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Let not your heart be troubled (μη ταρασσεσθω υμων η καρδια). Not here the physical organ of life (Lu 21:34 ), but the seat of spiritual life (πνευμα, ψυχη), the centre of feeling and faith (Ro 10:10 ), "the focus of the religious life" (Vincent) as in Mt 22:37 . See these words repeated in 14:27. Jesus knew what it was to have a "troubled" heart (11:33; 13:31 ) where ταρασσω is used of him. Plainly the hearts of the disciples were tossed like waves in the wind by the words of Jesus in 13:38.
Ye believe ... believe also (πιστευετε ... κα πιστευετε). So translated as present active indicative plural second person and present active imperative of πιστευω. The form is the same. Both may be indicative (ye believe ... and ye believe), both may be imperative (believe ... and believe or believe also), the first may be indicative (ye believe) and the second imperative (believe also), the first may be imperative (keep on believing) and the second indicative (and ye do believe, this less likely). Probably both are imperatives (Mr 11:22 ), "keep on believing in God and in me."
Mansions (μονα). Old word from μενω, to abide, abiding places, in N.T. only here and verse 23. There are many resting-places in the Father's house (οικια). Christ's picture of heaven here is the most precious one that we possess. It is our heavenly home with the Father and with Jesus.
I would have told you (ειπον αν υμιν). Regular construction for this apodosis (αν and aorist--second active--indicative).
To prepare a place for you (ετοιμασα τοπον υμιν). First aorist active infinitive of purpose of ετοιμαζω, to make ready, old verb from ετοιμος. Here only in John, but in Mr 10:40 (Mt 20:23 ). It was customary to send one forward for such a purpose (Nu 10:33 ). So Jesus had sent Peter and John to make ready (this very verb) for the passover meal (Mr 14:12; Mt 26:17 ). Jesus is thus our Forerunner (προδρομος) in heaven (Heb 6:20 ).
If I go (εαν πορευθω). Third-class condition (εαν and first aorist passive subjunctive of πορευομα).
And prepare (κα ετοιμασω). Same condition and first aorist active subjunctive of the same verb ετοιμαζω.
I come again (παλιν ερχομα). Futuristic present middle, definite promise of the second coming of Christ.
And will receive you unto myself (κα παραλημψομα υμας προς εμαυτον). Future middle of παραλαμβανω. Literally, "And I shall take you along (παρα-) to my own home" (cf. 13:36). This blessed promise is fulfilled in death for all believers who die before the Second Coming. Jesus comes for us then also.
That where I am there ye may be also (ινα οπου ειμ εγω κα υμεις ητε). Purpose clause with ινα and present active subjunctive of ειμ. This the purpose of the departure and the return of Christ. And this is heaven for the believer to be where Jesus is and with him forever.
Ye know the way (οιδατε την οδον). Definite allusion to the puzzle of Peter in 13:36f . The path to the Father's house is now plain.
Whither (που)-- how (πως). It is Thomas, not Peter (13:36f. ) who renews the doubt about the destination of Jesus including the path or way thither (την οδον). Thomas is the spokesman for the materialistic conception then and now.
I am the way, and the truth, and the life (Εγω ειμ η οδος κα η αληθεια κα η ζωη). Either of these statements is profound enough to stagger any one, but here all three together overwhelm Thomas. Jesus had called himself "the life" to Martha ( 11:25) and "the door" to the Pharisees ( 10:7) and "the light of the world" ( 8:12). He spoke "the way of God in truth" (Mr 12:14 ). He is the way to God and the only way (verse 6), the personification of truth, the centre of life.
If ye had known me (ε εγνωκειτε με). Past perfect indicative of γινωσκω, to know by personal experience, in condition of second class as is made plain by the conclusion (αν ηιδετε) where οιδα, not γινωσκω is used. Thomas and the rest had not really come to know Jesus, much as they loved him.
From henceforth ye know him (απ' αρτ γινωσκετε αυτον). Probably inchoative present active indicative, "ye are beginning to know the Father from now on."
