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Appointed (ανεδειξεν). First aorist active indicative of αναδεικνυμ, an old verb, not only common, but in LXX. In the N.T. only here and Ac 1:24 . Cf. αναδειξις in Lu 1:80 . To show forth, display, proclaim, appoint.
Seventy others (ετερους εβδομηκοντα κα). The "also" (κα) and the "others" point back to the mission of the Twelve in Galilee ( 9:1-6). Some critics think that Luke has confused this report of a mission in Judea with that in Galilee, but needlessly so. What earthly objection can there be to two similar missions? B D Syr. Cur. and Syr. Sin. have "seventy-two." The seventy elders were counted both ways and the Sanhedrin likewise and the nations of the earth. It is an evenly balanced point.
He himself was about to come (ημελλεν αυτος ερχεσθα). Imperfect of μελλω with present infinitive and note αυτος. Jesus was to follow after and investigate the work done. This was only a temporary appointment and no names are given, but they could cover a deal of territory.
Harvest (θερισμος). Late word for the older θερος, summer, harvest. The language in this verse is verbatim what we have in Mt 9:37,38 to the Twelve. Why not? The need is the same and prayer is the answer in each case. Prayer for preachers is Christ's method for increasing the supply.
As lambs (ως αρνας). Here again the same language as that in Mt 10:16 except that there "sheep" (προβατα) appears instead of "lambs." Pathetic picture of the risks of missionaries for Christ. They take their life in their hands.
Salute no man on the way (μηδενα κατα την οδον ασπασησθε). First aorist (ingressive) middle subjunctive with μηδενα. The peril of such wayside salutations was palaver and delay. The King's business required haste. Elisha's servant was not to tarry for salutations or salaams (2Ki 4:29 ). These oriental greetings were tedious, complicated, and often meddlesome if others were present or engaged in a bargain.
First say (πρωτον λεγετε). Say first. The adverb πρωτον can be construed with "enter" (εισελθητε), but probably with λεγετε is right. The word spoken is the usual oriental salutation.
A son of peace (υιος ειρηνης). A Hebraism, though some examples occur in the vernacular Koine papyri. It means one inclined to peace, describing the head of the household.
Shall rest (επαναπαησετα). Second future passive of επαναπαυω, a late double compound (επι, ανα) of the common verb παυω.
It shall turn to you again (εφ' υμας ανακαμψε). Common verb ανακαμπτω, to bend back, return. The peace in that case will bend back with blessing upon the one who spoke it.
In that same house (εν αυτη τη οικια). Literally, in the house itself, not "in the same house" (εν τη αυτη οικια), a different construction. A free rendering of the common Lukan idiom is, "in that very house."
Eating (εσθοντες). An old poetic verb εσθω for εσθιω that survives in late Greek.
Such things as they give (τα παρ' αυτων). "The things from them."
For the labourer is worthy of his hire (αξιος γαρ ο εργατης του μισθου αυτου). In Mt 10:10 we have της τροφης αυτου (his food). 1Ti 5:18 has this saying quoted as scripture. That is not impossible if Luke wrote by A.D. 62. Paul there however may quote only De 25:4 as scripture and get this quotation either from Lu 10:7 or from a proverbial saying of Jesus. It is certainly not a real objection against the Pauline authorship of First Timothy.
Go not from house to house (μη μεταβαινετε εξ οικιας εις οικιαν). As a habit, μη and the present imperative, and so avoid waste of time with such rounds of invitations as would come.
Such things as are set before you (τα παρατιθεμενα υμιν). The things placed before you from time to time (present passive participle, repetition). Every preacher needs this lesson of common politeness. These directions may seem perfunctory and even commonplace, but every teacher of young preachers knows how necessary they are. Hence they were given both to the Twelve and to the Seventy.
Into the streets thereof (εις τας πλατειας αυτης). Out of the inhospitable houses into the broad open streets.
