενο) which see. It is a picturesque way of calling Ananias a hypocrite, undoubtedly true, but not a particularly tactful thing for a prisoner to say to his judge, not to say Jewish high priest. Besides, Paul had hurled back at him the word τυπτειν (smite) in his command, putting it first in the sentence (τυπτειν σε μελλε ο θεος) in strong emphasis. Clearly Paul felt that he, not Ananias, was living as a good citizen in God's commonwealth.

And sittest thou to judge me? (Κα συ καθη κρινων με?) Literally, "And thou (being what thou art) art sitting (καθη, second person singular middle of καθημα, late form for καθησα, the uncontracted form) judging me." Cf. Lu 22:30 . Κα συ at the beginning of a question expresses indignation.

Contrary to the law (παρανομων). Present active participle of παρανομεω, old verb to act contrary to the law, here alone in the N.T., "acting contrary to the law."


Acts 23:4

Of God (του θεου). As God's representative in spite of his bad character (De 17:8f. ). Here was a charge of irreverence, to say the least. The office called for respect.


Acts 23:5

I wist not (ουκ ηιδειν). Second past perfect of οιδα used as an imperfect. The Greek naturally means that Paul did not know that it was the high priest who gave the order to smite his mouth. If this view is taken, several things may be said by way of explanation. The high priest may not have had on his official dress as the meeting was called hurriedly by Lysias. Paul had been away so long that he may not have known Ananias on sight. And then Paul may have had poor eyesight or the high priest may not have been sitting in the official seat. Another way of explaining it is to say that Paul was so indignant, even angry, at the command that he spoke without considering who it was that gave the order. The Greek allows this idea also. At any rate Paul at once recognizes the justice of the point made against him. He had been guilty of irreverence against the office of high priest as the passage from Ex 22:18 (LXX) shows and confesses his fault, but the rebuke was deserved. Jesus did not threaten (1Pe 2:23 ) when smitten on the cheek (Joh 18:22 ), but he did protest against the act and did not turn the other cheek.


Acts 23:6

But when Paul perceived (γνους δε ο Παυλος). Perceiving (second aorist ingressive of γινωσκω). Paul quickly saw that his cause was ruined before the Sanhedrin by his unwitting attack on the high priest. It was impossible to get a fair hearing. Hence, Vincent says, "Paul, with great tact, seeks to bring the two parties of the council into collision with each other." So Alford argues with the motto "divide and conquer." Farrar condemns Paul and takes 24:21 as a confession of error here, but that is reading into Paul's word about the resurrection more than he says. Page considers Luke's report meagre and unsatisfactory. Rackham thinks that the trial was already started and that Paul repeated part of his speech of the day before when "the Sadducees received his words with ostentatious scepticism and ridicule: this provoked counter-expressions of sympathy and credulity among the Pharisees." But all this is inference. We do not have to adopt the Jesuitical principle that the end justifies the means in order to see shrewdness and hard sense in what Paul said and did. Paul knew, of course, that the Sanhedrin was nearly evenly divided between Pharisees and Sadducees, for he himself had been a Pharisee.

I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees (Εγω Φαρισαιος ειμ υιος Φαρισαιων). This was strictly true as we know from his Epistles (Php 3:5 ).

Touching the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question (περ ελπιδος κα αναστασεως νεκρων κρινομα). This was true also and this is the point that Paul mentions in 24:21. His failure to mention again the fact that he was a Pharisee throws no discredit on Luke's report here. The chief point of difference between Pharisees and Sadducees was precisely this matter of the resurrection. And this was Paul's cardinal doctrine as a Christian minister. It was this fact that convinced him that Jesus was the Messiah and was "the very centre of his faith" (Page) and of his preaching. It was not a mere trick for Paul to proclaim this fact here and so divide the Sanhedrin. As a matter of fact, the Pharisees held aloof when the Sadducees persecuted Peter and the other apostles for preaching resurrection in the case of Jesus and even Gamaliel threw cold water on the effort to punish them for it (Ac 5:34-39 ). So then Paul was really recurring to the original cleavage on this point and was able to score a point against the Sadducees as Gamaliel, his great teacher, had done before him. Besides, "Paul and Pharisaism seem to us such opposite ideas that we often forget that to Paul Christianity was the natural development of Judaism" (Page). Paul shows this in Ga 3; Ro 9-11 .


