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When the number of the disciples was multiplying (πληθυνοντων των μαθητων). Genitive absolute of πληθυνω, old verb from πληθος, fulness, to increase. The new freedom from the intercession of Gamaliel was bearing rich fruit.
A murmuring of the Grecian Jews (γογγυσμος των Hελληνιστων). Late onomatopoetic word (LXX) from the late verb γογγυζω, to mutter, to murmur. The substantive occurs also in Joh 7:12; Php 2:14; 1Pe 4:9 . It is the secret grumblings that buzz away till they are heard. These "Grecian Jews" or Hellenists are members of the church in Jerusalem who are Jews from outside of Palestine like Barnabas from Cyprus. These Hellenists had points of contact with the Gentile world without having gone over to the habits of the Gentiles, the Jews of the Western Dispersion. They spoke Greek.
Against the Hebrews (προς τους Εβραιους). The Jewish Christians from Jerusalem and Palestine. The Aramaean Jews of the Eastern Dispersion are usually classed with the Hebrew (speaking Aramaic) as distinct from the Grecian Jews or Hellenists.
Were neglected (παρεθεωρουντο). Imperfect passive of παραθεωρεω, old verb, to examine things placed beside (παρα) each other, to look beyond (παρα also), to overlook, to neglect. Here only in the N.T. These widows may receive daily (καθημερινη, late adjective from καθ' ημεραν, only here in the N.T.) help from the common fund provided for all who need it (Ac 4:32-37 ). The temple funds for widows were probably not available for those who have now become Christians. Though they were all Christians here concerned, yet the same line of cleavage existed as among the other Jews (Hebrew or Aramaean Jews and Hellenists). It is not here said that the murmuring arose among the widows, but because of them. Women and money occasion the first serious disturbance in the church life. There was evident sensitiveness that called for wisdom.
The multitude (το πληθος). The whole church, not just the 120.
Should forsake (καταλειψαντας). Late first aorist active participle for usual second aorist καταλιποντας from καταλειπω, to leave behind.
Serve tables (διακονειν τραπεζαις). Present active infinitive of διακονεω from διακονος (δια and κονις, dust), to raise a dust in a hurry, to serve, to minister either at table (Joh 12:20 ), or other service (Joh 12:25f. ), to serve as deacon (1Ti 3:10,13 ). "Tables" here hardly means money-tables as in Joh 2:15 , but rather the tables used in the common daily distribution of the food (possibly including the love-feasts, Ac 2:43-47 ). This word is the same root as διακονια (ministration) in verse 1 and διακονος (deacon) in Php 1:1; 1Ti 3:8-13 . It is more frequently used in the N.T. of ministers (preachers) than of deacons, but it is quite possible, even probable, that the office of deacon as separate from bishop or elder grew out of this incident in Ac 6:1-7 . Furneaux is clear that these "seven" are not to be identified with the later "deacons" but why he does not make clear.
Of good report (μαρτυρουμενους). Present passive participle of μαρτυρεω, to bear witness to. Men with a good reputation as well as with spiritual gifts (the Holy Spirit and wisdom).
We may appoint (καταστησομεν). Future active indicative of καθιστημ, we shall appoint. The action of the apostles follows the choice by the church, but it is promised as a certainty, not as a possibility. The Textus Receptus has a first aorist active subjunctive here (καταστησωμεν).
But we (εμεις δε). In contrast to the work given the seven.
The ministry of the word (τη διακονια του λογου). The same word διακονια employed in verse 1, but here about preaching as the special ministry with which the apostles were concerned. For "continue steadfastly" (προσκαρτερησομεν) see on 2:42.
Pleased (ηρεσεν). Aorist active indicative of αρεσκω like Latin placuit when a vote was taken. The use of ενωπιον before "the whole multitude" is like the LXX.
They chose (εξελεξαντο). First aorist middle indicative of εκλεγω, to pick out for oneself. Each one of the seven has a Greek name and was undoubtedly a Hellenist, not an Aramaean Jew. Consummate wisdom is here displayed for the murmuring had come from the Hellenists, seven of whom were chosen to take proper care of the widows of Hellenists. This trouble was settled to stay settled so far as we know. Nothing is here told of any of the seven except Stephen who is "a man full of faith and the Holy Spirit" and Nicolas "a proselyte of Antioch" (who was not then born a Jew, but had come to the Jews from the Greek world).
They laid their hands on them (επεθηκαν αυτοις τας χειρας). First aorist active indicative of επιτιθημ. Probably by the apostles who ratified the choice (verse 3). The laying on of hands "was a symbol of the impartation of the gifts and graces which they needed to qualify them for the office. It was of the nature of a prayer that God would bestow the necessary gifts, rather than a pledge that they were actually conferred" (Hackett).
Increased (ηυξανεν). Imperfect active, kept on growing all the more because the apostles were now relieved from the daily ministration of the food.
Multiplied (επληθυνετο). Imperfect passive. The two imperfects kept pace with each other.
Of the priests (των ιερων). Who were usually Sadducees. It was a sad day for Annas and Caiaphas and all the sect of the Sadducees ( 5:17).
Were obedient to (υπηκουον). Imperfect active of υπακουω, repetition, one after another.
Wrought (εποιε). Imperfect active, repeatedly wrought. Evidently a man like Stephen would not confine his "ministry" to "serving tables." He was called in verse 5 "full of faith and the Holy Spirit." Here he is termed "full of grace (so the best MSS., not faith) and power." The four words give a picture of remarkable attractiveness. The grace of God gave him the power and so "he kept on doing great wonders and signs among the people." He was a sudden whirlwind of power in the very realm of Peter and John and the rest.