And have seen him (κα εωρακατε). Perfect active indicative of οραω. Because they had seen Jesus who is the Son of God, the Image of God, and like God ( 1:18). Hence God is like Jesus Christ. It is a bold and daring claim to deity. The only intelligible conception of God is precisely what Jesus here says. God is like Christ.
Show us (δειξον ημιν). Philip now speaks up, possibly hoping for a theophany (Ex 33:18f. ), certainly not grasping the idea of Jesus just expressed.
So long time (τοσουτον χρονον). Accusative of extent of time.
And dost thou not know me? (κα ουκ εγνωκας με;). Perfect active indicative of γινωσκω. Jesus patiently repeats his language to Philip with the crisp statement: "he that hath seen me hath seen the Father" (ο εωρακως εμε εωρακεν τον πατερα). Perfect active participle and perfect active indicative of οραω, state of completion.
Thou (συ). Emphatic--After these years together.
Believest thou not? (ου πιστευεισ;). Jesus had a right to expect greater faith from these men than from the blind man ( 9:35) or Martha ( 11:27). His words in 14:1 are clearly needed. This oneness with the Father Jesus had already stated ( 10:38) as shown by his "words" (ρηματα) and his "works" (εργα). Cf. 3:34; 5:19; 6:62 .
Believe me (πιστευετε μο). Repeated appeal (present active imperative of πιστευω) as in 14:1 to his disciples and as he had done with the hostile Jews to be influenced by his "works" at any rate ( 10:38).
Shall he do also (κακεινος ποιησε). Emphatic pronoun εκεινος, "that one also."
Greater works than these (μειζονα τουτων). Comparative adjective neuter plural from μεγας with ablative case τουτων. Not necessarily greater miracles and not greater spiritual works in quality, but greater in quantity. Cf. Peter at Pentecost and Paul's mission tours. "Because I go" (οτ εγω πορευορνα). Reason for this expansion made possible by the Holy Spirit as Paraclete ( 16:7).
Whatsoever ye shall ask (οτ αν αιτησητε). Indefinite relative clause with οτ (neuter accusative singular of οστις), αν and the aorist active subjunctive of αιτεω. This is an advance thought over verse 12.
That will I do (τουτο ποιησω). The Father answers prayers (15:16; 16:23 ), but so does the Son (here and verse 14). The purpose (ινα clause with first aorist passive subjunctive of δοξαζω) is "that the Father may be glorified in the Son." Plead Christ's name in prayer to the Father.
If ye shall ask me anything in my name (εαν τ αιτησητε με εν τω ονοματ μου). Condition of third class with εαν and first aorist active subjunctive of αιτεω. The use of με (me) here is supported by Aleph B 33 Vulgate Syriac Peshitta. Just this phrase does not occur elsewhere in John and seems awkward, but see 16:23. If it is genuine, as seems likely, here is direct prayer to Jesus taught as we see it practiced by Stephen in Ac 7:59 ; and in Re 22:20 .
If ye love me (εαν αγαπατε με). Third-class condition "if ye keep on loving (present active subjunctive, same contract form as indicative) me." Cf. verse 23.
Ye will keep (τηρησετε). Future active of τηρεω, not aorist imperative τηρησατε (keep) as some MSS. have. For this phrase see also 8:51; 14:23,24; 14:20; 1Jo 2:5 . Continued love prevents disobedience.
And I will pray the Father (καγω ερωτησω τον πατερα). Ερωταω for prayer, not question (the old use), also in 16:23 (prayer to Jesus in same sense as αιτεω), 26 (by Jesus as here); 17:9 (by Jesus), "make request of."
Another Comforter (αλλον παρακλητον). Another of like kind (αλλον, not ετερον), besides Jesus who becomes our Paraclete, Helper, Advocate, with the Father (1Jo 2:1 , Cf. Ro 8:26f. ). This old word (Demosthenes), from παρακαλεω, was used for legal assistant, pleader, advocate, one who pleads another's cause (Josephus, Philo, in illiterate papyrus), in N.T. only in John's writings, though the idea of it is in Ro 8:26-34 . Cf. Deissmann, Light, etc., p. 336. So the Christian has Christ as his Paraclete with the Father, the Holy Spirit as the Father's Paraclete with us (Joh 14:16,26; 15:26; 16:7; 1Jo 2:1 ).
