|« Prev||Luke 12||Next »|
In the meantime (εν οις). It is a classic idiom to start a sentence or even a paragraph as here with a relative, "in which things or circumstances," without any expressed antecedent other than the incidents in 11:53f . In 12:3 Luke actually begins the sentence with two relatives ανθ' ων οσα (wherefore whatsoever).
Many thousands (μυριαδων). Genitive absolute with επισυναχθεισων (first aorist passive participle feminine plural because of μυριαδων), a double compound late verb, επισυναγω, to gather together unto. The word "myriads" is probably hyperbolical as in Ac 21:20 , but in the sense of ten thousand, as in Ac 19:19 , it means a very large crowd apparently drawn together by the violent attacks of the rabbis against Jesus.
Insomuch that they trode one upon another (ωστε καταπατειν αλληλους). The imagination must complete the picture of this jam.
Unto his disciples first of all (προς τους μαθητας αυτου πρωτον). This long discourse in Lu 12 is really a series of separate talks to various groups in the vast crowds around Jesus. This particular talk goes through verse 12.
Beware of (προσεχετε εαυτοις απο). Put your mind (νουν understood) for yourselves (dative) and avoid (απο with the ablative).
The leaven of the Pharisees which is hypocrisy (της ζυμης ητις εστιν υποχρισις των Φαρισαιων). In Mr 8:15 Jesus had coupled the lesson of the Pharisees with that of Herod, in Mt 16:6 with that of the Sadducees also. He had long ago called the Pharisees hypocrites (Mt 6:2,5,16 ). The occasion was ripe here for this crisp saying. In Mt 13:33 leaven does not have an evil sense as here, which see. See Mt 23:13 for hypocrites. Hypocrisy was the leading Pharisaic vice (Bruce) and was a mark of sanctity to hide an evil heart.
Covered up (συγκεκαλυμμενον εστιν). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of συγκαλυπτω, an old verb, but here only in the N.T., to cover up on all sides and so completely. Verses 2-9 here are parallel with Mt 10:26-33 spoken to the Twelve on their tour of Galilee, illustrating again how often Jesus repeated his sayings unless we prefer to say that he never did so and that the Gospels have hopelessly jumbled them as to time and place. See the passage in Matthew for discussion of details.
Be not afraid of (μη φοβηθητε απο). First aorist passive subjunctive with μη, ingressive aorist, do not become afraid of, with απο and the ablative like the Hebrew min and the English "be afraid of," a translation Hebraism as in Mt 10:28 (Moulton, Prolegomena, p. 102).
Whom ye shall fear (τινα φοβηθητε). First aorist passive subjunctive deliberative retained in the indirect question. Τινα is the accusative, the direct object of this transitive passive verb (note απο in verse 4).
Fear him who (φοβηθητε τον). First aorist passive imperative, differing from the preceding form only in the accent and governing the accusative also.
After he hath killed (μετα το αποκτεινα). Preposition μετα with the articular infinitive. Literally, "After the killing" (first aorist active infinitive of the common verb αποκτεινω, to kill.
Into hell (εις την γεενναν). See on Mt 5:22 . Gehenna is a transliteration of Ge-Hinnom, Valley of Hinnon where the children were thrown on to the red-hot arms of Molech. Josiah (2Ki 23:10 ) abolished these abominations and then it was a place for all kinds of refuse which burned ceaselessly and became a symbol of punishment in the other world.
This one fear (τουτον φοβηθητε). As above.
Is forgotten (εστιν επιλελησμενον). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of επιλανθανομα, common verb to forget. See Mt 10:29 for a different construction.
Numbered (ηριθμηντα). Perfect passive indicative. Periphrastic form in Mt 10:30 which see for details about sparrows, etc.
Everyone who shall confess me (πας ος αν ομολογησε εν εμο). Just like Mt 10:32 except the use of αν here which adds nothing. The Hebraistic use of εν after ομολογεω both here and in Matthew is admitted by even Moulton (Prolegomena, p. 104).
The Son of man (ο υιος του ανθρωπου). Here Mt 10:32 has κ'αγω (I also) as the equivalent.
