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The Passover (πασχα) Both names (unleavened bread and passover) are used here as in Mr 14:1 . Strictly speaking the passover was Nisan 14 and the unleavened bread 15-21. This is the only place in the N.T. where the expression "the feast of unleavened bread" (common in LXX, Ex. 23:15 , etc.) occurs, for Mr 14:1 has just "the unleavened bread." Mt 26:17 uses unleavened bread and passover interchangeably.
Sought (εζητουν). Imperfect active of ζητεω, were seeking, conative imperfect.
How they might put him to death (το πως ανελωσιν αυτον). Second aorist active deliberative subjunctive (retained in indirect question) of αναιρεω, to take up, to make away with, to slay. Common in Old Greek. Luke uses it so here and in 23:32 and eighteen times in the Acts, a favourite word with him. Note the accusative neuter singular article το with the whole clause, "as to the how, etc."
For they feared (εφοβουντο γαρ). Imperfect middle describing the delay of the "how." The triumphal entry and the temple speeches of Jesus had revealed his tremendous power with the people, especially the crowds from Galilee at the feast. They were afraid to go on with their plan to kill him at the feast.
Satan entered into Judas (εισηλθεν εις Ιουδαν). Ingressive aorist active indicative. Satan was now renewing his attack on Jesus suspended temporarily (Lu 4:13 ) "until a good chance." He had come back by the use of Simon Peter (Mr 8:33; Mt 16:23 ). The conflict went on and Jesus won ultimate victory (Lu 10:18 ). Now Satan uses Judas and has success with him for Judas allowed him to come again and again (Joh 13:27 ). Judas evidently opened the door to his heart and let Satan in. Then Satan took charge and he became a devil as Jesus said (Joh 6:70 ). This surrender to Satan in no way relieves Judas of his moral responsibility.
Went away (απελθων). Second aorist active participle of απερχομα. He went off under the impulse of Satan and after the indignation over the rebuke of Jesus at the feast in Simon's house (Joh 12:4-6 ).
How he might deliver him unto them (το πως αυτοις παραδω αυτον). The same construction as in verse 2, the article το with the indirect question and deliberative subjunctive second aorist active (παραδω).
Were glad (εχαρησαν). Second aorist passive indicative of χαιρω as in Mr 14:11 . Ingressive aorist, a natural exultation that one of the Twelve had offered to do this thing.
Covenanted (συνεθεντο). Second aorist indicative middle of συντιθημ. An old verb to put together and in the middle with one another. In the N.T. outside of Joh 9:22 only in Luke (here and Ac 23:20; 24:9 ). Luke only mentions "money" (αργυριον), but not "thirty pieces" (Mt 26:15 ).
Consented (εξωμολογησεν). Old verb, but the ancients usually used the simple form for promise or consent rather than the compound. This is the only instance of this sense in the N.T. It is from ομολογος (ομος, same, and λεγω, to say), to say the same thing with another and so agree.
Opportunity (ευκαριαν). From ευκαιρος (ευ, καιρος), a good chance. Old word, but in the N.T. only here and parallel passage Mt 26:16 .
In the absence of the multitude (ατερ οχλου). Ατερ is an old preposition, common in the poets, but rare in prose. Also in verse 35. It means "without," "apart from," like χωρις. The point of Judas was just this. He would get Jesus into the hands of the Sanhedrin during the feast in spite of the crowd. It was necessary to avoid tumult (Mt 26:5 ) because of the popularity of Jesus.
The day of unleavened bread came (ηλθεν η ημερα των αζυμων). The day itself came, not simply was drawing nigh (verse 1).
Must be sacrificed (εδε θυεσθα). This was Nisan 14 which began at sunset. Luke is a Gentile and this fact must be borne in mind. The lamb must be slain by the head of the family (Ex 12:6 ). The controversy about the day when Christ ate the last passover meal has already been discussed (Mt 26:17; Mr 14:12 ). The Synoptics clearly present this as a fact. Jesus was then crucified on Friday at the passover or Thursday (our time) at the regular hour 6 P.M. (beginning of Friday). The five passages in John (13:1f.; 13:27; 18:28; 19:14; 19:31 ) rightly interpreted teach the same thing as shown in my Harmony of the Gospels for Students of the Life of Christ (pp.279-284).
Peter and John (Πετρον κα Ιωανην). Mr 14:13 has only "two" while Mt 26:17 makes the disciples take the initiative. The word passover in this context is used either of the meal, the feast day, the whole period (including the unleavened bread). "Eat the passover" can refer to the meal as here or to the whole period of celebration (Joh 18:28 ).