The Spirit of truth (το πνευμα της αληθειας). Same phrase in 15:27; 16:13; 1Jo 4:6 , "a most exquisite title" (Bengel). The Holy Spirit is marked by it (genitive case), gives it, defends it (cf. 1:17), in contrast to the spirit of error (1Jo 4:6 ).
Whom (ο). Grammatical neuter gender (ο) agreeing with πνευμα (grammatical), but rightly rendered in English by "whom" and note masculine εκεινος (verse 26). He is a person, not a mere influence.
Cannot receive (ου δυνατα λαβειν). Left to itself the sinful world is helpless (1Co 2:14; Ro 8:7f. ), almost Paul's very language on this point. The world lacks spiritual insight (ου θεωρε) and spiritual knowledge (ουδε γινωσκε). It failed to recognize Jesus ( 1:10) and likewise the Holy Spirit.
Abides (μενε). Timeless present tense.
With you (παρ' υμιν). "By your side," "at home with you," not merely "with you" (μεθ' υμων) "in the midst of you."
In you (εν υμιν). In your hearts. So note μετα ( 16), παρα, εν.
I will not leave (ουκ αφησω). Future active of αφιημ, to send away, to leave behind.
Desolate (ορφανους). Old word (ορφος, Latin orbus), bereft of parents, and of parents bereft of children. Common in papyri of orphan children. In 13:33 Jesus called the disciples τεκνια (little children), and so naturally the word means "orphans" here, but the meaning may be "helpless" (without the other Paraclete, the Holy Spirit). The only other N.T. example is in Jas 1:27 where it means "fatherless."
I come (ερχομα). Futuristic present as in verse 3.
Because I live, ye shall live also (οτ εγω ζω κα υμεις ζησετε). This is our blessed guarantee of immortal, eternal life, the continued living of Jesus. He is the surety of a better covenant (Heb 7:22 ), the Risen Christ Jesus. He had said it before ( 6:57).
In that day (εν εκεινη τη ημερα). The New Dispensation of the Holy Spirit, beginning with Christ's Resurrection and the Coming of the Holy Spirit at pentecost.
Shall know (γνωσεσθε). Future middle of γινωσκω. Chapters 1 to 3 of Acts bear eloquent witness to these words.
He it is that loveth me (εκεινος εστιν ο αγαπων με). Emphatic demonstrative pronoun εκεινος: "that is the one who loves me."
And will manifest myself unto him (κα εμφανισω αυτω εμαυτον). Future active of εμφανιζω, old verb from εμφανης (Ac 10:40; Ro 10:20 ). The Unseen and Risen Christ will be a real and spiritual Presence to the obedient and loving believer.
Not Iscariot (ουχ ο Ισκαριωτης). Judas Iscariot had gone ( 13:30), but John is anxious to make it clear that this Judas (common name, two apostles also named James) was not the infamous traitor. He is also called Thaddaeus or Lebbaeus (Mr 3:17; Mt 10:3 ) and the brother (or son) of James (6:15; Ac 1:13 ). This is the fourth interruption of the talk of Jesus (by Peter, 13:36; by Thomas, 14:5; by Philip, 14:8; by Judas, 14:22).
And not to the world (κα ουχ τω κοσμω). Judas caught at the word εμφανιζω in verse 21 as perhaps a Messianic theophany visible to all the world as at the judgment (5:27f. ). He seems to suspect a change of plan on the part of Jesus (τ γεγονεν οτ=how has it happened that).
If a man love me (εαν τις αγαπα με). Condition of third class with εαν and present active subjunctive, "if one keep on loving me." That is key to the spiritual manifestation (εμφανιζω).
We will come (ελευσομεθα). Future middle of ερχομα and first person plural (the Father and I), not at the judgment, but here and now.
