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In the church that was there (κατα την ουσαν εκκλησιαν). Possibly distributed throughout the church (note "in the church" 11:26). Now a strong organization there. Luke here begins the second part of Acts with Antioch as the centre of operations, no longer Jerusalem. Paul is now the central figure instead of Peter. Jerusalem had hesitated too long to carry out the command of Jesus to take the gospel to the whole world. That glory will now belong to Antioch.
Prophets and teachers (προφητα κα διδασκαλο). All prophets were teachers, but not all teachers were prophets who were for-speakers of God, sometimes fore-speakers like Agabus in 11:28. The double use of τε here makes three prophets (Barnabas, Symeon, Lucius) and two teachers (Manaen and Saul). Barnabas heads the list ( 11:22) and Saul comes last. Symeon Niger may be the Simon of Cyrene who carried the Saviour's cross. Lucius of Cyrene was probably one of the original evangelists ( 11:20). The name is one of the forms of Luke, but it is certainly not Luke the Physician. Manaen shows how the gospel was reaching some of the higher classes (home of Herod Antipas).
Foster-brother (συντροφος). Old word for nourished with or brought up with one collactaneus (Vulgate). These are clearly the outstanding men in the great Greek church in Antioch.
As they ministered to the Lord (λειτουργουντων αυτων το κυριω). Genitive absolute of λειτουργεω, old verb, used of the Attic orators who served the state at their own cost λεως or λαος, people, and εργον, work or service). Common in the LXX of the priests who served in the tabernacle (Ex 28:31,39 ) like λειτουργια (Lu 1:23 ) which see. So in Heb 10:11 . In Ro 15:27 of aiding others in poverty. Here of worship (prayer, exhortation, fasting). The word liturgy grows out of this use.
And fasted (κα νηστευοντων). Genitive absolute also. Christian Jews were keeping up the Jewish fast (Lu 18:12 ). Note fasting also in the choice of elders for the Mission Churches (Ac 14:23 ). Fasting was not obligatory on the Christians, but they were facing a great emergency in giving the gospel to the Gentile world.
Separate me (αφορισατε δη μο). First aorist active imperative of αφοριζω, old verb to mark off boundaries or horizon, used by Paul of his call (Ro 1:1; Ga 1:15 ). The Greek has δη, a shortened form of ηδη and like Latin jam and German doch, now therefore. It ought to be preserved in the translation. Cf. Lu 2:15; Ac 15:36; 1Co 6:20 . Μο is the ethical dative. As in verse 1 Barnabas is named before Saul. Both had been called to ministry long ago, but now this call is to the special campaign among the Gentiles. Both had been active and useful in such work.
Whereunto (ο). Here εις has to be repeated from εις το εργον just before, "for which" as Jesus sent the twelve and the seventy in pairs, so here. Paul nearly always had one or more companions.
When they had fasted (νηστευσαντες). Either finishing the same fast in verse 2 or another one (Hackett), but clearly a voluntary fast.
Laid their hands upon them (επιθεντες τας χειρας αυτοις). Second aorist active participle of επιτιθημ. Not ordination to the ministry, but a solemn consecration to the great missionary task to which the Holy Spirit had called them. Whether the whole church took part in this ceremony is not clear, though in 15:40 "the brethren" did commend Paul and Silas. Perhaps some of them here acted for the whole church, all of whom approved the enterprise. But Paul makes it plain in Php 4:15 that the church in Antioch did not make financial contribution to the campaign, but only goodwill. But that was more than the church at Jerusalem would have done as a whole since Peter had been arraigned there for his activities in Caesarea (Ac 11:1-18 ). Clearly Barnabas and Saul had to finance the tour themselves. It was Philippi that first gave money to Paul's campaigns. There were still heathen enough in Antioch, but the church approved the going of Barnabas and Saul, their very best.
So they (αυτο μεν ουν). They themselves indeed therefore. No contrast is necessary, though there is a slight one in verses 5,6 . Luke again refers to the Holy Spirit as the source of their authority for this campaign rather than the church at Antioch.
Sent forth (εκπεμφθεντες). Old verb from εκπεμπω and first aorist passive participle, but in the N.T. only here and Ac 17:10 .
Sailed (απεπλευσαν). Effective aorist active indicative of αποπλεω, old verb to sail away, depart from. In the N.T. only here and 14:26; 20:15; 27:1 . Barnabas was from Cyprus where there were many Jews.
They had also (ειχον δε κα). Imperfect active, descriptive.
As their attendant (υπηρετην). Literally, "under-rower" (υπο, ηρετης) in the trireme. Probably here minister (χαζζαν) or assistant in the synagogue as in Lu 4:20 . Cf. Mt 5:25 . It is not clear what John Mark did, though he was evidently selected by Barnabas as his cousin. He may have helped in the baptizing. There were probably others also in the company (verse 13). The "also" may mean that Mark did some preaching. Barnabas was probably the leader in the work in these Jewish synagogues.
Unto Paphos (αχρ Παφου). The new Paphos at the other end of the island, reached by a fine Roman road, some eight miles north of the old Paphos famous for the worship of Venus.
A certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew (ανδρα τινα μαγον ψευδοπροφητην Ιουδαιον). Literally, "a certain man" (ανδρα τινα) with various descriptive epithets. The word μαγον does not necessarily mean "sorcerer," but only a μαγυς (Mt 2:1,7,10 which see). The bad sense occurs in Ac 8:9,11 (Simon Magus) and is made plain here by "false prophet." In verse 8 here Barjesus (Son of Jesus) is called "Elymas the sorcerer (or Magian)," probably his professional title, as Luke interprets the Arabic or Aramaic word Elymas. These Jewish mountebanks were numerous and had great influence with the uneducated. In Ac 19:13 the seven sons of Sceva, Jewish exorcists, tried to imitate Paul. If one is surprised that a man like Sergius Paulus should fall under the influence of this fraud, he should recall what Juvenal says of the Emperor Tiberius "sitting on the rock of Capri with his flock of Chaldaeans around him."