Where wilt thou that we make ready? (Που θελεις ετοιμασωμεν;). Deliberative first aorist active subjunctive without ινα after θελεις, perhaps originally two separate questions.
When you are entered (εισελθοντων υμων). Genitive absolute.
Meet you (συναντησε υμιν). An old verb συνανταω (from συν, with, and ανταω, to face, αντ) with associative instrumental (υμιν). See on Mr 14:13 about the "man bearing a pitcher of water."
I shall eat (φαγω). Second aorist futuristic (or deliberative) subjunctive as in Mr 14:14 .
And he (κ'ακεινος). Κα and εκεινος (χρασις) where Mr 14:15 has κα αυτος. Literally, And that one. See on Mark for rest of the verse.
He had said (ειρηκε). Past perfect active indicative of ειπον where Mr 14:16 has ειπεν (second aorist).
Sat down (ανεπεσεν). Reclined, fell back (or up). Second aorist active of αναπιπτω.
With desire I have desired (επιθυμια επεθυμησα). A Hebraism common in the LXX. Associative instrumental case of substantive and first aorist active indicative of same like a cognate accusative. Peculiar to Luke is all this verse. See this idiom in Joh 3:29; Ac 4:17 .
Before I suffer (προ του με παθειν). Preposition προ with articular infinitive and accusative of general reference, "before the suffering as to me." Παθειν is second aorist active infinitive of πασχω.
Until it be fulfilled (εως οτου πληρωθη). First aorist passive subjunctive of πληροω with εως (οτου), the usual construction about the future. It seems like a Messianic banquet that Jesus has in mind (cf. 14:15).
He received a cup (δεξαμενος ποτηριον). This cup is a diminutive of ποτηρ. It seems that this is still one of the four cups passed during the passover meal, though which one is uncertain. It is apparently just before the formal introduction of the Lord's Supper, though he gave thanks here also (ευχαριστησας). It is from this verb ευχαριστεω (see also verse 19) that our word Eucharist comes. It is a common verb for giving thanks and was used also for "saying grace" as we call it.
Come (ελθη). Second aorist active subjunctive with εως as in verse 16. Here it is the consummation of the kingdom that Jesus has in mind, for the kingdom had already come.
Which is given for you (το υπερ υμων διδομενον). Some MSS. omit these verses though probably genuine. The correct text in 1Co 11:24 has "which is for you," not "which is broken for you." It is curious to find the word "broken" here preserved and justified so often, even by Easton in his commentary on Luke, p. 320.
In remembrance of me (εις την εμην αναμνησιν). Objective use of the possessive pronoun εμην, not the subjective.
This do (τουτο ποιειτε). Present active indicative, repetition, keep on doing this.
After the supper (μετα το δειπνησα). Preposition μετα and the accusative articular infinitive. The textual situation here is confusing, chiefly because of the two cups (verses 17,20 ). Some of the documents omit the latter part of verse 19 and all of verse 20. It is possible, of course, that this part crept into the text of Luke from 1Co 11:24f . But, if this part is omitted, Luke would then have the order reversed, the cup before the bread. So there are difficulties whichever turn one takes here with Luke's text whether one cup or two cups.
The New Covenant (ε καινη διαθηκη). See on Mt 26:28; Mr 14:24 for "covenant." Westcott and Hort reject "new" there, but accept it here and in 1Co 11:25 . See on Lu 5:38 for difference between καινη and νεα. "The ratification of a covenant was commonly associated with the shedding of blood; and what was written in blood was believed to be indelible" (Plummer).
That betrayeth (του παραδιδοντος). Present active participle, actually engaged in doing it. The hand of Judas was resting on the table at the moment. It should be noted that Luke narrates the institution of the Lord's Supper before the exposure of Judas as the traitor while Mark and Matthew reverse this order.
As it hath been determined (κατα το ωρισμενον). Perfect passive participle of οριζω, to limit or define, mark off the border, our "horizon." But this fact does not absolve Judas of his guilt as the "woe" here makes plain.
Which of them it was (το τις αρα ειη εξ αυτων). Note the article το with the indirect question as in verses 2,4 . The optative ειη here is changed from the present active indicative εστιν, though it was not always done, for see δοκε in verse 24 where the present indicative is retained. They all had their hands on the table. Whose hand was it?
Contention (φιλονεικια). An old word from φιλονεικος, fond of strife, eagerness to contend. Only here in the N.T.
Greatest (μειζων). Common use of the comparative as superlative.