Cleaveth (κολληθεντα). First aorist passive participle of κολλαω, to cling as dust and mud do to shoes. Hence the orientals took off the sandals on entering a house.
Against you (Hυμιν). Fine example of the dative of disadvantage (the case of personal interest, the dative).
Would have repented (αν μετενοησαν). Conclusion (apodosis) of second-class condition, determined as unfulfilled.
Long ago (παλα). Implies a considerable ministry in these cities of which we are not told. Chorazin not mentioned save here and Mt 11:21 . Perhaps Καραζε near Tell Hum (Capernaum).
Sitting in sackcloth and ashes (εν σακκω κα σποδο καθημενο). Pictorial and graphic. The σακκος (sackcloth) was dark coarse cloth made of goat's hair and worn by penitents, mourners, suppliants. It is a Hebrew word, sag. The rough cloth was used for sacks or bags. To cover oneself with ashes was a mode of punishment as well as of voluntary humiliation.
Shalt thou be exalted? (μη υψωθησηι;). Μη expects the answer No. The verb is future passive indicative second singular of υψοω, to lift up, a late verb from υψος, height. It is used by Jesus of the Cross (Joh 12:32 ).
Unto Hades (εως Hαιδου). See on Mt 16:18 for this word which is here in contrast to Heaven as in Isa 14:13-15 . Hades is not Gehenna. "The desolation of the whole neighbourhood, and the difficulty of identifying even the site of these flourishing towns, is part of the fulfilment of this prophecy" (Plummer). Ragg notes the omission of Nazareth from this list of cities of neglected privilege and opportunity. "Is it the tender memories of boyhood that keep from His lips the name of the arch-rejector ( 4:28 sqq.) Nazareth?"
Rejecteth him that sent me (αθετε τον αποστειλαντα με). These solemn words form a fit close for this discourse to the Seventy. The fate of Chorazin, Bethsaida, Capernaum will befall those who set aside (α privative and θετεω, from τιθημ) the mission and message of these messengers of Christ. See this verb used in 7:30 of the attitude of the scribes and Pharisees toward John and Jesus. It is this thought that makes it so grave a responsibility to be co-with Christ, high privilege as it is (Joh 9:4 ).
Returned with joy (υπεστρεψαν μετα χαρας). They had profited by the directions of Jesus. Joy overflows their faces and their words.
Even the demons (κα τα δαιμονια). This was a real test. The Twelve had been expressly endowed with this power when they were sent out (Lu 9:1 ), but the Seventy were only told to heal the sick ( 10:9). It was better than they expected. The Gospel worked wonders and they were happy. The demons were merely one sign of the conflict between Christ and Satan. Every preacher has to grapple with demons in his work.
Are subject (υποτασσετα). Present passive indicative (repetition).
I beheld Satan fallen (εθεωρουν τον Σαταναν πεσοντα). Imperfect active (I was beholding) and second aorist (constative) active participle of πιπτω (not
fallen , πεπτωκοτα, perfect active participle, nor
falling , πιπτοντα, present active participle, but
fall , πεσοντα). As a flash of lightning out of heaven, quick and startling, so the victory of the Seventy over the demons, the agents of Satan, forecast his downfall and Jesus in vision pictured it as a flash of lightning.
And over all the power of the enemy (κα επ πασαν την δυναμιν του εχθρου). This is the heart of "the authority" (την εξουσιαν) here given by Jesus which is far beyond their expectations. The victory over demons was one phase of it. The power to tread upon serpents is repeated in Mr 16:18 (the Appendix) and exemplified in Paul's case in Malta (Ac 28:3-5 ). But protection from physical harm is not the main point in this struggle with Satan "the enemy" (Mt 13:25; Ro 16:20; 1Pe 5:8 ).