Acts 23:7

When he had so said (τουτο αυτου λαλουντος). Genitive absolute of present participle (Westcott and Hort) rather than aorist (ειποντος). While he was saying this.

A dissension (στασις). This old word for standing or station (Heb 9:8 ) from ιστημ, to place, we have seen already to mean insurrection (Ac 19:40 which see). Here it is strife as in 15:2.

Was divided (εσχισθη). See on 14:4.


Acts 23:8

There is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit (μη εινα αναστασιν μητε αγγελον μητε πνευμα). Infinitive with negative μη in indirect assertion. These points constitute the chief doctrinal differences between the Pharisees and the Sadducees.

Both (αμφοτερα). Here used though three items of belief are mentioned as in 19:16 where the seven sons of Sceva are thus described. This idiom is common enough in papyri and Byzantine Greek (Robertson, Grammar, p. 745).


Acts 23:9

Strove (διεμαχοντο). Imperfect middle of διαμαχομα, old Attic verb, to fight it out (between, back and forth, fiercely). Here only in the N.T. It was a lively scrap and Luke pictures it as going on. The Pharisees definitely take Paul's side.

And what if a spirit hath spoken to him or an angel? (ε δε πνευμα ελαλησεν αυτω η αγγελοσ?). This is aposiopesis, not uncommon in the N.T., as in Lu 13:9; Joh 6:62 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1203). See one also in Ex 32:32 .


Acts 23:10

When there arose a great dissension (πολλης της γινομενης στασεως). Present middle participle (genitive absolute). Literally, "dissension becoming much."

Lest Paul should be torn in pieces by them (μη διασπασθη ο Παυλος). First aorist passive subjunctive of διασπαω, to draw in two, to tear in pieces, old verb, in the N.T. only here and Mr 5:4 of tearing chains in two. The subjunctive with μη is the common construction after a verb of fearing (Robertson, Grammar, p. 995).

The soldiers (το στρατευμα). The army, the band of soldiers and so in verse 27.

To go down (καταβαν). Second aorist active participle of καταβαινω, having gone down.

Take him by force (αρπασα). To seize. The soldiers were to seize and save Paul from the midst of (εκ μεσου) the rabbis or preachers (in their rage to get at each other). Paul was more of a puzzle to Lysias now than ever.


Acts 23:11

The night following (τη επιουση νυκτ). Locative case, on the next (following) night.

The Lord (ο κυριος). Jesus. Paul never needed Jesus more than now. On a previous occasion the whole church prayed for Peter's release ( 12:5), but Paul clearly had no such grip on the church as that, though he had been kindly welcomed ( 21:18). In every crisis Jesus appears to him (cf. Ac 18:9 ). It looked dark for Paul till Jesus spoke. Once before in Jerusalem Jesus spoke words of cheer ( 22:18). Then he was told to leave Jerusalem. Now he is to have "cheer" or "courage" (θαρσε). Jesus used this very word to others (Mt 9:2,22; Mr 10:49 ). It is a brave word.

Thou hast testified (διεμαρτυρω). First aorist middle indicative second person singular of διαμαρτυρομα, strong word (see on 22:18).

Must thou (σε δε). That is the needed word and on this Paul leans. His hopes ( 19:21) of going to Rome will not be in vain. He can bide Christ's time now. And Jesus has approved his witness in Jerusalem.


Acts 23:12

Banded together (ποιησαντες συστροφην). See on 19:40 (riot), but here conspiracy, secret combination, binding together like twisted cords.