Have lordship over (κυριευουσιν). From κυριος. Common verb, to lord it over.
Benefactors (ευεργετα). From ευ and εργον. Doer of good. Old word. Here only in the N.T. Latin Benefactor is exact equivalent.
Become (γινεσθω). Present middle imperative of γινομα. Act so. True greatness is in service, not in rank.
But I (Εγω δε). Jesus dares to cite his own conduct, though their leader, to prove his point and to put a stop to their jealous contention for the chief place at this very feast, a wrangling that kept up till Jesus had to arise and give them the object lesson of humility by washing their feet (Joh 13:1-20 ).
In my temptations (εν τοις πειρασμοις μου). Probably "trials" is better here as in Jas 1:2 though temptations clearly in Jas 1:13f. . This is the tragedy of the situation when Jesus is facing the Cross with the traitor at the table and the rest chiefly concerned about their own primacy and dignity.
And I appoint unto you (κ'αγω διατιθημα υμιν). They had on the whole been loyal and so Jesus passes on to them (διαθημα verb from which διαθηκη comes).
And ye shall sit (καθησεσθε). But Westcott and Hort read in the text καθησθε (present middle subjunctive with ινα). The picture seems to be that given in Mt 19:28 when Jesus replied to Peter's inquiry. It is not clear how literally this imagery is to be taken. But there is the promise of honour for the loyal among these in the end.
Asked to have you (εξηιτησατο). First aorist indirect middle indicative of εξαιτεω, an old verb to beg something of one and (middle) for oneself. Only here in the N.T. The verb is used either in the good or the bad sense, but it does not mean here "obtained by asking" as margin in Revised Version has it.
That he might sift you (του σινιασα). Genitive articular infinitive of purpose. First aorist active infinitive of σινιαζω, to shake a sieve, to sift, from σινιον, a winnowing fan. Later word. Here only in the N.T.
That thy faith fail not (ινα μη εκλιπη ε πιστις μου). Second aorist active subjunctive of purpose with ινα after εδεηθην ( I prayed ) of εκλειπω, old verb. Our word eclipse is this word. Evidently Jesus could not keep Satan from attacking Peter. He had already captured Judas. Did he not repeatedly attack Jesus? But he could and did pray for Peter's faith and his praying won in the end, though Peter stumbled and fell.
And do thou (κα συ). The words single out Peter sharply.
Once thou hast turned again (ποτε επιστρεψας). First aorist active participle of επιστρεφω, common verb to turn to, to return. But the use of this word implied that Peter would fall though he would come back and "strengthen thy brethren."
To prison and to death (εις φυλακην κα εις θανατον). Evidently Peter was not flattered by the need of Christ's earnest prayers for his welfare and loyalty. Hence this loud boast.
Until thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me (εως τρις με απαρνηση ειδενα). "Thrice" is in all four Gospels here for they all give this warning to Peter (Mr 14:30; Mt 26:34; Lu 22:34; Joh 18:38 ). Peter will even deny knowing Jesus (ειδενα).
Wallet (πηρας). See on Mt 10:10 .
Lacked ye anything (μη τινος υστερησατε;). Answer No expected (ουθενος below). Ablative case after υστερεω.
Buy a sword (αγορασατω μαχαιραν). This is for defence clearly. The reference is to the special mission in Galilee (Lu 9:1-6; Mr 6:6-13; Mt 9:35-11:1 ). They are to expect persecution and bitter hostility (Joh 15:18-21 ). Jesus does not mean that his disciples are to repel force by force, but that they are to be ready to defend his cause against attack. Changed conditions bring changed needs. This language can be misunderstood as it was then.
Lord, behold, here are two swords (κυριε ιδου μαχαιρα ωδε δυο). They took his words literally. And before this very night is over Peter will use one of these very swords to try to cut off the head of Malchus only to be sternly rebuked by Jesus (Mr 14:47; Mt 26:51f.; Lu 22:50f.; Joh 18:10f. ). Then Jesus will say: "For all that take the sword shall perish with the sword" (Mt 26:52 ). Clearly Jesus did not mean his language even about the sword to be pressed too literally. So he said: "It is enough" (Hικανον εστιν). It is with sad irony and sorrow that Jesus thus dismisses the subject. They were in no humour now to understand the various sides of this complicated problem. Every preacher and teacher understands this mood, not of impatience, but of closing the subject for the present.
As his custom was (κατα το εθος). According to the custom (of him). It was because Judas knew the habit of Jesus of going to Gethsemane at night that he undertook to betray him without waiting for the crowd to go home after the feast.