Nothing shall in any wise hurt you (ουδεν υμας ου μη αδικησε). Text has future active indicative, while some MSS. read αδικηση, aorist active subjunctive of αδικεω, common verb from αδικος (α privative and δικος), to suffer wrong, to do wrong. The triple negative here is very strong. Certainly Jesus does not mean this promise to create presumption or foolhardiness for he repelled the enemy's suggestion on the pinnacle of the temple.
Are written (ενγεγραπτα). Perfect passive indicative, state of completion, stand written, enrolled or engraved, from ενγραφω, common verb. "As citizens possessing the full privileges of the commonwealth" (Plummer).
In that same hour (εν αυτη τη ωρα). Literally, "at the hour itself," almost a demonstrative use of αυτος (Robertson, Grammar, p. 686) and in Luke alone in the N.T. (2:38; 10:21; 12:12; 20:19 ). Mt 11:25 uses the demonstrative here, "at that time" (εν εκεινω τω καιρω).
Rejoiced in the Holy Spirit (ηγαλλιασατο τω πνευματ τω αγιω). First aorist middle of the late verb αγαλλιαω for αγαλλω, to exult. Always in the middle in the N.T. save Lu 1:47 in Mary's Magnificat. This holy joy of Jesus was directly due to the Holy Spirit. It is joy in the work of his followers, their victories over Satan, and is akin to the joy felt by Jesus in Joh 4:32-38 when the vision of the harvest of the world stirred his heart. The rest of this verse is precisely like Mt 11:25f. , a peculiarly Johannine passage in Matthew and Luke, but not in Mark, and so from Q (the Logia of Jesus). It has disturbed critics who are unwilling to admit the Johannine style and type of teaching as genuine, but here it is. See on Matthew for discussion. "That God had proved his independence of the human intellect is a matter for thankfulness. Intellectual gifts, so far from being necessary, are often a hindrance" (Plummer).
Knoweth who the Son is (γινωσκε τις εστιν ο υιος). Knows by experience, γινωσκε. Here Mt 11:27 has επιγινωσκε (fully knows) and simply τον υιον (the Son) instead of the "who" (τις) clause. So also in "who the Father is" (τις εστιν ο πατερ). But the same use and contrast of "the Father," "the Son." in both Matthew and Luke, "an aerolite from the Johannean heaven" (Hase). No sane criticism can get rid of this Johannine bit in these Gospels written long before the Fourth Gospel was composed. We are dealing here with the oldest known document about Christ (the Logia) and the picture is that drawn in the Fourth Gospel (see my The Christ of the Logia). It is idle to try to whittle away by fantastic exegesis the high claims made by Jesus in this passage. It is an ecstatic prayer in the presence of the Seventy under the rapture of the Holy Spirit on terms of perfect equality and understanding between the Father and the Son in the tone of the priestly prayer in Joh 17 . We are justified in saying that this prayer of supreme Fellowship with the Father in contemplation of final victory over Satan gives us a glimpse of the prayers with the Father when the Son spent whole nights on the mountain alone with the Father. Here is the Messianic consciousness in complete control and with perfect confidence in the outcome. Here as in Mt 11:27 by the use of
willeth to reveal him (βουλητα αποκαλυψα). The Son claims the power to reveal the Father "to whomsoever he wills" (ω αν βουλητα, indefinite relative and present subjunctive of βουλομα, to will, not the future indicative). This is divine sovereignty most assuredly. Human free agency is also true, but it is full divine sovereignty in salvation that is here claimed along with possession (παρεδοθη, timeless aorist passive indicative) of all power from the Father. Let that supreme claim stand.
Turning to the disciples (στραφεις προς τους μαθητας). Second aorist passive of στρεφω as in 9:55. The prayer was a soliloquy though uttered in the presence of the Seventy on their return. Now Jesus turned and spoke "privately" or to the disciples (the Twelve, apparently), whether on this same occasion or a bit later.
Which ye see (α υμεις βλεπετε). The expression of υμεις makes "ye" very emphatic in contrast with the prophets and kings of former days.
