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Now in the fifteenth year (εν ετε δε πεντεκαιδεκατω). Tiberius Caesar was ruler in the provinces two years before Augustus Caesar died. Luke makes a six-fold attempt here to indicate the time when John the Baptist began his ministry. John revived the function of the prophet (Εχχε Hομο, p. 2) and it was a momentous event after centuries of prophetic silence. Luke begins with the Roman Emperor, then mentions Pontius Pilate Procurator of Judea, Herod Antipas Tetrarch of Galilee (and Perea), Philip, Tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis, Lysanias, Tetrarch of Abilene (all with the genitive absolute construction) and concludes with the high-priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas (son-in-law and successor of Annas). The ancients did not have our modern system of chronology, the names of rulers as here being the common way. Objection has been made to the mention of Lysanias here because Josephus (Ant. XXVII. I) tells of a Lysanias who was King of Abila up to B.C. 36 as the one referred to by Luke with the wrong date. But an inscription has been found on the site of Abilene with mention of "Lysanias the tetrarch" and at the time to which Luke refers (see my Luke the Historian in the Light of Research, pp. 167f.). So Luke is vindicated again by the rocks.
The Word of God came unto John (εγενετο ρημα θεου επ Ιωανην). The great epoch marked by εγενετο rather than ην. Ρημα θεου is some particular utterance of God (Plummer), common in LXX, here alone in the N.T. Then John is introduced as the son of Zacharias according to Chapter 1. Matthew describes him as the Baptist, Mark as the Baptizer. No other Gospel mentions Zacharias. Mark begins his Gospel here, but Matthew and Luke have two Infancy Chapters before. Luke alone tells of the coming of the word to John. All three Synoptics locate him "in the wilderness" (εν τη ερημω) as here, Mr 1:4; Mt 3:1 (adding "of Judea").
All the region round about Jordan (πασαν περιχωρον του Ιορδανου). The wilderness was John's abode ( 1:80) so that he began preaching where he was. It was the plain (Ge 13:10f. ) or valley of the Jordan, El Ghor, as far north as Succoth (2Ch 4:17 ). Sometimes he was on the eastern bank of the Jordan (Joh 10:40 ), though usually on the west side. His baptizing kept him near the river.
The baptism of repentance unto remission of sins (βαπτισμα μετανοιας εις αφεσιν αμαρτιων). The same phrase as in Mr 1:4 , which see for discussion of these important words. The word remission (αφεσις) "occurs in Luke more frequently than in all the other New Testament writers combined" (Vincent). In medical writers it is used for the relaxing of disease.
As it is written (ως γεγραπτα). The regular formula for quotation, perfect passive indicative of γραφω.
Isaiah the prophet (Εσαιου του προφητου). The same phrase in Mr 1:2 (correct text) and Mt 3:3 . Mark, as we have seen, adds a quotation from Mal 3:1 and Luke gives verses 4 and 5 of Isa. 40 not in Matthew or Mark (Lu 3:5,6 ). See Mt 3:3; Mr 1:3 for discussion of Luke 4:4.
Valley (φαραγξ). Here only in the N.T., though in the LXX and ancient Greek. It is a ravine or valley hedged in by precipices.
Shall be filled (πληρωθησετα). Future passive indicative of πληροω. In 1845 when the Sultan visited Brusa the inhabitants were called out to clear the roads of rocks and to fill up the hollows. Oriental monarchs often did this very thing. A royal courier would go ahead to issue the call. So the Messiah sends his herald (John) before him to prepare the way for him. Isaiah described the preparation for the Lord's triumphal march and John used it with great force.
Hill (βουνος). Called a Cyrenaic word by Herodotus, but later Greek writers use it as does the LXX.
Brought low (ταπεινωθησετα). Future passive indicative of ταπεινοω. Literal meaning here of a verb common in the metaphorical sense.
Crooked (σκολια). Common word, curved, opposite of ορθος or ευθυς, straight.
All flesh (πασα σαρξ). Used in the N.T. of the human race alone, though in the LXX brutes are included.
The salvation of God (το σοτηριον του θεου). The saving act of God. This phrase aptly describes Luke's Gospel which has in mind the message of Christ for all men. It is the universal Gospel.