At the place (επ του τοπου). The place of secret prayer which was dear to Jesus.
Pray that ye enter not into temptation (προσευχεσθε μη εισελθειν εις πειρασμον). "Keep on praying not to enter (ingressive aorist infinitive, not even once) into temptation." It is real "temptation" here, not just "trial." Jesus knew the power of temptation and the need of prayer. These words throw a light on the meaning of his language in Mt 6:13 . Jesus repeats this warning in verse 46.
About a stone's throw (ωσε λιθου βολην). Accusative of extent of space. Luke does not tell of leaving eight disciples by the entrance to Gethsemane nor about taking Peter, James, and John further in with him.
Prayed (προσηυχετο). Imperfect middle, was praying, kept on praying.
If thou be willing (ε βουλε). This condition is in the first petition at the start.
Be done (γινεσθω). Present middle imperative, keep on being done, the Father's will.
An angel (αγγελος). The angels visited Jesus at the close of the three temptations at the beginning of his ministry (Mt 4:11 ). Here the angel comes during the conflict.
In an agony (εν αγωνια). It was conflict, contest from αγων. An old word, but only here in the N.T. Satan pressed Jesus harder than ever before.
As it were great drops of blood (ωσε θρομβο αιματος). Thick, clotted blood. An old word (θρομβο) common in medical works, but here only in the N.T. This passage (verses 43,44 ) is absent from some ancient documents. Aristotle speaks of a bloody sweat as does Theophrastus.
Sleeping for sorrow (κοιμωμενους απο της λυπης). Luke does not tell of the three turnings of Jesus to the trusted three for human sympathy.
Went before them (προηρχετο). Imperfect middle. Judas was leading the band for he knew the place well (Joh 18:2 ).
With a kiss (φιληματ). Instrumental case. Jesus challenges the act of Judas openly and calls it betrayal, but it did not stop him.
What would follow (το εσομενον). Article and the future middle participle of ειμ, to be.
Shall we smite with a sword? (ε παταξομεν εν μαχαιρηι;). Note ε in a direct question like the Hebrew. Luke alone gives this question. Instrumental use of εν. They had the two swords already mentioned ( 22:38).
His right ear (το ους αυτου το δεξιον). Mark 14:47; Mt 26:51 do not mention "right," but Luke the Physician does. Joh 18:10 follows Luke in this item and also adds the names of Peter and of Malchus since probably both were dead by that time and Peter would not be involved in trouble.
Suffer us thus far (εατε εως τουτου). Present active imperative of εαω, to allow. But the meaning is not clear. If addressed to Peter and the other disciples it means that they are to suffer this much of violence against Jesus. This is probably the idea. If it is addressed to the crowd, it means that they are to excuse Peter for his rash act.
He touched his ear and healed him (αψαμενος του οτιου ιασατο αυτον). Whether Jesus picked up the piece of the ear and put it back is not said. He could have healed the wound without that. This miracle of surgery is given alone by Luke.
As against a robber? (ως επ ληιστην;). They were treating Jesus as if he were a bandit like Barabbas.
But this is your hour (αλλ' αυτη εστιν υμων η ωρα). So Jesus surrenders. The moral value of his atoning sacrifice on the Cross consists in the voluntariness of his death. He makes it clear that they have taken undue advantage of him in this hour of secret prayer and had failed to seize him in public in the temple. But "the power of darkness" (η εξουσια του σκοτους), had its turn. A better day will come. The might, authority of darkness.
When they had kindled a fire (περιαψαντων πυρ). Genitive absolute, first aorist active participle of περιαπτω, an old verb, but here only in the N.T. Kindle around, make a good fire that blazes all over. It was April and cool at night. The servants made the fire.
And had sat down together (κα συνκαθισαντων). Genitive absolute again. Note συν- (together), all had taken seats around the fire.
Peter sat in the midst of them (εκαθητο ο Πετρος μεσος αυτων). Imperfect tense, he was sitting, and note μεσος, nominative predicate adjective with the genitive, like Joh 1:26 , good Greek idiom.
Looking steadfastly (ατενισασα). Favourite word in Luke ( 4:20, etc.) for gazing steadily at one.
I know him not (ουκ οιδα αυτον). Just as Jesus had predicted that he would do (Lu 22:34 ).
After a little while another (μετα βραχυ ετερος). Mt 26:71 makes it after Peter had gone out into the porch and mentions a maid as speaking as does Mr 14:69 , while here the "other" (ετερος) is a man (masculine gender). It is almost impossible to co-ordinate the three denials in the four accounts unless we conceive of several joining in when one led off. This time Peter's denial is very blunt, "I am not."