And tempted him (εκπειραζων αυτον). Present active participle, conative idea, trying to tempt him. There is no "and" in the Greek. He "stood up (ανεστη, ingressive second aorist active) trying to tempt him." Πειραζω is a late form of πειραω and εκπειραζω apparently only in the LXX, and N.T. (quoted by Jesus from De 6:16 in Mt 4:7; Lu 4:12 against Satan). Here and 1Co 10:9 . The spirit of this lawyer was evil. He wanted to entrap Jesus if possible.
What shall I do to inherit eternal life? (Τ ποιησας ζωην αιωνιου κληρονομησω;). Literally, "By doing what shall I inherit eternal life?" Note the emphasis on "doing" (ποιησας). The form of his question shows a wrong idea as to how to get it.
How readest thou? (πως αναγινωσκεισ;). As a lawyer it was his business to know the facts in the law and the proper interpretation of the law. See on Lu 7:30 about νομικος (lawyer). The rabbis had a formula, "What readest thou?"
And he answering (ο δε αποκριθεις). First aorist participle, no longer passive in idea. The lawyer's answer is first from the Shema (De 6:3; 11:13 ) which was written on the phylacteries. The second part is from Le 19:18 and shows that the lawyer knew the law. At a later time Jesus himself in the temple gives a like summary of the law to a lawyer (Mr 12:28-34; Mt 22:34-40 ) who wanted to catch Jesus by his question. There is no difficulty in the two incidents. God is to be loved with all of man's four powers (heart, soul, strength, mind) here as in Mr 12:30 .
Thou hast answered right (ορθως απεκριθης). First aorist passive indicative second singular with the adverb ορθως. The answer was correct so far as the words went. In Mr 12:34 Jesus commends the scribe for agreeing to his interpretation of the first and the second commandments. That scribe was "not far from the kingdom of God," but this lawyer was "tempting" Jesus.
Do this and thou shalt live (τουτο ποιε κα ζηση). Present imperative (keep on doing this forever) and the future indicative middle as a natural result. There was only one trouble with the lawyer's answer. No one ever did or ever can "do" what the law lays down towards God and man always. To slip once is to fail. So Jesus put the problem squarely up to the lawyer who wanted to know
by doing what . Of course, if he kept the law
perfectly always , he would inherit eternal life.
Desiring to justify himself (θελων δικαιωσα εαυτον). The lawyer saw at once that he had convicted himself of asking a question that he already knew. In his embarrassment he asks another question to show that he did have some point at first:
And who is my neighbour? (κα τις εστιν μου πλησιον;). The Jews split hairs over this question and excluded from "neighbour" Gentiles and especially Samaritans. So here was his loop-hole. A neighbour is a nigh dweller to one, but the Jews made racial exceptions as many, alas, do today. The word πλησιον here is an adverb (neuter of the adjective πλησιος) meaning ο πλησιον ων (the one who is near), but ων was usually not expressed and the adverb is here used as if a substantive.
Made answer (υπολαβων). Second aorist active participle of υπολαμβανω (see 7:43), to take up literally, and then in thought and speech, old verb, but in this sense of interrupting in talk only in the N.T.
Was going down (κατεβαινεν). Imperfect active describing the journey.
Fell among robbers (ληισταις περιεπεσεν). Second aorist ingressive active indicative of περιπιπτω, old verb with associative instrumental case, to fall among and to be encompassed by (περ, around), to be surrounded by robbers. A common experience to this day on the road to Jericho. The Romans placed a fort on this "red and bloody way." These were bandits, not petty thieves.
Stripped (εκδυσαντες). Of his clothing as well as of his money, the meanest sort of robbers.
Beat him (πληγας επιθεντες). Second aorist active participle of επιτιθημ, a common verb. Literally, "placing strokes or blows" (πληγας, plagues) upon him. See Lu 12:48; Ac 16:23; Re 15:1,6,8 for "plagues."