With the proconsul Sergius Paulus (συν τω ανθυπατω Σεργιω Παυλω). Luke used to be sharply criticized for applying this term to Sergius Paulus on the ground that Cyprus was a province under the appointment of the emperor with the title of propraetor and not under the control of the senate with the title of proconsul. That was true B.C. 30, but five years later it was changed to proconsul by Augustus and put under the control of the Senate. Two inscriptions have been found with the date A.D. 51 and 52 with the names of proconsuls of Cyprus and one is in the Cesnola Collection, an inscription found at Soli with the name of Paulus as Proconsul, undoubtedly this very man, though no date occurs.
A man of understanding (ανδρ συνετω). All the more amazing that he should be a victim of Barjesus. He had given up idolatry at any rate and was eager to hear Barnabas and Saul.
Withstood them (ανθιστατο αυτοις). Imperfect middle of ανθιστημ, to stand against (face to face). Dative case (αυτοις). He persisted in his opposition and was unwilling to lose his great prize. There may have been a public discussion between Elymas and Saul.
But Saul, who is also called Paul (Σαυλος δε, ο κα Παυλος). By this remarkably brief phrase Luke presents this epoch in the life of Saul Paul. The "also" (κα) does not mean that the name Paul was given now for the first time, rather than he had always had it. As a Jew and a Roman citizen, he undoubtedly had both names all the time (cf. John Mark, Symeon Niger, Barsabbas Justus). Jerome held that the name of Sergius Paulus was adopted by Saul because of his conversion at this time, but this is a wholly unlikely explanation, "an element of vulgarity impossible to St. Paul " (Farrar). Augustine thought that the meaning of the Latin paulus (little) would incline Saul to adopt, "but as a proper name the word rather suggested the glories of the Aemilian family, and even to us recalls the name of another Paulus, who was 'lavish of his noble life'" (Page). Among the Jews the name Saul was naturally used up to this point, but from now on Luke employs Paul save when there is a reference to his previous life (Ac 22:7; 26:14 ). His real career is work among the Gentiles and Paul is the name used by them. There is a striking similarity in sound between the Hebrew Saul and the Roman Paul. Paul was proud of his tribe of Benjamin and so of King Saul (Php 3:5 ).
Filled with the Holy Spirit (πλησθεις πνευματος αγιου). First aorist (ingressive) passive participle of πιμπλημ with the genitive case. A special influx of power to meet this emergency. Here was a cultured heathen, typical of the best in Roman life, who called forth all the powers of Paul plus the special help of the Holy Spirit to expose the wickedness of Elymas Barjesus. If one wonders why the Holy Spirit filled Paul for this emergency rather than Barnabas, when Barnabas was named first in 13:2, he can recall the sovereignty of the Holy Spirit in his choice of agents (1Co 12:4-11 ) and also the special call of Paul by Christ (Ac 9:15; 26:17f. ).
All villainy (πασης ραιδιουργιας). Late compound from ραιδιουργος (ραιδιος, easy, facile, εργον, deed, one who does a thing adroitly and with ease). So levity in Xenophon and unscrupulousness in Polybius, Plutarch, and the papyri. Only here in the N.T., though the kindred word ραιδιουργημα occurs in Ac 18:14 . With deadly accuracy Paul pictured this slick rascal.
Thou son of the devil (υιε διαβολου). Damning phrase like that used by Jesus of the Pharisees in Joh 8:44 , a slanderer like the διαβολος. This use of son (υιος) for characteristic occurs in Ac 3:25; 4:36 , a common Hebrew idiom, and may be used purposely by Paul in contrast with the name Barjesus (son of Jesus) that Elymas bore ( 13:6).
Enemy of all righteousness (εχθρε πασης δικαιοσυνης). Personal enemy to all justice, sums up all the rest. Note triple use of "all" (παντοσ, πασησ, πασης), total depravity in every sense.
Wilt thou not cease? (ου παυση). An impatient rhetorical question, almost volitive in force (Robertson, Grammar, p. 874). Note ου, not μη,
To pervert (διαστρεφων). Present active participle describing the actual work of Elymas as a perverter or distorter (see verse 8). More exactly, Wilt thou not cease perverting?
The right ways of the Lord (τας οδους του κυριου τας ευθειας). The ways of the Lord the straight ones as opposed to the crooked ways of men (Isa 40:4; 42:16; Lu 3:5 ). The task of John the Baptist as of all prophets and preachers is to make crooked paths straight and to get men to walk in them. This false prophet was making even the Lord's straight ways crooked. Elymas has many successors.
Upon thee (επ σε). The use of επ with the accusative is rich and varied, the precise shade of meaning depending on the content. The "hand of the Lord" might be kindly (Ac 11:21 ) or hostile (Heb 10:31 ), but when God's hand touches one's life (Job 19:21 ) it may be in judgment as here with Elymas. He has not humbled himself under the mighty hand of God (1Pe 5:6 ).
Not seeing (μη βλεπων). Repeating with negative participle the negative idea in "blind" (τυφλος). "It was a judicial infliction; blindness for blindness, darkness without for wilful darkness within" (Furneaux). He was an example of the blind leading the blind that was to cease and Sergius Paulus was to be led into the light. The blindness was to be "for a season" (αχρ καιρου, Lu 4:13 ), if it should please God to restore his sight. Paul apparently recalls his own blindness as he entered Damascus.
A mist (αχλυς). Especially a dimness of the eyes, old poetic word and late prose, in LXX, only here in N.T. Galen uses it of the opacity of the eye caused by a wound.
He went about seeking some one to lead him by the hand (περιαγων εζητε χειραγωγους). A rather free rendering. Literally, "going about (περιαγων, present active participle of περιαγω) he was seeking (εζητε, imperfect active of ζητεω) guides (χειραγωγους, from χειρ, hand, and αγωγος, guide, from αγω, one who leads by the hand)." The very verb χειραγωγεω, to lead by the hand, Luke uses of Paul in 9:8, as he entered Damascus.