Shall be denied (απαρνηθησετα). First future passive of the compound verb απαρνεομα. Here Mt 10:33 has αρνησομα simply. Instead of "in the presence of the angels of God" (εμπροσθεν των αγγελων του θεου) Mt 10:33 has "before my Father who is in heaven."
But unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Spirit (τω δε εις το αγιον πνευμα βλασφημησαντ). This unpardonable sin is given by Mr 3:28f.; Mt 12:31f. immediately after the charge that Jesus was in league with Beelzebub. Luke here separates it from the same charge made in Judea ( 11:15-20). As frequently said, there is no sound reason for saying that Jesus only spoke his memorable sayings once. Luke apparently finds a different environment here. Note the use of εις here in the sense of "against."
Be not anxious (μη μεριμνησητε). First aorist active subjunctive with μη in prohibition. Do not become anxious. See a similar command to the Twelve on their Galilean tour (Mt 10:19f. ) and in the great discourse on the Mount of Olives at the end (Mr 13:11; Lu 21:14f. ), given twice by Luke as we see.
How or what ye shall answer (πως η τ απολογησησθε). Indirect question and retaining the deliberative subjunctive απολογησησθε and also ειπητε (say).
What ye ought to say (α δε ειπειν). Literally, what things it is necessary (δε) to say. This is no excuse for neglect in pulpit preparation. It is simply a word for courage in a crisis to play the man for Christ and to trust the issue with God without fear.
Bid my brother (ειπε τω αδελφω μου). This volunteer from the crowd draws attention to the multitude (verses 13-21). He does not ask for arbitration and there is no evidence that his brother was willing for that. He wants a decision by Jesus against his brother. The law (De 21:17 ) was two-thirds to the elder, one-third to the younger.
A judge or a divider (κριτην η μεριστην). Jesus repudiates the position of judge or arbiter in this family fuss. The language reminds one of Ex 2:14 . Jesus is rendering unto Caesar the things of Caesar (Lu 20:25 ) and shows that his kingdom is not of this world (Joh 18:36 ). The word for divider or arbiter (μεριστης) is a late word from μεριζομα (verse 13) and occurs here only in the N.T.
From all covetousness (απο πασης πλεονεξιας). Ablative case. From every kind of greedy desire for more (πλεον, more, εξια, from εχω, to have) an old word which we have robbed of its sinful aspects and refined to mean business thrift.
In the abundance of the things which he possesseth (εν τω περισσευειν τιν εκ των υπαρχοντων αυτω). A rather awkward Lukan idiom: "In the abounding (articular infinitive) to one out of the things belonging (articular participle) to him."
Brought forth plentifully (ευφορησεν). Late word from ευφορος (bearing well), in medical writers and Josephus, here only in the N.T.
Reasoned within himself (διελογιζετο εν αυτω). Imperfect middle, picturing his continued cogitations over his perplexity.
Where to bestow (που συναξω). Future indicative deliberative, where I shall gather together.
My fruits (τους καρπους μου). So it is with the rich fool: my fruits, my barns, my corn, my goods, just like Nabal whose very name means fool (1Sa 25:11 ), whether a direct reference to him or not.
I will pull down (καθελω). Future active of καθαιρεω, an old verb, the usual future being καθαιρησω. This second form from the second aorist καθειλον (from obsolete ελω) like αφελε in Re 22:19 .
All my corn (παντα τον σιτον). Better grain (wheat, barley), not maize or Indian corn.
My goods (τα αγαθα μου). Like the English, my good things. So the English speak of goods (freight) train.
Laid up for many years (κειμενα εις ετη πολλα). Not in D and some other Latin MSS. The man's apostrophe to his "soul" (ψυχη) is thoroughly Epicurean, for his soul feeds on his goods. The asyndeton here (take thine ease, eat, drink, be merry) shows his eagerness. Note difference in tenses (αναπαυου, keep on resting, φαγε, eat at once, πιε, drink thy fill, ευφραινου, keep on being merry), first and last presents, the other two aorists.