Half-dead (ημιθανη). Late word from ημ, half, and θνησκω, to die. Only here in the N.T. Vivid picture of the robbery.
By chance (κατα συγκυριαν). Here only in the N.T., meaning rather, "by way of coincidence." It is a rare word elsewhere and in late writers like Hippocrates. It is from the verb συγκυρεω, though συγκυρησις is more common.
Was going down (κατεβαινεν). Imperfect active as in verse 30. Passed by on the other side (αντιπαρηλθεν). Second aorist active indicative of αντιπαρερχομα, a late double compound here (verses 31,32 ) only in the N.T., but in the papyri and late writers. It is the ingressive aorist (ηλθεν), came alongside (παρα), and then he stepped over to the opposite side (αντ) of the road to avoid ceremonial contamination with a stranger. A vivid and powerful picture of the vice of Jewish ceremonial cleanliness at the cost of moral principle and duty. The Levite in verse 32 behaved precisely as the priest had done and for the same reason.
A certain Samaritan (Σαμαρειτης δε τις). Of all men in the world to do a neighbourly act!
As he journeyed (οδευων). Making his way.
Came where he was (ηλθεν κατ' αυτον). Literally, "came down upon him." He did not sidestep or dodge him, but had compassion on him.
Bound up his wounds (κατεδησεν τα τραυματα). First aorist active indicative of καταδεω, old verb, but here only in the N.T. The verb means "bound down." We say "bind up." Medical detail that interested Luke. The word for "wounds" (τραυματα) here only in the N.T.
Pouring on them oil and wine (επιχεων ελαιον κα οινον). Old verb again, but here only in the N.T. Oil and wine were household remedies even for wounds (soothing oil, antiseptic alcohol). Hippocrates prescribed for ulcers: "Bind with soft wool, and sprinkle with wine and oil."
Beast (κτηνος). Old word from κταομα, to acquire, and so property (κτημα) especially cattle or any beast of burden.
An inn (πανδοχειον). The old Attic form was πανδοκειον (from παν, all, and δεχομα, to receive). A public place for receiving all comers and a more pretentious caravanserai than a καταλυμα like that in Lu 2:7 . Here only in the N.T. There are ruins of two inns about halfway between Bethany and Jericho.
Took out (εκβαλων). Second aorist active participle of εκβαλλω. It could mean, "fling out," but probably only means "drew out." Common verb.
Two pence (δυο δηναρια). About thirty-five cents, but worth more in purchasing power.
To the host (τω πανδοχε). The innkeeper. Here only in the N.T.
Whatsoever thou spendest more (οτ αν προσδαπανησηις). Indefinite relative clause with αν and the aorist active subjunctive of προσδαπαναω, to spend besides (προς), a late verb for the common προσαναλισκω and here only in the N.T.
I will repay (εγο αποδωσω). Emphatic. What he had paid was merely by way of pledge. He was a man of his word and known to the innkeeper as reliable.
When I come back again (εν τω επανερχεσθα με). Luke's favourite idiom of εν and the articular infinitive with accusative of general reference. Double compound verb επανερχομα.
Proved neighbour to him that fell (πλησιον γεγονενα του εμπεσοντος). Second perfect infinitive of γινομα and second aorist active participle of εμπιπτω. Objective genitive, became neighbour to the one, etc. Jesus has changed the lawyer's standpoint and has put it up to him to decide which of "these three" (τουτων των τριων, priest, Levite, Samaritan) acted like a neighbour to the wounded man.
On him (μετ' αυτου). With him, more exactly. The lawyer saw the point and gave the correct answer, but he gulped at the word "Samaritan" and refused to say that.
Do thou (συ ποιε). Emphasis on "thou." Would this Jewish lawyer act the neighbour to a Samaritan? This parable of the Good Samaritan has built the world's hospitals and, if understood and practised, will remove race prejudice, national hatred and war, class jealousy.