Believed (επιστευσεν). Ingressive aorist active indicative. Renan considers it impossible that a Roman proconsul could be converted by a miracle. But it was the teaching about the Lord (του κυριου, objective genitive) by which he was astonished (εκπλησσομενος, present passive participle of εκπλησσω, see on Mt 7:28 ) or struck out as well as by the miracle. The blindness came "immediately" (παραερημα) upon the judgment pronounced by Paul. It is possible that Sergius Paulus was converted to Christ without openly identifying himself with the Christians as his baptism is not mentioned as in the case of Cornelius. But, even if he was baptized, he need not have been deposed from his proconsulship as Furneaux and Rackham argue because his office called for "official patronage of idolatrous worship." But that could have been merely perfunctory as it probably was already. He had been a disciple of the Jewish magician, Elymas Barjesus, without losing his position. Imperial persecution against Christianity had not yet begun. Furneaux even suggests that the conversion of a proconsul to Christianity at this stage would have called for mention by the Roman and Greek historians. There is the name Sergia Paullina in a Christian cemetery in Rome which shows that one of his family was a Christian later. One will believe what he wills about Sergius Paulus, but I do not see that Luke leaves him in the category of Simon Magus who "believed" ( 8:13) for revenue only.
Paul and his company (ο περ Παυλον). Neat Greek idiom as in Plato, Cratylus 440 C ο περ Hερακλειτον. On this idiom see Gildersleeve, Syntax, p. 264. It means a man and his followers, "those around Paul." Now Paul ranks first always in Acts save in 14:2; 15:12,25 for special reasons. Heretofore Saul (Paul) held a secondary position (9:27; 11:30; 13:1f. ). "In nothing is the greatness of Barnabas more manifest than in his recognition of the superiority of Paul and acceptance of a secondary position for himself" (Furneaux).
Set sail (αναχθεντες). First aorist passive participle of αναγω. Thirteen times in the Acts and Lu 8:22 which see. They sailed up to sea and came down (καταγω, καταβαινω) to land. So it looks.
Departed from them (αποχωρησας απ' αυτων). First aorist active participle of αποχωρεω, old verb to withdraw, go away from. In the N.T. only here and Mt 7:23; Lu 9:39 . He is called John there as in verse 5 and Mark in 15:39, though John Mark in 12:12,25 . This may be accidental or on purpose (Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 317). Luke is silent on John's reasons for leaving Paul and Barnabas. He was the cousin of Barnabas and may not have relished the change in leadership. There may have been change in plans also now that Paul is in command. Barnabas had chosen Cyprus and Paul has led them to Perga in Pamphylia and means to go on into the highlands to Antioch in Pisidia. There were perils of many sorts around them and ahead (2Co 11:26 ), perils to which John Mark was unwilling to be exposed. Paul will specifically charge him at Antioch with desertion of his post (Ac 15:39 ). It is possible, as Ramsay suggests, that the mosquitoes at Perga gave John malaria. If so, they bit Paul and Barnabas also. He may not have liked Paul's aggressive attitude towards the heathen. At any rate he went home to Jerusalem instead of to Antioch, zu seiner Mutter (Holtzmann). It was a serious breach in the work, but Paul and Barnabas stuck to the work.
Passing through (διελθοντες). It is not clear why Paul and Barnabas left Perga so soon nor why they went to Antioch in Pisidia. Ramsay suggests malaria that spurred them on to the hills after the desertion of John Mark. They preached at Perga on the return ( 14:25) and apparently hurried away now. Farrar thinks that the hot weather had driven the population to the hills. At any rate it is not difficult to imagine the perils of this climb over the rough mountain way from Perga to Pisidian Antioch to which Paul apparently refers in 2Co 11:26 .
Sat down (εκαθισαν). Ingressive aorist active indicative, took their seats as visiting Jews, possibly in the seats of the rabbis (J. Lightfoot). Whether they expected to be called on or not, they were given the opportunity as prominent visitors. The Pisidian Antioch was really in Phrygia, but towards Pisidia to distinguish it from Antioch on the Maeander (Ramsay, Church in the Roman Empire, p. 25). It was a colony like Philippi and so a free city. If Paul is referring to South Galatia and not North Galatia in Ga 4:13 when he says that his preaching in Galatia at first was due to illness, then it was probably here at Pisidian Antioch. What it was we have no means of knowing, though it was a temptation in his flesh to them so severe that they were willing to pluck out their eyes for him (Ga 4:14f. ). Opthalmia, malaria, epilepsy have all been suggested as this stake in the flesh (2Co 12:7 ). But Paul was able to preach with power whatever his actual physical condition was.
After the reading of the law and the prophets (μετα την αναγνωσιν του νομου κα των προφητων). The law was first read in the synagogues till B.C. 163 when Antiochus Epiphones prohibited it. Then the reading of the prophets was substituted for it. The Maccabees restored both. There was a reading from the law and one from the prophets in Hebrew which was interpreted into the Aramaic or the Greek Koine for the people. The reading was followed by the sermon as when Jesus was invited to read and to preach in Nazareth (Lu 4:16f. ). For the service in the synagogue see Schuerer, History of the Jewish People, Div. II, Vol. II, pp. 79ff. It was the duty of the rulers of the synagogue (αρχισυναγωγο) to select the readers and the speakers for the service (Mr 5:22,35-38; Lu 8:49; 13:14; Ac 13:15; 18:8,17 ). Any rabbi or distinguished stranger could be called on to speak.
If ye have any word of exhortation for the people (ε τις εστιν εν υμιν λογος παρακλησεως προς τον λαον). Literally, if there is among you any word of exhortation for the people. It is a condition of the first class and assumed to be true, a polite invitation. On "exhortation" (παρακλησις) see 9:31. It may be a technical phrase used in the synagogue (Heb 13:22; 1Ti 4:13 ).
Paul stood up (αναστας Παυλος). The Jewish custom was to sit while speaking (Lu 4:20 ), but the Greek and Roman was to stand (Ac 17:22 ). It is possible as Lewin (Life of St. Paul, Vol. 1, p. 141) suggests that here Paul stepped upon the platform and then took his seat as he began to speak or he may have followed the Greek and Roman custom. Paul is the leader now and the more gifted speaker (Ac 14:12 ), so that he responds to the courteous invitation of the rulers.