Is thy soul required of thee (την ψυχην σου αιτουσιν απο σου). Plural active present, not passive: "They are demanding thy soul from thee." The impersonal plural (aitousin) is common enough (Lu 6:38; 12:11; 16:9; 23:31 ). The rabbis used "they" to avoid saying "God."
Unto his disciples (προς τους μαθητας αυτου). So Jesus turns from the crowd to the disciples (verses 22-40, when Peter interrupts the discourse). From here to the end of the chapter Luke gives material that appears in Matthew, but not in one connection as here. In Matthew part of it is in the charge to the Twelve on their tour in Galilee, part in the eschatological discourse on the Mount of Olives. None of it is in Mark. Hence Q or the Logia seems to be the source of it. The question recurs again whether Jesus repeated on other occasions what is given here or whether Luke has here put together separate discourses as Matthew is held by many to have done in the Sermon on the Mount. We have no way of deciding these points. We can only say again that Jesus would naturally repeat his favourite sayings like other popular preachers and teachers. So Lu 12:22-31 corresponds to Mt 6:25-33 , which see for detailed discussion. The parable of the rich fool was spoken to the crowd, but this exhortation to freedom from care ( 22-31) is to the disciples. So the language in Lu 12:22 is precisely that in Mt 6:25 . See there for μη μεριμνατε (stop being anxious) and the deliberative subjunctive retained in the indirect question (φαγητε, ενδυσησθε). So verse 23 here is the same in Mt 6:25 except that there it is a question with ουχ expecting the affirmative answer, whereas here it is given as a reason (γαρ, for) for the preceding command.
The ravens (τους κορακας). Nowhere else in the N.T. The name includes the whole crow group of birds (rooks and jackdaws). Like the vultures they are scavengers. Mt 6:26 has simply "the birds" (τα πετεινα).
Of how much more (ποσω μαλλον). Mt 6:26 has question, ουχ μαλλον.
A cubit (πηχυν). Mt 6:27 has πηχυν ενα (one cubit, though ενα is sometimes merely the indefinite article.
Stature (ηλικιαν) as in Matthew, which see.
Not able to do even that which is least (ουδε ελαχιστον δυνασθε). Negative ουδε in the condition of the first class. Elative superlative, very small. This verse not in Matthew and omitted in D. Verse 27 as in Mt 6:28 , save that the verbs for toil and spin are plural in Matthew and singular here (neuter plural subject, τα κρινα).
Clothe (αμφιαζε). Late Greek verb in the Koine (papyri) for the older form αμφιεννυμ (Mt 6:30 ). See Matthew for discussion of details. Matthew has "the grass of the field" instead of "the grass in the field" as here.
Seek not ye (υμεις μη ζητειτε). Note emphatic position of "ye" (υμεις). Stop seeking (μη and present imperative active). Mt 6:31 has: "Do not become anxious" (μη μεριμνησητε), μη and ingressive subjunctive occur as direct questions (What are we to eat? What are we to drink? What are we to put on?) whereas here they are in the indirect form as in verse 22 save that the problem of clothing is not here mentioned:
Neither be ye of doubtful mind (κα μη μετεωριζεσθε). Μη and present passive imperative (stop being anxious) of μετεωριζω. An old verb from μετεωρος in midair, high (our meteor), to lift up on high, then to lift oneself up with hopes (false sometimes), to be buoyed up, to be tossed like a ship at sea, to be anxious, to be in doubt as in late writers (Polybius, Josephus). This last meaning is probably true here. In the LXX and Philo, but here only in the N.T.
See Mt 6:33 for this verse. Luke does not have "first" nor "his righteousness" nor "all."
Little flock (το μικρον ποιμνιον). Vocative with the article as used in Hebrew and often in the Koine and so in the N.T. See both πατερ and ο πατηρ in the vocative in Lu 10:21 . See Robertson, Grammar, pp. 465f. Ποιμνιον (flock) is a contraction from ποιμενιον from ποιμην (shepherd) instead of the usual ποιμνη (flock). So it is not a diminutive and μικρον is not superfluous, though it is pathetic.