Bound themselves under a curse (ανεθεματισαν εαυτους). First aorist active indicative of αναθεματιζω, a late word, said by Cremer and Thayer to be wholly Biblical or ecclesiastical. But Deissmann (Light from the Ancient East, p. 95) quotes several examples of the verb in an Attic cursing tablet from Megara of the first or second century A.D. This proof shows that the word, as well as αναθεμα (substantive) from which the verb is derived, was employed by pagans as well as by Jews. Deissmann suggests that Greek Jews like the seven sons of Sceva may have been the first to coin it. It occurs in the LXX as well as Mr 14:71 (which see and Luke 21:5 ); Ac 23:12,14,21 . They placed themselves under an anathema or curse, devoted themselves to God (cf. Le 27:28f.; 1Co 16:22 ).

Drink (πειν=πιειν). Second aorist active infinitive of πινω. For this shortened form see Robertson, Grammar, p. 343.

Till they had killed (εως ου αποκτεινωσιν). First aorist active subjunctive of αποκτεινω, common verb. No reason to translate "had killed," simply "till they should kill," the aorist merely punctiliar action, the subjunctive retained instead of the optative for vividness as usual in the Koine (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 974-6). Same construction in verse 14. King Saul took an "anathema" that imperilled Jonathan (1Sa 14:24 ). Perhaps the forty felt that the rabbis could find some way to absolve the curse if they failed. See this verse repeated in verse 21.


Acts 23:13

More than forty (πλειους τεσσερακοντα). Without "than" (η) as in verse 21; 24:11 and often in the ancient Greek.

Conspiracy (συνωμοσιαν). Old word from συνομνυμ, to swear together. Only here in the N.T.


Acts 23:14

Came to the chief priests and the elders (προσελθοντες τοις αρχιερευσιν κα τοις πρεσβυτεροις). The Sanhedrin, just as Judas did (Lu 22:4 ).

With a great curse (αναθεματ). This use of the same word as the verb repeated in the instrumental case is in imitation of the Hebrew absolute infinitive and common in the LXX, the very idiom and words of De 13:15; 20:17 , an example of translation Greek, though found in other languages (Robertson, Grammar, p. 531). See on Lu 21:5 for the distinction between αναθεμα and αναθημα. Jesus had foretold: "Whoso killeth you will think that he doeth God service" (Joh 16:2 ).


Acts 23:15

Ye (υμεις). Emphatic.

Signify (εμφανισατε). First aorist active imperative of εμφανιζω. Make plain from εμφανης, chiefly in Acts. Repeated in verse 22. The authority is with the chiliarch not with the Sanhedrin, but he had appealed to the Sanhedrin for advice.

As though ye would judge of his case more exactly (ως μελλοντας διαγινωσκειν ακριβεστερον τα περ αυτου). Hως with the participle gives the alleged reason as here. So also in verse 20. Διαγνοσκω, old verb to distinguish accurately, only here in N.T. and 24:22.

Or ever come near (προ του εγγισα αυτον). "Before the coming near as to him." Προ and the genitive of the articular infinitive of εγγιζω with accusative of general reference.

We are ready to slay him (ετοιμο εσμεν του ανελειν αυτον). Genitive of purpose of the articular infinitive after the adjective ετοιμο (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1061). Ανελειν, second aorist active of αναιρεω.


Acts 23:16

Their lying in wait (την ενεδραν). Old word from εν (in) and εδρα (seat), ambush. In N.T. only here and 25:3. Accusative object of ακουσας.

He came (παραγενομενος). Second aorist middle participle of παραγινομα. It may mean, "having come upon them" and so discount their plot, a graphic touch. Vincent thinks that some Pharisee, since Paul was a Pharisee and so a member of the "guild," told his nephew of the plot. Perhaps, and perhaps not.

Told Paul (απηγγειλεν τω Παυλω). This nephew is not known otherwise. He may be a student here from Tarsus as Paul once was. Anyhow he knows what to do when he catches on to the conspirators. He had enough address to get into the barracks where Paul was. He ran the risk of death if discovered.


Acts 23:17

Called unto him (προσκαλεσαμενος). First aorist participle indirect middle, calling to himself. Paul laid his plans as energetically as if Jesus had not promised that he would see Rome ( 23:11).