After the space of about one hour (διαστασης ωσε ωρας μιας). Genitive absolute with second aorist active participle feminine singular of διιστημ. This classical verb in the N.T. is used only by Luke (22:59; 24:51; Ac 27:28 ). It means standing in two or apart, about an hour intervening.
Confidently affirmed (διισχυριζετο). Imperfect middle, he kept affirming strongly. An old verb (δια, ισχυριζομα), to make oneself strong, to make emphatic declaration. In the N.T. only here and Ac 12:15 .
For he is a Galilean (κα γαρ Γαλιλαιος εστιν). Mt 26:73 makes it plain that it was his speech that gave him away, which see.
I know not what thou sayest (ουκ οιδα ο λεγεις). Each denial tangles Peter more and more.
While he yet spake (ετ λαλουντος αυτου). Genitive absolute. Peter could hear the crowing all right.
The Lord turned (στραφεις ο κυριος). Second aorist passive participle of στρεφω, coming verb. Graphic picture drawn by Luke alone.
Looked upon Peter (ενεβλεψεν τω Πετρω). Ingressive aorist active indicative of ενβλεπω, an old and vivid verb, to glance at.
Remembered (υπεμνησθη). First aorist passive indicative of υπομιμνησκω, common verb to remind one of something (υπο giving a suggestion or hint). The cock crowing and the look brought swiftly back to Peter's mind the prophecy of Jesus and his sad denials. The mystery is how he had forgotten that warning.
And he went out and wept bitterly (κα εξελθων εξω εκλαυσεν πικρως). A few old Latin documents omit this verse which is genuine in Mt 26:75 . It may be an insertion here from there, but the evidence for the rejection is too slight. It is the ingressive aorist (εκλαυσεν), he burst into tears. "Bitter" is a common expression for tears in all languages and in all hearts.
Mocked (ενεπαιζον). Imperfect active, were mocking, inchoative, began to mock, to play like boys.
And beat him (δεροντες). Present active participle of δερω, to flay, tan, or hide. Literally, "beating."
Many other things (ετερα πολλα). These are just samples.
The assembly of the people (το πρεσβυτεριον του λαου). The technical word for "the eldership" (from πρεσβυτερος, an old man or elder) or group of the elders composing the Sanhedrin. The word occurs in the LXX for the Sanhedrin. In the N.T. occurs only here and Ac 22:5 of the Sanhedrin. In 1Ti 4:14 Paul uses it of the elders in a church (or churches). The Sanhedrin was composed of the elders and scribes and chief priests (Mr 15:1 ) and all three groups are at this meeting. Luke's language (both chief priests and scribes, τε ... κα) seems to apply the word πρεσβυτεριον to the whole Sanhedrin. Sadducees (chief priests) and Pharisees (scribes) were nearly equally represented.
Into their council (εις το συνεδριον αυτων). The place of the gathering is not given, but Jesus was led into the council chamber.
If thou art the Christ (Ε συ ε ο Χριστος). The Messiah, they mean. The condition is the first class, assuming it to be true.
If I tell you (Εαν υμιν ειπω). Condition of the third class, undetermined, but with likelihood of being determined. This is the second appearance of Jesus before the Sanhedrin merely mentioned by Mr 15:1; Mt 27:1 who give in detail the first appearance and trial. Luke merely gives this so-called ratification meeting after daybreak to give the appearance of legality to their vote of condemnation already taken (Mr 14:64; Mt 26:66 ).
Ye will not believe (ου μη πιστευσητε). Double negative with the aorist subjunctive, strongest possible negative. So as to verse 68.
The Son of man (ο υιος του ανθρωπου). Jesus really answers their demand about "the Messiah" by asserting that he is "the Son of man" and they so understand him. He makes claims of equality with God also which they take up.
Art thou the Son of God? (Συ ουν ε ο υιος του θεου;). Note how these three epithets are used as practical equivalents. They ask about "the Messiah." Jesus affirms that he is the Son of Man and will sit at the right hand of the power of God. They take this to be a claim to be the Son of God (both humanity and deity). Jesus accepts the challenge and admits that he claims to be all three (Messiah, the Son of man, the Son of God).
For we ourselves have heard (αυτο γαρ ηκουσαμεν). They were right if Jesus is not what he claimed to be. They were eternally wrong for he is the Christ, the Son of man, the Son of God. They made their choice and must face Christ as Judge.
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