For it is your Father's good pleasure (οτ ευδοκησεν ο πατηρ υμων). First aorist active indicative of ευδοκεω. Timeless aorist as in Lu 3:22 . This verse has no parallel in Matthew.
Sell that ye have (Πωλησατε τα υπαρχοντα υμων). Not in Matthew. Did Jesus mean this literally and always? Luke has been charged with Ebionism, but Jesus does not condemn property as inherently sinful. "The attempt to keep the letter of the rule here given (Ac 2:44,45 ) had disastrous effects on the church of Jerusalem, which speedily became a church of paupers, constantly in need of alms (Ro 15:25,26; 1Co 16:3; 2Co 8:4; 9:1 )" (Plummer).
Purses which wax not old (βαλλαντια μη παλαιουμενα). So already βαλλαντιον in Lu 10:4 . Late verb παλαιοω from παλαιος, old, to make old, declare old as in Heb 8:13 , is passive to become old as here and Heb 1:11 .
That faileth not (ανεκλειπτον). Verbal from α privative and εκλειπω, to fail. Late word in Diodorus and Plutarch. Only here in the N.T. or LXX, but in papyri. "I prefer to believe that even Luke sees in the words not a mechanical rule, but a law for the spirit" (Bruce).
Draweth near (εγγιζε). Instead of Mt 6:19 "dig through and steal."
Destroyeth (διαφθειρε). Instead of "doth consume" in Mt 6:19 .
Be girded about (εστωσαν περιεζωσμενα). Periphrastic perfect passive imperative third plural of the verb περιζωννυμ or περιζωννυω (later form), an old verb, to gird around, to fasten the garments with a girdle. The long garments of the orientals made speed difficult. It was important to use the girdle before starting. Cf. 17:8; Ac 12:8 .
Burning (καιομενο). Periphrastic present middle imperative, already burning and continuously burning. The same point of the Parable of the Ten Virgins (Mt 25:1-13 ) is found here in condensed form. This verse introduces the parable of the waiting servants (Lu 12:35-40 ).
When he shall return from the marriage feast (ποτε αναλυση εκ των γαμων). The interrogative conjunction ποτε and the deliberative aorist subjunctive retained in the indirect question. The verb αναλυω, very common Greek verb, but only twice in the N.T. (here and Php 1:23 ). The figure is breaking up a camp or loosening the mooring of a ship, to depart. Perhaps here the figure is from the standpoint of the wedding feast (plural as used of a single wedding feast in Lu 14:8 ), departing from there. See on Mt 22:2 .
When he cometh and knocketh (ελθοντος κα κρουσαντος). Genitive absolute of the aorist active participle without αυτου and in spite of αυτο (dative) being used after ανοιξωσιν (first aorist active subjunctive of ανοιγω).
He shall gird himself (περιζωσετα). Direct future middle. Jesus did this (Joh 13:4 ), not out of gratitude, but to give the apostles an object lesson in humility. See the usual course in Lu 17:7-10 with also the direct middle (verse 8) of περισωννυω.
And if (κ'αν = κα + εαν). Repeated. Ελθη and ευρη, both second aorist subjunctive with εαν, condition of the third class, undetermined, but with prospect of being determined.
Blessed (μακαριο). Beatitude here as in verse 37.
The thief (ο κλεπτης). The change here almost makes a new parable to illustrate the other, the parable of the housebreaking (verses 39,40 ) to illustrate the parable of the waiting servants ( 35-38). This same language appears in Mt 24:43f . "The Master returning from a wedding is replaced by a thief whose study it is to come to the house he means to plunder at an unexpected time" (Bruce). The parallel in Mt 24:43-51 with Lu 12:39-46 does not have the interruption by Peter.
He would have watched (εγρηγορησεν αν). Apodosis of second-class condition, determined as unfulfilled, made plain by use of αν with aorist indicative which is not repeated with ουκ αφηκεν (first aorist active indicative of αφιημ, κ aorist), though it is sometimes repeated (Mt 24:43 ).
Be ye (γινεσθε). Present middle imperative, keep on becoming.
Cometh (ερχετα). Futuristic present indicative. See Mt 24:43-51 for details in the comparison with Luke.