Bring (απαγε). "Take away."


Acts 23:18

Paul the prisoner (ο δεσμιος Παυλος). Bound (δεσμιος) to a soldier, but not with two chains ( 21:33), and with some freedom to see his friends as later ( 28:16), in military custody (custodia militaris). This was better than custodia publica (public custody), the common prison, but more confining.

Who hath something to say to thee (εχοντα τ λαλησα σο). Same idiom as in verse 17,19 , but λαλησα here instead of απαγγειλα.


Acts 23:19

Took him by the hand (επιλαβομενος της χειρος αυτου). Kindly touch in Lysias, ut fiduciam adolescentis confirmaret (Bengel). Note genitive with the second aorist middle (indirect, to himself) of επιλαμβανω as in Lu 8:54 with κρατησας which see. How old the young man (νεανιας) was we do not know, but it is the very word used of Paul in 7:58 when he helped in the killing of Stephen, a young man in the twenties probably. See also 20:9 of Eutychus. He is termed νεανισκος in verse 22.

Asked him privately (κατ' ιδιαν επυνθανετο). Imperfect middle, began to ask (inchoative).


Acts 23:20

The Jews (ο Ιουδαιο). As if the whole nation was in the conspiracy and so in verse 12. The conspirators may have belonged to the Zealots, but clearly they represented the state of Jewish feeling toward Paul in Jerusalem.

Have agreed (συνεθεντο). Second aorist middle indicative of συντιθημ, old verb to join together, to agree. Already this form in Lu 22:5 which see. See also Joh 9:22; Ac 24:9 .

To bring down (οπως καταγαγηις). Very words of the conspirators in verse 15 as if the young man overheard. Second aorist active subjunctive of καταγω with οπως in final clause, still used, but nothing like so common as ινα though again in verse 23 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 985).

As though thou wouldest inquire (ως μελλων πυνθανεσθα). Just as in verse 15 except that here μελλων refers to Lysias instead of to the conspirators as in verse 15. The singular is used by the youth out of deference to the authority of Lysias and so modifies a bit the scheming of the conspirators, not "absurd" as Page holds.


Acts 23:21

Do not therefore yield unto them (Συ ουν μη πεισθηις αυτοις). First aorist passive subjunctive of πειθω, common verb, here to be persuaded by, to listen to, to obey, to yield to. With negative and rightly. Do not yield to them (dative) at all. On the aorist subjunctive with μη in prohibitions against committing an act see Robertson, Grammar, pp. 851-4.

For there lie in wait (ενεδρευουσιν γαρ). Present active indicative of ενεδρευω, old verb from ενεδρα (verse 16), in the N.T. only here and Lu 11:54 which see.

Till they have slain him (εως ου ανελωσιν αυτον). Same idiom as in verse 12 save that here we have ανελωσιν (second aorist active subjunctive) instead of αποκτεινωσιν (another word for kill), "till they slay him."

Looking for the promise from thee (προσδεχομενο την απο σου επαγγελιαν). This item is all that is needed to put the scheme through, the young man shrewdly adds.


Acts 23:22

Tell no man (μηδεν εκλαλησα). Indirect command (oratio obliqua) after παραγγειλας (charging) with first aorist active infinitive of εκλαλεω (in ancient Greek, but here only in N.T.), but construction changed to direct in rest of the sentence (oratio recta) as in 1:4, "that thou hast signified these things to me" (οτ ταυτα ενεφανισας προς εμε). Same verb here as in verse 15. This change is common in the N.T. (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1047).


Acts 23:23

Two (τινας δυο). "Some two" as in Lu 7:19 , indicating (Page) that they were not specially chosen.

Soldiers (στρατιωτας),

horsemen (ιππεις),

spearmen (δεξιολαβους). The three varieties of troops in a Roman army like the cohort of Lysias (Page). The στρατιωτα were the heavy-armed legionaries, the ιππεις belonged to every legion, the δεξιολαβο were light-armed supplementary troops who carried a lance in the right hand (δεξιος, right, λαμβανω, to take). Vulgate, lancearios. At the third hour of the night (απο τριτης ωρας της νυκτος). About nine in the evening.