Beckoning (κατασεισας). First aorist active participle of κατασειω, old verb to shake down, a dramatic gesture for quiet and order like Peter in 12:17 and Paul on the steps of the tower of Antonia ( 21:40).
And ye that fear God (κα ο φοβουμενο τον θεον). Evidently large numbers of these Gentiles like Cornelius in Caesarea were present. They offered Paul a great opportunity for reaching the purely pagan Gentiles. This (verses 16-41) is the first full report of a sermon of Paul's that Luke has preserved for us. He is now a practised preacher of the gospel that he began proclaiming at Damascus, that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah of promise and the Saviour of the whole world both Jew and Gentile if they will only believe on him and be saved. It is possible that Paul here based his sermon on the passages of the law and the prophets that had just been read. He uses two words from the LXX, one in verse 19 from De 1:31 ετροφοφορησεν (as a nursing-father bare he them), the reading of many old MSS. and the one preferred by the American Committee, the other in verse 17 from Isa 1:2 υψωσεν (exalted). At any rate it is clear that Paul spoke in Greek so that all could understand his sermon. He may have written out notes of this sermon afterwards for Luke. The keynotes of Paul's theology as found in his Epistles appear in this sermon. It is interesting to observe the steady growth of Paul's Christology as he faced the great problems of his day. Here we see Paul's gospel for the Jews and the God-fearers (Gentiles friendly to the Jews).
Chose (εξελεξατο). First aorist middle (indirect), selected for himself. Israel was the chosen people.
Exalted (υψωσεν). From υψοω, late verb from υψος so often used of Christ.
Suffered he their manners (ετροποφορησεν). First aorist active indicative of τροποφορεω, late word from τροπος, manner, and φερω, reading of Aleph B D and accepted by Westcott and Hort. But A C Sahidic Bohairic read ετροφοφορησεν from τροφοφορεω (τροφος, a nurse, and φερω,) late word (II Macc. 7:27), probably correct word here and De 1:31 .
When he had destroyed (καθελων). Second aorist active participle of καθαιρεω, to tear down, old verb.
He gave them for an inheritance (κατεκληρονομησεν). First aorist active indicative of the double compound verb κατα-κληρο-νομεω, late verb in LXX (Nu 34:18; De 3:28; Jos 14:1 ) and only here in the N.T., to distribute by lot, to distribute as an inheritance. This is the correct reading and not κατεκληροδοτησεν from κατακληροδοτεω of the Textus Receptus. These two verbs were confused in the MSS. of the LXX as well as here.
For about four hundred and fifty years (ως ετεσιν τετρακοσιοις κα πεντηκοντα). Associative instrumental case with an expression of time as in 8:11; Lu 8:29 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 527). The oldest MSS. (Aleph A B C Vg Sah Boh) place these figures before "after these things" and so in verse 19. This is the true reading and is in agreement with the notation in 1Ki 6:1 . The difficulty found in the Textus Receptus (King James Version) thus disappears with the true text. The four hundred and fifty years runs therefore from the birth of Isaac to the actual conquest of Canaan and does not cover the period of the Judges. See on Ac 7:6 .
And after these things (κα μετα ταυτα). That is, the time of the Judges then began. Cf. Jud 2:16 .
Until Samuel the prophet (εως Σαμουηλ προφητου). The terminus ad quem. He was the last of the judges and the first of the prophets who selected the first king (Saul) under God's guidance. Note the absence of the Greek article with προφητου.
They asked (ηιτησαντο). First aorist indirect middle indicative, they asked for themselves. They were tired of a theocracy. Cf. 1Sa 8:5; 10:1 . Paul mentions with pride that Benjamin was the tribe of Saul (his name also), but he does not allude to Saul's sin (Furneaux).
For the space of forty years (ετη τεσσερακοντα). Accusative of extent of time. Not in the O.T., but in Josephus, Ant. VI. 14, 9.
When he had removed him (μεταστησας αυτον). First aorist active participle of μεθιστημ, old verb to transfer, to transpose (note force of μετα). This verb occurs in Lu 16:4 by the unjust steward about his removal from office. Cf. 1Sa 15:16 .
To be (εις). As or for, Greek idiom like the Hebrew le, common in the LXX.
A man after my heart (ανδρα κατα την καρδιαν μου). The words quoted by Paul as a direct saying of God are a combination of Ps 89:20, 21; 1Sa 13:14 (the word of the Lord to Samuel about David). Knowling thinks that this free and rather loose quotation of the substance argues for the genuineness of the report of Paul's sermon. Hackett observes that the commendation of David is not absolute, but, as compared with the disobedient Saul, he was a man who did God's will in spite of the gross sin of which he repented (Ps 51 ). Note "wills" (θεληματα), plural, of God.
Of this man's seed (τουτου απο του σπερματος). Emphatic position of τουτου. Of this one from the (his) seed.
According to promise (κατ' επαγγελιαν). This phrase in Ga 3:29; 2Ti 1:1 . See the promise in 2Sa 7:2; Ps 132:11; Isa 11:1,10; Jer 23:5f.; Zec 3:8 . In Zec 3:8 the verb αγω is used of the sending of the Messiah as here.
A Saviour Jesus (Σωτηρα Ιησουν). Jesus is in apposition with Saviour (accusative case) and comes at the end of the sentence in contrast with "this man" (David) at the beginning. Paul goes no further than David because he suggests to him Jesus, descendant in the flesh from David. By "Israel" here Paul means the Jewish people, though he will later enlarge this promise to include the spiritual Israel both Gentile and Jew (Ro 9:6f. ).
When John had first preached (προκηρυξαντος Ιωανου). Literally, John heralding beforehand, as a herald before the king (Lu 3:3 ). Genitive absolute of first aorist active participle of προκηρυσσω, old verb to herald beforehand, here alone in the N.T., though Textus Receptus has it also in Ac 3:20 .
Before his coming (προ προσωπου της εισοδου αυτου). Literally, before the face of his entering in (here act of entrance as 1Th 1:9 , not the gate as in Heb 10:19 ). See Mal 3:1 quoted in Mt 11:10 (Lu 7:27 ) for this Hebrew phrase and also Lu 1:76 .