Peter said (Ειπεν δε ο Πετρος). This whole paragraph from verse 22-40 had been addressed directly to the disciples. Hence it is not surprising to find Peter putting in a question. This incident confirms also the impression that Luke is giving actual historical data in the environment of these discourses. He is certain that the Twelve are meant, but he desires to know if others are included, for he had spoken to the multitude in verses 13-21. Recall Mr 13:37 . This interruption is somewhat like that on the Mount of Transfiguration (Lu 9:33 ) and is characteristic of Peter. Was it the magnificent promise in verse 37 that stirred Peter's impulsiveness? It is certainly more than a literary device of Luke. Peter's question draws out a parabolic reply by Jesus ( 42-48).
Who then (τις αρα). Jesus introduces this parable of the wise steward ( 42-48) by a rhetorical question that answers itself. Peter is this wise steward, each of the Twelve is, anyone is who acts thus.
The faithful and wise steward (ο πιστος οικονομος ο φρονιμος). The faithful steward, the wise one. A steward is house manager (οικοσ, νεμω, to manage). Each man is a steward in his own responsibilities.
Household (θεραπειας). Literally, service from θεραπευω. medical service as in Lu 9:11 , by metonymy household (a body of those domestics who serve).
Their portion of food (το σιτομετριον). Late word from σιτομετρεω (Ge 47:12 ) for the Attic τον σιτον μετρεω, to measure the food, the rations. Here only in the N.T. or anywhere else till Deissmann (Bible Studies, p. 158) found it in an Egyptian papyrus and then an inscription in Lycia (Light from the Ancient East, p. 104).
Shall say (ειπη). Second aorist subjunctive, with εαν, condition of the third class, undetermined, but with prospect of being determined.
Delayeth (χρονιζε). From χρονος, time, spends time, lingers.
Shall begin (αρξητα). First aorist middle subjunctive with εαν and the same condition as ειπη, above.
The menservants (τους παιδας)
and the maidservants (κα τας παιδισκας). Παιδισκη is a diminutive of παις for a young female slave and occurs in the papyri, orginally just a damsel. Here παις can mean slave also though strictly just a boy.
Shall cut him asunder (διχοτομησε). An old and somewhat rare word from διχοτομος and that from διχα and τεμνω, to cut, to cut in two. Used literally here. In the N.T. only here and Mt 24:51 .
With the unfaithful (μετα των απιστων). Not here "the unbelieving" though that is a common meaning of απιστος (α privative and πιστος, from πειθω), but the unreliable, the untrustworthy. Here Mt 24:51 has "with the hypocrites," the same point. The parallel with Mt 24:43-51 ends here. Mt 24:51 adds the saying about the wailing and the gnashing of teeth. Clearly there Luke places the parable of the wise steward in this context while Matthew has it in the great eschatological discourse. Once again we must either think that Jesus repeated the parable or that one of the writers has misplaced it. Luke alone preserves what he gives in verses 47,48 .
Which knew (ο γνους). Articular participle (second aorist active, punctiliar and timeless). The one who knows. So as to μη ετοιμασας η ποιησας (does not make ready or do).
Shall be beaten with many stripes (δαρησετα πολλας). Second future passive of δερω, to skin, to beat, to flay (see on Mt 21:35; Mr 12:3,5 ). The passive voice retains here the accusative πολλας (supply πληγας, present in Lu 10:30 ). The same explanation applies to ολιγας in verse 48.
To whomsoever much is given (παντ δε ω εδοθη πολυ). Here is inverse attraction from ο to παντ (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 767f.). Note παρ' αυτου (from him) without any regard to παντ.
They commit (παρεθεντο). Second aorist middle indicative, timeless or gnomic aorist. Note the impersonal plural after the passive voice just before.
I came to cast fire (Πυρ ηλθον βαλειν). Suddenly Jesus lets the volcano in his own heart burst forth. The fire was already burning. "Christ came to set the world on fire, and the conflagration had already begun" (Plummer). The very passion in Christ's heart would set his friends on fire and his foes in opposition as we have just seen (Lu 11:53f. ). It is like the saying of Jesus that he came to bring not peace, but a sword, to bring cleavage among men (Mt 10:34-36 ).