Acts 23:24

Provide beasts (κτενη παραστησα). Change from direct to indirect discourse just the opposite of that in verse 22.

Beasts (κτηνη). For riding as here or for baggage. See on Lu 10:34 . Asses or horses, but not war-horses. Since Paul was chained to a soldier, another animal would be required for baggage. It was also seventy miles and a change of horses might be needed. The extreme precaution of Lysias is explained in some Latin MSS. as due to fear of a night attack with the result that he might be accused to Felix of bribery. Luke also probably accompanied Paul.

To bring safe (ινα διασωσωσιν). Final clause with ινα and the first aorist active subjunctive of διασωζω, old verb, to save through (δια) to a finish. Eight times in the N.T. (Mt 14:36; Lu 7:3; Ac 23:24; 27:43,44; 28:1,4; 1Pe 3:20 ).

Unto Felix the governor (προς Φηλικα τον ηγεμονα). Felix was a brother of Pallas, the notorious favourite of Claudius. Both had been slaves and were now freedmen. Felix was made procurator of Judea by Claudius A.D. 52. He held the position till Festus succeeded him after complaints by the Jews to Nero. He married Drusilla the daughter of Herod Agrippa I with the hope of winning the favour of the Jews. He was one of the most depraved men of his time. Tacitus says of him that "with all cruelty and lust he exercised the power of a king with the spirit of a slave." The term "governor" (ηγεμων) means "leader" from ηγεομα, to lead, and was applied to leaders of all sorts (emperors, kings, procurators). In the N.T. it is used of Pilate (Mt 27:2 ), of Felix, (Ac 23:24,26,33; 24:1 ), of Festus ( 26:30).


Acts 23:25

And he wrote (γραψας). First aorist active participle of γραφω, agreeing with the subject (Lysias) of ειπεν (said) back in verse 23 (beginning).

After this form (εχουσαν τον τυπον τουτον). Textus Receptus has περιεχουσαν. The use of τυπον (type or form) like exemplum in Latin (Page who quotes Cicero Ad Att. IX. 6. 3) may give merely the purport or substantial contents of the letter. But there is no reason for thinking that it is not a genuine copy since the letter may have been read in open court before Felix, and Luke was probably with Paul. The Roman law required that a subordinate officer like Lysias in reporting a case to his superior should send a written statement of the case and it was termed elogium. A copy of the letter may have been given Paul after his appeal to Caesar. It was probably written in Latin. The letter is a "dexterous mixture of truth and falsehood" (Furneaux) with the stamp of genuineness. It puts things in a favourable light for Lysias and makes no mention of his order to scourge Paul.


Acts 23:26

Most excellent (κρατιστω). See on Lu 1:3 to Theophilus though not in Ac 1:1 . It is usual in addressing men of rank as here, like our "Your Excellency" in 24:3 and Paul uses it to Festus in 26:25.

Greeting (χαιρειν). Absolute infinitive with independent or absolute nominative (Κλαυδιος Λυσιας) as is used in letters (Ac 15:23; Jas 1:1 ) and in countless papyri (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1092).


Acts 23:27

Was seized (συλλημφθεντα). First aorist passive participle of συλλαμβανω.

Rescued him having learned that he was a Roman (εξειλαμεν μαθων οτ Ρομαιος εστιν). Wendt, Zoeckler, and Furneaux try to defend this record of two facts by Lysias in the wrong order from being an actual lie as Bengel rightly says. Lysias did rescue Paul and he did learn that he was a Roman, but in this order. He did not first learn that he was a Roman and then rescue him as his letter states. The use of the aorist participle (μαθων from μανθανω) after the principal verb εξειλαμεν (second aorist middle of εξαιρεω, to take out to oneself, to rescue) can be either simultaneous action or antecedent. There is in Greek no such idiom as the aorist participle of subsequent action (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 1112-14). Lysias simply reversed the order of the facts and omitted the order for scourging Paul to put himself in proper light with Felix his superior officer and actually poses as the protector of a fellow Roman citizen.