And make our abode with him (κα μονην παρ' αυτω ποιησομεθα). See verse 2 for the word μονη (dwelling, abiding place). If the Holy Spirit "abides" (μενε, verse 17) in you, that heart becomes a temple (ναος) of the Holy Spirit (1Co 3:16f. ), and so a fit dwelling place for the Father and the Son, a glorious and uplifting reality.
He that loveth me not (ο μη αγαπων με). Present active articular participle of αγαπαω with negative μη, "the one who keeps on not loving me."
Is not mine, but the Father's (ουκ εστιν εμοσ, αλλα του πατρος). Predicative possessive pronoun εμος and the predicate genitive of possession πατρος.
Have I spoken (λελαληκα). Perfect active indicative of λαλεω, for permanent keeping (τηρεω verse 23).
While yet abiding with you (παρ' υμιν μενων). Present active participle, no "yet" (ετ) in the Greek, "while remaining beside (παρ') you" before departing for the coming of the other Paraclete.
Whom (ο). Grammatical neuter, but "whom" is correct translation. The Father will send the Holy Spirit (14:16; Lu 24:49; Ac 2:33 ), but so will the Son (Joh 15:26; 16:7 ) as Jesus breathes the Holy Spirit upon the disciples ( 20:22). There is no contradiction in this relation of the Persons in the Trinity (the Procession of the Holy Spirit). Here the Holy Spirit (full title as in Mr 3:29; Mt 12:32; Lu 12:10 ) is identified with the Paraclete.
He (εκεινος). Emphatic demonstrative pronoun and masculine like παρακλητος.
Shall teach you all things (υμας διδαξε παντα). The Holy Spirit knows "the deep things of God" (1Co 2:10 ) and he is our Teacher in the Dispensation of the Holy Spirit of both new truth (verse 25) and old.
Bring to your remembrance (υπομνησε υμας). Future active indicative of υπομιμνησκω, old verb to remind, to recall, here only in this Gospel (cf. 3Jo 1:10; 2Ti 2:14 ) and with two accusatives (person and thing). After pentecost the disciples will be able better to recall and to understand what Jesus had said (how dull they had been at times) and to be open to new revelations from God (cf. Peter at Joppa and Caesarea).
My peace (ειρηνην την εμην). This is Christ's bequest to the disciples before he goes, the shalom of the orient for greeting and parting, used by Jesus in his appearances after the resurrection (20:19,21,26 ) as in 2Jo 1:3; 3Jo 1:14 , but here and in 16:33 in the sense of spiritual peace such as only Christ can give and which his Incarnation offers to men (Lu 2:14 ).
Neither let it be fearful (μεδη δειλιατω). Added to the prohibition in verse 1, only N.T. example of δειλιαω (rare word in Aristotle, in a papyrus of one condemned to death), common in LXX, like palpitating of the heart (from δειλος).
If ye loved me (ε ηγαπατε με). Second-class condition with the imperfect active of αγαπαω referring to present time, implying that the disciples are not loving Jesus as they should.
Ye would have rejoiced (εχαρητε αν). Second aorist passive indicative of χαιρω with αν, conclusion of second-class condition referring to past time, "Ye would already have rejoiced before this" at Christ's going to the Father (verse 12).
Greater than I (μειζων μου). Ablative case μου after the comparative μειζων (from positive μεγας). The filial relation makes this necessary. Not a distinction in nature or essence (cf. 10:30), but in rank in the Trinity. No Arianism or Unitarianism here. The very explanation here is proof of the deity of the Son (Dods).
The prince of the world (ο του κοσμου αρχων). Satan as in 12:31 which see.
But that the world may know (αλλ' ινα γνω ο κοσμος). Purpose clause with ινα and the second aorist active subjunctive of γινωσκω. Elliptical construction (cf. 9:3; 13:18; 15:25 ). "But I surrendered myself to death," etc., before ινα.
Arise, let us go hence (εγειρεσθε, αγωμεν εντευθεν). Imperative present middle of εγειρω and the volitive (hortatory) subjunctive αγωμεν (the word used in 11:7,16 ) of going to meet death. Apparently the group arose and walked out into the night and the rest of the talk (chs. 15 and 16) and prayer (ch. 17) was in the shadows on the way to Gethsemane.
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