The baptism of repentance (βαπτισμα μετανοιας). Baptism marked by, characterized by (genitive case, case of kind or species) repentance (change of mind and life). The very phrase used of John's preaching in Mr 1:4; Lu 3:3 . It is clear therefore that Paul understood John's ministry and message as did Peter (Ac 2:38; 10:37 ).
As John was fulfilling his course (ως επληρου Ιωανης τον δρομον). Imperfect active of πληροω, describing his vivid ministry without defining the precise period when John asked the question. Paul uses this word δρομος (course) of his own race (Ac 20:24; 2Ti 4:7 ).
What suppose ye that I am? (Τ εμε υπονοειτε ειναι?) Note τ (neuter), not τινα (masculine),
who , character, not identity. It is indirect discourse (the infinitive εινα and the accusative of general reference).
Huponoeo (υπο, νοεω) is to think secretly, to suspect, to conjecture.
I am not he (ουκ ειμ εγω). These precise words are not given in the Gospels, but the idea is the same as the disclaimers by the Baptist in Joh 1:19-27 (cf. also Mt 3:11; Mr 1:7; Lu 3:16 ). Paul had a true grasp of the message of the Baptist. He uses the very form λυσα (first aorist active infinitive of λυω) found in Mr 1:7; Lu 3:16 and the word for shoes (υποδημα, singular) in all three. His quotation is remarkably true to the words in the Synoptic Gospels. How did Paul get hold of the words of the Baptist so clearly?
To us (ημιν). Both Jews and Gentiles, both classes in Paul's audience, dative of advantage.
Is sent forth (εξαπεσταλη). Second aorist passive indicative of the double compound verb εξαποστελλω, common verb to send out (εξ) and forth (απο). It is a climacteric or culminative aorist tense. It has come to us in one day, this glorious promise.
The word of this salvation (ο λογος της σωτηριας ταυτης). The message of Jesus as Saviour (verse 23), long ago promised and now come to us as Saviour.
Because they knew him not (τουτον αγνοησαντες). First aorist active participle (causal) of αγνοεω, old verb, not to know. Peter gives "ignorance" (αγνοια) as the excuse of the Jews in the death of Christ ( 3:17) and Paul does the same about his conduct before his conversion (1Ti 1:13 ). This ignorance mitigated the degree of their guilt, but it did not remove it, for it was willing ignorance and prejudice.
The voices of the prophets which are read (τας φωνας των προφητων τας αναγινωσκομενας). Object also of αγνοησαντες, though it could be the object of επληρωσαν (fulfilled) if κα is taken as "also". The "voices" were heard as they were read aloud each Sabbath in the synagogue. In their ignorant condemnation they fulfilled the prophecies about the suffering Messiah.
Though they found no cause of death (μηδεμιαν αιτιαν θανατου ευροντες). Second aorist active with usual negative of the participle. As a matter of fact the Sanhedrin did charge Jesus with blasphemy, but could not prove it (Mt 26:65; 27:24; Lu 23:22 ). At this time no Gospel had probably been written, but Paul knew that Jesus was innocent. He uses this same idiom about his own innocence (Ac 28:18 ).
That he should be slain (αναιρεθηνα αυτον). First aorist passive infinitive, the accusative case, the direct object of ηιτησαντο (first aorist middle indicative, asked as a favour to themselves).
From the tree (απο του ξυλου). Not here strictly a tree, but wood as already in 5:30; 10:29 and later in Ga 3:13 . Strictly speaking, it was Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus who took the body of Jesus down from the cross, though the Jews had asked Pilate to have the bones of Jesus broken that his body should not remain on the cross during the Sabbath (Joh 19:31 ). Paul does not distinguish the details here.
Laid (εθηκαν). First (kappa) aorist active indicative third plural of τιθημ in place of εθεσαν the usual second aorist active plural form.
Tomb (μνημειον). Memorial, common in the Gospels.
But God raised him from the dead (ο δε θεος ηγειρεν εκ νεκρων). This crucial fact Paul puts sharply as he always did.
Was seen for many days (ωφθη επ ημερας πλειους). The common verb (first aorist passive indicative of οραω, to see) for the appearance of the Risen Christ, the one used by Paul of his own vision of Christ (1Co 15:8 ), which is not reported by Luke here. For more days (than a few), the language means, forty in all ( 1:3).
Of them that came up with him (τοις συναναβασιν αυτω). Dative (after ωφθη) articular participle (second aorist active of συναναβαινω) with associative instrumental case (αυτω), the very men who knew him best and who could not be easily deceived about the reality of his resurrection. But this fact rules Paul out on this point, for he had not fellowshipped with Jesus from Galilee to Jerusalem.
We bring you good tidings of the promise (ημεις υμας ευαγγελιζομεθα την επαγγελιαν). Two accusatives here (person and thing), old Greek did not use accusative of the person with this verb as in 16:10; Lu 3:18 . Note "we you" together. Here the heart of Paul's message on this occasion.
Hath fulfilled (εκπεπληρωκεν). Hath filled out (εκ).
Unto our children (τοις τεκνοις ημων). The MSS. vary greatly here about ημων (our), some have αυτων, some αυτων ημιν. Westcott and Hort consider these readings "a primitive error" for ημιν (to us) taken with αναστησας Ιησουν (having for us raised up Jesus). This raising up (from ανιστημ, set up) as in 3:22; 7:37 refers not to resurrection (verse 34), but to the sending of Jesus (two raisings up).
In the second psalm (εν τω ψαλμω τω δευτερω). Ps 2:7 . D has πρωτω because the first psalm was often counted as merely introductory.
Now no more to return to corruption (μηκετ μελλοντα υποστρεφειν εις διαφθοραν). No longer about to return as Lazarus did. Jesus did not die again and so is the first fruits of the resurrection (1Co 15:23; Ro 6:9 ).
He hath spoken (ειρηκεν). Present perfect active indicative, common way of referring to the permanent utterances of God which are on record in the Scriptures.
The holy and sure blessings of David (τα οσια Δαυειδ τα πιστα). See 2Sa 7:13 . Literally, "the holy things of David the trustworthy things." He explains "the holy things" at once.