Acts 23:28

To know (επιγνωνα). To know fully, επ, second aorist active infinitive.

They accused him (ενεκαλουν αυτω). Imperfect active indicative, were accusing him (dative), repeating their charges.


Acts 23:29

Concerning questions of their law (περ ζητηματα του νομου αυτων). The very distinction drawn by Gallio in Corinth (Ac 18:14f. ). On the word see on 15:2.

But to have nothing laid to his charge worthy of death or of bonds (μηδεν δε αξιον θανατου η δεσμων εχοντα ενκλημα). Literally, "having no accusation (or crime) worthy of death or of bonds." This phrase here only in the N.T. Εγκλημα is old word for accusation or crime from εγκαλεω used in verse 28 and in the N.T. only here and 25:16. Lysias thus expresses the opinion that Paul ought to be set free and the lenient treatment that Paul received in Caesarea and Rome (first imprisonment) is probably due to this report of Lysias. Every Roman magistrate before whom Paul appears declares him innocent (Gallio, Lysias, Felix, Festus).


Acts 23:30

When it was shown to me that there would be a plot (μηνυθεισης μο επιβουλης εσεσθα). Two constructions combined; genitive absolute (μηνυθεισης επιβουλης, first aorist passive participle of μηνυω) and future infinitive (εσεσθα as if επιβουλην accusative of general reference used) in indirect assertion after μηνυω (Robertson, Grammar, p. 877).

Charging his accusers also (παραγγειλας κα τοις κατηγοροις). First aorist active participle of παραγγελλω with which compare μαθων above (verse 27), not subsequent action. Dative case in κατηγοροις.

Before thee (επ σου). Common idiom for "in the presence of" when before a judge (like Latin apud) as in 24:20,21; 25:26; 26:2 . What happened to the forty conspirators we have no way of knowing. Neither they nor the Jews from Asia are heard of more during the long five years of Paul's imprisonment in Caesarea and Rome.


Acts 23:31

As it was commanded them (κατα το διατεταγμενον αυτοις). "According to that which was commanded them," perfect passive articular participle of διατασσω.

By night (δια νυκτος). Through the night, travelling by night forty miles from Jerusalem to Antipatris which was founded by Herod the Great and was on the road from Jerusalem to Caesarea, a hard night's ride.


Acts 23:33

And they (οιτινες). Which very ones, the cavalry, the horsemen of verse 31.

Delivered (αναδοντες). Second aorist active participle of αναδιδωμ, old verb to give up, to hand over, here only in the N.T.

Presented Paul also (παρεστησαν κα τον Παυλον). First aorist active (transitive, not second aorist intransitive) indicative of παριστημ, common verb to present or place beside. What would Paul's friends in Caesarea (Philip and his daughters) think of the prophecy of Agabus now so quickly come true.


Acts 23:34

When he had read it (αναγνους). Second aorist active participle of αναγινωσκω, to know again, to read.

Of what province he was (εκ ποιας επαρχειας εστιν). Tense of εστιν (is) retained in indirect question. Ποιας is strictly "of what kind of" province, whether senatorial or imperial. Cilicia, like Judea, was under the control of the propraetor of Syria (imperial province). Paul's arrest was in Jerusalem and so under the jurisdiction of Felix unless it was a matter of insurrection when he could appeal to the propraetor of Syria.


Acts 23:35

I will hear thy cause (διακουσομα). "I will hear thee fully" (δια).

When--are come (παραγενωντα). Second aorist middle subjunctive of παραγινομα with temporal conjunction οταν, indefinite temporal clause of future time (Robertson, Grammar, p. 972), "whenever thine accusers come."

In Herod's palace (εν τω πραιτωριω). The Latin word πραετοριυμ. The word meant the camp of the general, then the palace of the governor as here and Mt 27:27 which see, and then the camp of praetorian soldiers or rather the praetorian guard as in Php 1:13 .

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