The synagogue of the Libertines (εκ της συναγωγης της λεγομενης Λιβερτινων). The Libertines (Latin libertinus, a freedman or the son of a freedman) were Jews, once slaves of Rome (perhaps descendants of the Jews taken to Rome as captives by Pompey), now set free and settled in Jerusalem and numerous enough to have a synagogue of their own. Schuerer calls a Talmudic myth the statement that there were 480 synagogues in Jerusalem. There were many, no doubt, but how many no one knows. These places of worship and study were in all the cities of the later times where there were Jews enough to maintain one. Apparently Luke here speaks of five such synagogues in Jerusalem (that of the Libertines, of the Cyrenians, of the Alexandrians, of Cilicia, and of Asia). There probably were enough Hellenists in Jerusalem to have five such synagogues. But the language of Luke is not clear on this point. He may make only two groups instead of five since he uses the article των twice (once before Λιβερτινων κα Κυρηναιων κα Αλεξανδρεων, again before απο Κιλικιας κα Ασιας). He also changes from the genitive plural to απο before Cilicia and Asia. But, leaving the number of the synagogues unsettled whether five or two, it is certain that in each one where Stephen appeared as a Hellenist preaching Jesus as the Messiah he met opposition. Certain of them "arose" (ανεστησαν) "stood up" after they had stood all that they could from Stephen, "disputing with Stephen" (συνζητουντες τω Στεφανω). Present active participle of συνζητεω, to question together as the two on the way to Emmaus did (Lu 24:15 ). Such interruptions were common with Jews. They give a skilled speaker great opportunity for reply if he is quick in repartee. Evidently Stephen was fully equipped for the emergency. One of their synagogues had men from Cilicia in it, making it practically certain that young Saul of Tarsus, the brilliant student of Gamaliel, was present and tried his wits with Stephen. His ignominious defeat may be one explanation of his zest in the stoning of Stephen (Ac 8:1 ).
They were not able to withstand (ουκ ισχυον αντιστηνα). Imperfect active of ισχυω, to have strength, and ingressive second aorist active (intransitive) infinitive of ανθιστημ. They continued unable (without strength enough) to take a stand against. Stephen knocked them down, Saul included, as fast as they got up. Stephen was like a battery charged and in action.
The wisdom and spirit (τη σοφια κα πνευματ). Dative case. They stood up against Stephen's wisdom and the Holy Spirit "by whom he spoke" (ω ελαλε). Instrumental case and the relative agrees with "Spirit." He kept on speaking so (ελαλε, imperfect active). It was a desperate situation.
Then they suborned men (τοτε υπεβαλον ανδρας). Second aorist active indicative of υποβαλλω, old verb, but here only in the N.T., to put under like a carpet, to bring men under one's control by suggestion or by money. One recalls the plight of Caiaphas in the trial of Jesus when he sought false witnesses. Subornaverunt. They put these men forward in an underhand way for fraud.
Blasphemous words against Moses and God (βλασφημα εις Μωυσην κα τον θεον). The punishment for blasphemy was stoning to death. See Mt 12:31 for discussion of the word βλασφημια, βλασφημεω, βλασφημος, all in the N.T. from βλαπτω, to harm, and φημη, speech, harmful speech, or βλαξ, stupid, and φημη. But the charge against Stephen was untrue. Please note that Moses is here placed before God and practically on a par with God in the matter of blasphemy. The purpose of this charge is to stir the prejudices of the people in the matter of Jewish rights and privileges. It is the Pharisees who are conducting this attack on Stephen while the Sadducees had led them against Peter and John. The position of Stephen is critical in the extreme for the Sadducees will not help him as Gamaliel did the apostles.
They stirred up the people (συνεκινησαν τον λαον). They shook the people together like an earthquake. First aorist active indicative of συνκινεω, to throw into commotion. Old verb, but here only in the N.T. The elders and the scribes (Pharisees) are reached, but no word about the Sadducees. This is the first record of the hostility of the masses against the disciples (Vincent).
Came upon him (επισταντες). Second aorist (ingressive) active participle of εφιστημ. Rushed at him.
Seized (συνηρπασαν). Effective aorist active of συναρπαζω as if they caught him after pursuit.
False witnesses (μαρτυρας ψευδεις). Just as Caiaphas did with Jesus.
Ceaseth not (ου παυετα). Wild charge just like a false witness that Stephen talks in the synagogues against the law and the holy temple.
We have heard him say (ακηκοαμεν αυτου λεγοντος). The only direct testimony and evidently wrong. Curiously like the charge brought against Jesus before Caiaphas that he would destroy the temple and build it again in three days. Undoubtedly Stephen had said something about Christianity before as meant for others besides Jews. He had caught the spirit of Jesus about worship as shown to the woman at Sychar in Joh 4 that God is spirit and to be worshipped by men anywhere and everywhere without having to come to the temple in Jerusalem. It was inflammable material surely and it was easy to misrepresent and hard to clear up.
This Jesus of Nazareth (Ιησους ο Ναζωραιος ουτος). With contempt.
As if the face of an angel (ωσε προσωπον αγγελου). Even his enemies saw that, wicked as they were. See Ex 34:30 for the face of Moses when he came down from Sinai (2Co 3:7 ). Page quotes Tennyson: "God's glory smote him on the face." Where were Peter and John at this crisis? Apparently Stephen stands alone before the Sanhedrin as Jesus did. But he was not alone for he saw Jesus standing at the right hand of God (Ac 7:56 ). There was little that Peter and John could have done if they had been present. Gamaliel did not interpose this time for the Pharisees were behind the charges against Stephen, false though they were as Gamaliel could have found out.
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