Because (διοτ). Compound conjunction (δια, οτ) like our "because that." The reason for the previous statement about "the holy things."
Thou wilt not give thy holy one to see corruption (ου δωσεις τον οσιον σου ιδειν διαφθοραν). Quotation from Ps 16:10 to show that Jesus did not see corruption in his body, a flat contradiction for those who deny the bodily resurrection of Jesus.
His own generation (ιδια γενεα). Either locative case, "in his own generation" or dative object of υπηρετησας (served).
The counsel of God (τη του θεου βουλη). So here, either the dative, the object of υπηρετησας if γενεα is locative, or the instrumental case "by the counsel of God" which again may be construed either with υπηρετησας (having served) or after εκοιμηθη (fell on sleep). Either of the three ways is grammatical and makes good sense. Κοιμαομα for death we have already had (Ac 7:60 ). So Jesus (Joh 11:11 ) and Paul (1Co 15:6,51 ).
Was laid (προσετεθη). Was added unto (first aorist passive indicative of προστιθημ). See the verb in 2:47; 5:14 . This figure for death probably arose from the custom of burying families together (Ge 15:15; Jud 2:10 ).
Through this man (δια τουτου). This very man whom the Jews had crucified and whom God had raised from the dead. Remission of sins (αφεσις αμαρτιων) is proclaimed (καταγγελλετα) to you. This is the keynote of Paul's message as it had been that of Peter at Pentecost (2:38; 5:31; 10:43 ). Cf. 26:18. This glorious message Paul now presses home in his exhortation.
And by him every one that believeth is justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses (κα απο παντων ων ουκ ηδυνηθητε εν νομω Μωυσεως δικαιοθηνα εν τουτω πας ο πιστευων δικαιουτα). This is a characteristic Greek sentence with the principal clause at the end and Pauline to the core. A literal rendering as to the order would be: "And from all the things from (απο not repeated in the Greek, but understood, the ablative case being repeated) which ye were not able to be justified in this one every one who believes is justified." The climax is at the close and gives us the heart of Paul's teaching about Christ. "We have here the germ of all that is most characteristic in Paul's later teaching. It is the argument of the Epistle to Galatians and Romans in a sentence" (Furneaux). The failure of the Mosaic law to bring the kind of righteousness that God demands is stated. This is made possible in and by (εν) Christ alone. Paul's favourite words occur here, πιστευω, believe, with which πιστις, faith, is allied, δικαιοω, to set right with God on the basis of faith. In Ro 6:7 Paul uses απο also after δικαιοω. These are key words (πιστευω and δικαιοω) in Paul's theology and call for prolonged and careful study if one is to grasp the Pauline teaching. Δικαιοω primarily means to make righteous, to declare righteous like αξιοω, to deem worthy (αξιος). But in the end Paul holds that real righteousness will come (Ro 6-8 ) to those whom God treats as righteous (Ro 3-5 ) though both Gentile and Jew fall short without Christ (Ro 1-3 ). This is the doctrine of grace that will prove a stumbling block to the Jews with their ceremonial works and foolishness to the Greeks with their abstract philosophical ethics (1Co 1:23-25 ). It is a new and strange doctrine to the people of Antioch.
Beware therefore (βλεπετε ουν). The warning is pertinent. Perhaps Paul noticed anger on the faces of some of the rabbis.
Lest there come upon you (μη επελθη). Second aorist active subjunctive with the negative final conjunction μη.
In the prophets (εν τοις προφηταις). The quotation is from the LXX text of Hab 1:5 . The plural here refers to the prophetic collection (Lu 24:44; Ac 24:14 ). "The Jews of Habakkuk's day had refused to believe in the impending invasion by the Chaldeans, and yet it had come" (Furneaux).
Ye despisers (ο καταφρονητα). Not in the Hebrew, but in the LXX. It is pertinent for Paul's purpose.
Perish (αφανισθητε). Or vanish away. First aorist passive imperative. Added by the LXX to the Hebrew.
If one declare it unto you (εαν τις εκδιηγητα υμιν). Condition of third class with present middle subjunctive, if one keep on outlining (double compound, εκ-δι-ηγεομα) it unto you. Paul has hurled a thunderbolt at the close.
And as they went out (Εξιοντων δε αυτων). Genitive absolute with present active participle of εξειμ, to go out, old verb, in the N.T. only in Ac 12:42; 17:15; 20:7; 27:43 . As they (Paul and Barnabas) were going out with all the excitement and hubbub created by the sermon.
They besought (παρεκαλουν). Imperfect active, inchoative, began to beseech. The Textus Receptus inserts wrongly τα εθνη (the Gentiles) as if the Jews were opposed to Paul from the first as some doubtless were. But both Jews and Gentiles asked for the repetition of the sermon (λαληθηνα, first aorist passive infinitive object of παρεκαλουν with accusative of general reference).
The next Sabbath (εις το μεταξυ σαββατον). Late use (Josephus, Plutarch, etc.) of μεταξυ (μετα and ξυν=συν) in sense of after or next instead of between (sense of μετα prevailing). Note use of εις for "on" or "by."
When the synagogue broke up (λυθεισης της συναγωγης). Genitive absolute of first aorist passive participle of λυω. Apparently Paul and Barnabas had gone out before the synagogue was formally dismissed.
Of the devout proselytes (των σεβομενων προσηλυτων). Of the worshipping proselytes described in verses 16,25 as "those who fear God" (cf. 16:14) employed usually of the uncircumcised Gentiles who yet attended the synagogue worship, but the word προσηλυτο (προσ, ηλυτος verbal from ερχομα, a new-comer) means usually those who had become circumcised (proselytes of righteousness). Yet the rabbis used it also of proselytes of the gate who had not yet become circumcised, probably the idea here. In the N.T. the word occurs only in Mt 23:15; Ac 2:10; 6:5; 13:43 . Many (both Jews and proselytes) followed (ηκολουθησαν, ingressive aorist active indicative of ακολουθεω) Paul and Barnabas to hear more without waiting till the next Sabbath. So we are to picture Paul and Barnabas speaking (προσλαλουντες, late compound, in N.T. only here and 28:20) to eager groups.