And what will I, if it is already kindled? (κα τ θελω ε ηδη ανηφθη;). It is not clear what this passage means. Probably τ is be taken in the sense of "how" (πως). How I wish. Then ε can be taken as equal to οτ. How I wish that it were already kindled. Ανηφθη is first aorist passive of αναπτω, to set fire to, to kindle, to make blaze. Probably Luke means the conflagration to come by his death on the Cross for he changes the figure and refers to that more plainly.
I have a baptism (βαπτισμα δε εχω). Once again Jesus will call his baptism the baptism of blood and will challenge James and John to it (Mr 10:32f.; Mt 20:22f. ). So here. "Having used the metaphor of fire, Christ now uses the metaphor of water. The one sets forth the result of his coming as it affects the world, the other as it affects himself. The world is lit up with flames and Christ is bathed in blood" (Plummer).
And how I am straitened (κα πως συνεχομα). See this same vivid verb συνεχομα in Lu 8:37; Ac 18:5; Php 1:23 where Paul uses it of his desire for death just as Jesus does here. The urge of the Cross is upon Jesus at the moment of these words. We catch a glimpse of the tremendous passion in his soul that drove him on.
Till it be accomplished (εως οτου τελεσθη). First aorist passive subjunctive of τελεω with εως οτου (until which time), the common construction for the future with this conjunction.
But rather division (αλλ' η διαμερισμον). Peace at any price is not the purpose of Christ. It is a pity for family jars to come, but loyalty to Christ counts more than all else. These ringing words (Lu 12:51-53 ) occur in Mt 10:34-36 in the address to the Twelve for the Galilean tour. See discussion of details there. These family feuds are inevitable where only part cleave to Christ. In Matthew we have κατα with the genitive whereas in Luke it is επ with the dative (and accusative once).
To the multitudes also (κα τοις οχλοις). After the strong and stirring words just before with flash and force Jesus turns finally in this series of discourses to the multitudes again as in verse 15. There are similar sayings to these verses 54-59 in Mt 16:1f; 5:25f . There is a good deal of difference in phraseology whether that is due to difference of source or different use of the same source (Q or Logia) we do not know. Not all the old MSS. give Mt 16:2,3 . In Matthew the Pharisees and Sadducees were asking for a sign from heaven as they often did. These signs of the weather, "a shower" (ομβρος, Lu 12:54 ) due to clouds in the west, "a hot wave" (καυσων, verse 55) due to a south wind (νοτον) blowing, "fair weather" (ευδια, Mt 16:2 ) when the sky is red, are appealed to today. They have a more or less general application due to atmospheric and climatic conditions.
To interpret this time (τον καιρον τουτον δοκιμαζειν). To test δοκιμαζειν as spiritual chemists. No wonder that Jesus here calls them "hypocrites" because of their blindness when looking at and hearing him. So it is today with those who are willfully blind to the steps of God among men. This ignorance of the signs of the times is colossal.
Even of yourselves (κα αφ' εαυτων). Without the presence and teaching of Jesus they had light enough to tell what is right (το δικαιον) and so without excuse as Paul argued in Ro 1-3 .
Give diligence to be quit of him (δος εργασιαν απηλλαχθα απ' αυτου). Second aorist active imperative δος from διδωμ. Απηλλαχθα, perfect passive infinitive of απαλλασσω an old verb common, but only twice in the N.T. (here and Ac 19:12 ). Used here in a legal sense and the tense emphasizes a state of completion, to be rid of him for good.
Hale thee (κατασυρη). Drag down forcibly, old verb, only here in the N.T.
To the officer (τω πρακτορ). The doer, the proctor, the exactor of fines, the executor of punishment. Old word, only here in the N.T.
Till thou have paid (εως αποδωις). Second aorist active subjunctive of αποδιδωμ, to pay back in full.
|« Prev||Luke 12||Next »|
►Proofing disabled for this book
► Printer-friendly version