Now as they went on their way (ην δε τω πορευεσθα αυτους). Luke's favourite temporal clause again as in verse 35.
Received him into her house (υπεδεξατο αυτον εις την οικιαν). Aorist middle indicative of υποδεχομα, an old verb to welcome as a guest (in the N.T. only here and Lu 19:6; Ac 17:7; Jas 2:25 ). Martha is clearly the mistress of the home and is probably the elder sister. There is no evidence that she was the wife of Simon the leper (Joh 12:1f. ). It is curious that in an old cemetery at Bethany the names of Martha, Eleazar, and Simon have been found.
Which also sat (η κα παρακαθεσθεισα). First aorist passive participle of παρακαθεζομα, an old verb, but only here in the N.T. It means to sit beside (παρα) and προς means right in front of the feet of Jesus. It is not clear what the point is in κα here. It may mean that Martha loved to sit here also as well as Mary.
Heard (ηκουεν). Imperfect active. She took her seat by the feet of Jesus and went on listening to his talk.
Was cumbered (περιεσπατο). Imperfect passive of περισπαω, an old verb with vivid metaphor, to draw around. One has sometimes seen women whose faces are literally drawn round with anxiety, with a permanent twist, distracted in mind and in looks.
She came up to him (επιστασα). Second aorist active participle of εφιστημ, an old verb to place upon, but in the N.T. only in the middle voice or the intransitive tenses of the active (perfect and second aorist as here). It is the ingressive aorist here and really means. stepping up to or bursting in or upon Jesus. It is an explosive act as is the speech of Martha.
Dost thou not care (ου μελε σο). This was a reproach to Jesus for monopolizing Mary to Martha's hurt.
Did leave me (με κατελειπεν). Imperfect active, she kept on leaving me.
Bid her (ειπον αυτη). Late form instead of ειπε, second aorist active imperative, common in the papyri. Martha feels that Jesus is the key to Mary's help.
That she help me (ινα μο συναντιλαβητα). Sub-final use of ινα with second aorist middle subjunctive of συναντιλαμβανομα, a double compound verb (συν, with, αντ, at her end of the line, and λαμβανομα, middle voice of λαμβανω, to take hold), a late compound appearing in the LXX, Diodorus and Josephus. Deissmann (Light from the Ancient East, p. 87) finds it in many widely scattered inscriptions "throughout the whole extent of the Hellenistic world of the Mediterranean." It appears only twice in the N.T. (here and Ro 8:26 ). It is a beautiful word, to take hold oneself (middle voice) at his end of the task (αντ) together with (συν) one.
Art anxious (μεριμναις). An old verb for worry and anxiety from μεριζω (μερις, part) to be divided, distracted. Jesus had warned against this in the Sermon on the Mount (Mt 6:25,28,31,34 . See also Lu 12:11,22,26 ).
And troubled (κα θορυβαζη). From θορυβαζομα, a verb found nowhere else so far. Many MSS. here have the usual form τυρβαζη, from τυρβαζω. Apparently from θορυβος, a common enough word for tumult. Martha had both inward anxiety and outward agitation.
But one thing is needful (ενος δε εστιν χρεια). This is the reading of A C and may be correct. A few manuscripts have: "There is need of few things." Aleph B L (and Westcott and Hort) have: "There is need of few things or one," which seems like a conflate reading though the readings are all old. See Robertson, Introduction to Textual Criticism of the N.T., p. 190. Jesus seems to say to Martha that only one dish was really necessary for the meal instead of the "many" about which she was so anxious.
The good portion (την αγαθην μεριδα). The best dish on the table, fellowship with Jesus. This is the spiritual application of the metaphor of the dishes on the table. Salvation is not "the good portion" for Martha had that also.
From her (αυτης). Ablative case after αφαιρηθησετα (future passive indicative). Jesus pointedly takes Mary's side against Martha's fussiness.
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