Urged (επειθον). Imperfect active of πειθω, either descriptive (were persuading) or conative (were trying to persuade). Paul had great powers of persuasion (18:4; 19:8,26; 26:28; 28:23; 2Co 5:11; Ga 1:10 ). These Jews "were beginning to understand for the first time the true meaning of their national history" (Furneaux), "the grace of God" to them.
The next Sabbath (τω ερχομενω σαββατω). Locative case, on the coming (ερχομενω, present middle participle of ερχομα) Sabbath. So the best MSS., though some have εχομενω (present middle participle of εχω in sense of near, bordering, following as in Lu 13:33; Ac 29:15 ).
Was gathered together (συνηχθη). First aorist (effective) passive indicative of συναγω, old and common verb. The "whole city" could hardly all gather in the synagogue. Perhaps Paul spoke in the synagogue and Barnabas to the overflow outside (see verse 46). It was an eager and earnest gathering "to hear (ακουσα, first aorist active infinitive of purpose) the word of God" and a great opportunity for Paul and Barnabas. The Codex Bezae has it "to hear Paul." It was the new preacher (Paul) that drew the big crowd. It was a crowd such as will later hang on the words of John Wesley and George Whitfield when they preach Jesus Christ.
The Jews (ο Ιουδαιο). Certainly not the proselytes of verse 43. Probably many of the Jews that were then favourably disposed to Paul's message had reacted against him under the influence of the rabbis during the week and evidently on this Sabbath very many Gentiles ("almost the whole city," "the multitudes" τους οχλους) had gathered, to the disgust of the stricter Jews. Nothing is specifically stated here about the rabbis, but they were beyond doubt the instigators of, and the ringleaders in, the opposition as in Thessalonica ( 17:5). No such crowds (οχλους) came to the synagogue when they were the speakers.
With jealousy (ζηλου). Genitive case of ζηλος (from ζεω, to boil) after επλησθησαν (effective first aorist passive indicative of πιμπλημ). Envy and jealousy arise between people of the same calling (doctors towards doctors, lawyers towards lawyers, preachers towards preachers). So these rabbis boiled with jealousy when they saw the crowds gathered to hear Paul and Barnabas.
Contradicted (αντελεγον). Imperfect active of αντιλεγω, old verb to speak against, to say a word in opposition to (αντ, face to face). It was interruption of the service and open opposition in the public meeting. Paul and Barnabas were guests by courtesy and, of course, could not proceed further, when denied that privilege.
Blasphemed (βλασφημουντες). Blaspheming. So the correct text without the addition αντιλεγοντες (repeated from αντελεγον above). Common verb in the Gospels for saying injurious and harmful things. Doubtless these rabbis indulged in unkind personalities and made it plain that Paul and Barnabas were going beyond the limitations of pure Judaism in their contacts with Gentiles.
Spake out boldly (παρρησιασαμενο). First aorist middle participle of παρρησιαζομα, to use freedom in speaking, to assume boldness. Both Paul and Barnabas accepted the challenge of the rabbis. They would leave their synagogue, but not without a word of explanation.
It was necessary to you first (Hυμιν ην αναγκαιον πρωτον). They had done their duty and had followed the command of Jesus ( 1:8). They use the very language of Peter in 3:26 (υμιν πρωτον) "to you first." This position Paul as the apostle to the Gentiles will always hold, the Jew first in privilege and penalty (Ro 1:16; 2:9,10 ).
Judge yourselves unworthy (ουκ αξιους κρινετε εαυτους). Present active indicative of the common verb κρινω, to judge or decide with the reflexive pronoun expressed. Literally, Do not judge yourselves worthy. By their action and their words they had taken a violent and definite stand.
Lo, we turn to the Gentiles (ιδου στρεφομεθα εις τα εθνη). It is a crisis (ιδου, lo): "Lo, we turn ourselves to the Gentiles." Probably also aoristic present, we now turn (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 864-70). Στρεφομεθα is probably the direct middle (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 806-08) though the aorist passive εστραφην is so used also ( 7:39). It is a dramatic moment as Paul and Barnabas turn from the Jews to the Gentiles, a prophecy of the future history of Christianity. In Ro 9-11 Paul will discuss at length the rejection of Christ by the Jews and the calling of the Gentiles to be the real (the spiritual) Israel.
For so hath the Lord commanded us (ουτως γαρ εντεταλτα ημιν ο κυριος). Perfect middle indicative of εντελλω, poetic (Pindar) and late verb to enjoin ( 1:2). The command of the Lord Paul finds in Isa 49:6 quoted by Simeon also (Lu 2:32 ). The conviction of Paul's mind was now made clear by the fact of the rejection by the Jews. He could now see more clearly the words of the prophet about the Gentiles: The Messiah is declared by God in Isaiah to be "a light to the Gentiles" (εθνων, objective genitive), "a light for revelation to the Gentiles" (φως εις αποκαλυψιν εθνων, Lu 2:32 ). So Paul is carrying out the will of God in turning to the Gentiles. He will still appeal to the Jews elsewhere as they allow him to do so, but not here.
That thou shouldest be (του εινα σε). Genitive articular infinitive of purpose with the accusative of general reference. This is all according to God's fixed purpose (τεθεικα, perfect active indicative of τιθημ).
Unto the uttermost part of the earth (εως εσχατου της γης). Unto the last portion (genitive neuter, not feminine) of the earth. It is a long time from Paul to now, not to say from Isaiah to now, and not yet has the gospel been carried to half of the people of earth. God's people are slow in carrying out God's plans for salvation.
As the Gentiles heard this they were glad (ακουοντα τα εθνη εχαιρον). Present active participle of ακουω and imperfect active of χαιρω, linear action descriptive of the joy of the Gentiles.
Glorified the word of God (εδοξαζον τον λογον του θεου). Imperfect active again. The joy of the Gentiles increased the fury of the Jews. "The synagogue became a scene of excitement which must have been something like the original speaking with tongues" (Rackham). The joy of the Gentiles was to see how they could receive the higher blessing of Judaism without circumcision and other repellent features of Jewish ceremonialism. It was the gospel of grace and liberty from legalism that Paul had proclaimed. Whether Ga 4:13 describes this incident or not (the South Galatian theory), it illustrates it when Gentiles received Paul as if he were Christ Jesus himself. It was triumph with the Gentiles, but defeat with the Jews.
As many as were ordained to eternal life (οσο ησαν τεταγμενο εις ζωην αιωνιον). Periphrastic past perfect passive indicative of τασσω, a military term to place in orderly arrangement. The word "ordain" is not the best translation here. "Appointed," as Hackett shows, is better. The Jews here had voluntarily rejected the word of God. On the other side were those Gentiles who gladly accepted what the Jews had rejected, not all the Gentiles. Why these Gentiles here ranged themselves on God's side as opposed to the Jews Luke does not tell us. This verse does not solve the vexed problem of divine sovereignty and human free agency. There is no evidence that Luke had in mind an absolutum decretum of personal salvation. Paul had shown that God's plan extended to and included Gentiles. Certainly the Spirit of God does move upon the human heart to which some respond, as here, while others push him away.
Believed (επιστευσαν). Summary or constative first aorist active indicative of πιστευω. The subject of this verb is the relative clause. By no manner of legerdemain can it be made to mean "those who believe were appointed." It was saving faith that was exercised only by those who were appointed unto eternal life, who were ranged on the side of eternal life, who were thus revealed as the subjects of God's grace by the stand that they took on this day for the Lord. It was a great day for the kingdom of God.
Was spread abroad (διεφερετο). Imperfect passive of διαφερω, to carry in different directions (δια). By the recent converts as well as by Paul and Barnabas. This would seem to indicate a stay of some months with active work among the Gentiles that bore rich fruit.
Throughout all the region (δι' ολης της χωρας). Antioch in Pisidia as a Roman colony would be the natural centre of a Roman Regio, an important element in Roman imperial administration. There were probably other Regiones in South Galatia (Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveller and Roman Citizen, pp. 102-12).
Urged on (παρωτρυναν). First aorist (effective) active of παρ-οτρυνω, old verb, but here alone in the N.T., to incite, to stir up. The Jews were apparently not numerous in this city as they had only one synagogue, but they had influence with people of prominence, like "the devout women of honourable estate" (τας σεβομενας γυναικας τας ευσχημονας), the female proselytes of high station, a late use of an old word used about Joseph of Arimathea (Mr 15:43 ). The rabbis went after these Gentile women who had embraced Judaism (cf. Ac 17:4 in Thessalonica) as Paul had made an appeal to them. The prominence of women in public life here at Antioch is quite in accord with what we know of conditions in the cities of Asia Minor. "Thus women were appointed under the empire as magistrates, as presidents of the games, and even the Jews elected a woman as Archisynagogos, at least in one instance at Smyrna" (Knowling). In Damascus Josephus (War II. 20, 21) says that a majority of the married women were proselytes. Strabo (VIII. 2) and Juvenal (VI. 542) speak of the addiction of women to the Jewish religion.
The chief men of the city (τους πρωτους της πολεως). Probably city officials (the Duumviri, the Praetors, the First Ten in the Greek Cities of the east) or other "foremost" men, not officials. The rabbis were shrewd enough to reach these men (not proselytes) through the women who were proselytes of distinction.
Stirred up a persecution (επηγειραν διωγμον). First aorist active indicative of επεγειρω, old verb, but in the N.T. only here and 14:2. Paul seems to allude to this persecution in 2Ti 3:11 "persecutions, sufferings, what things befell me at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra, what persecutions I endured." Here Paul had perils from his own countrymen and perils from the Gentiles after the perils of rivers and perils of robbers on the way from Perga (2Co 11:26 ). He was thrice beaten with rods (τρις εραβδισθην, 2Co 11:25 ) by Roman lictors in some Roman colony. If that was here, then Paul and Barnabas were publicly scourged by the lictors before they left. Probably the Jews succeeded in making the Roman officials look on Paul and Barnabas as disturbers of the public peace. So "they cast them out of their borders" (εξεβαλον αυτους απο των οριων αυτων). Second aorist active indicative of εκβαλλω, forcible expulsion plainly as public nuisances. Just a few days before they were the heroes of the city and now!
But they shook off the dust of their feet against them (Hο δε εκτιναξαμενο τον κονιορτον των ποδων επ' αυτους). First aorist middle (indirect) participle of εκτινασσω, to shake out or off. Homer uses it for knocking out teeth. In the papyri. The middle aorist participle occurs again in 18:6 and the active imperative with the dust of the feet in Mr 6:11 (Lu 10:11 has απομασσομεθα). and Mt 10:14 (command of Jesus). It is a dramatic gesture that forbids further intercourse. "As a protest against the injustice which cast them out. The sandal was taken off and the dust shaken out as a symbolic token that the very soil of the country was defiling" (Furneaux).
Unto Iconium (εις Ικονιον). About 45 miles southeast from Antioch in Pisidia, at the foot of the Taurus mountains. At various times it was reckoned also in Pisidia or Phrygia as well as Lycaonia, Phrygian in population and distinguished by Luke (Ac 14:6 ) from Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia. As compared with Antioch (a Roman colony) it was a native Phrygian town. When the province of Galatia was divided, Iconium became the capital of Lycaonia and eclipsed Antioch in Pisidia. Strictly speaking at this time Lystra and Derbe were cities of Lycaonia-Galatica while Iconium was in Phrygia-Galatica (all three in the Roman Province of Galatia). It was at the meeting place of several Roman roads and on the highway from east to west. It is still a large town Konieh with 30,000 population.
And the disciples (ο τε or ο δε μαθÂητα). The Gentile Christians in Antioch in Pisidia. Persecution had precisely the opposite effect to the intention of the Jews for they "were filled with joy and the Holy Spirit" (επληρουντο χαρας κα πνευματος αγιου). Imperfect passive, they kept on being filled. It had been so before (Ac 4:31; 8:4; 9:31; 12:24 ). The blood of the martyrs is still the seed of the church.
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