To the multitude that went out (τοις εξπορευομενοις οχλοις). Plural,
Multitudes . The present participle also notes the repetition of the crowds as does ελεγεν (imperfect), he used to say. Mt 3:7-10 singles out the message of John to the Pharisees and Sadducees, which see for discussion of details. Luke gives a summary of his preaching to the crowds with special replies to these inquiries: the multitudes, 10,11 , the publicans 12,13 , the soldiers 14.
To be baptized of him (βαπτισθηνα υπ' αυτου). This is the purpose of their coming. Mt 3:7 has simply "to his baptism." John's metaphors are from the wilderness (vipers, fruits, axe, slave boy loosing sandals, fire, fan, thrashing-floor, garner, chaff, stones).
Who warned you? (τις επεδειξεν υμιν;). The verb is like our "suggest" by proof to eye, ear, or brain (Lu 6:47; 12:5; Ac 9:16; 20:35; Mt 3:7 ). Nowhere else in the N.T. though common ancient word (υποδεικνυμ, show under, point out, give a tip or private hint).
Asked (επηρωτων). Imperfect tense, repeatedly asked.
What then must we do? (τ ουν ποιησωμεν;). Deliberative aorist subjunctive. More exactly,
What then are we to do ,
Coats (χιτωνας). The inner and less necessary undergarment. The outer indispensable ιματιον is not mentioned. Note the specific and different message to each class. John puts his finger on the weaknesses of the people right before him.
Also publicans (κα τελωνα). We have had the word already in Matthew (Mt 5:46; 9:10; 11:19; 18:17; 21:31f. ) and Mark (Mr 11:15f. ). It is sometimes coupled with harlots and other sinners, the outcasts of society. The word is made up from τελος, tax, and ωνεομα, to buy, and is an old one. The renter or collector of taxes was not popular anywhere, but least of all when a Jew collected taxes for the Romans and did it by terrible graft and extortions.
Extort (πρασσετε). The verb means only to do or practice, but early the tax-collectors learned how to "do" the public as regular "blood-suckers." Lucian links them with crows and sycophants.
Soldiers also (κα στρατευομενο). Men on service, militantes rather than milites (Plummer). So Paul in 2Ti 2:4 . An old word like στρατιωτης, soldier. Some of these soldiers acted as police to help the publicans. But they were often rough and cruel.
Do violence to no man (μηδενα διασεισητε). Here only in the N.T., but in the LXX and common in ancient Greek. It means to shake (seismic disturbance, earthquake) thoroughly (δια) and so thoroughly to terrify, to extort money or property by intimidating (3Macc. 7:21). The Latin employs concutere, so. It was a process of blackmail to which Socrates refers (Xenophon, Memorabilia, ii. 9,1). This was a constant temptation to soldiers. Might does not make right with Jesus.
Neither exact anything wrongfully (μηδε συκοφαντησητε). In Athens those whose business it was to inform against any one whom they might find exporting figs out of Attica were called fig-showers or sycophants (συκοφαντα). From συκον, fig, and φαινω, show. Some modern scholars reject this explanation since no actual examples of the word meaning merely a fig-shower have been found. But without this view it is all conjectural. From the time of Aristophanes on it was used for any malignant informer or calumniator. These soldiers were tempted to obtain money by informing against the rich, blackmail again. So the word comes to mean to accuse falsely. The sycophants came to be a regular class of informers or slanderers in Athens. Socrates is quoted by Xenophon as actually advising Crito to employ one in self-defence, like the modern way of using one gunman against another. Demosthenes pictures a sycophant as one who "glides about the market like a scorpion, with his venomous sting all ready, spying out whom he may surprise with misfortune and ruin and from whom he can most easily extort money, by threatening him with an action dangerous in its consequences" (quoted by Vincent). The word occurs only in Luke in the N.T., here and in Lu 19:8 in the confession of Zaccheus. It occurs in the LXX and often in the old Greek.
Be content with your wages (αρκεισθε τοις οψωνιοις υμων). Discontent with wages was a complaint of mercenary soldiers. This word for wages was originally anything cooked (οψον, cooked food), and bought (from ωνεομα, to buy). Hence, "rations," "pay," wages. Οψαριον, diminutive of οψον, was anything eaten with bread like broiled fish. So οψωνιον comes to mean whatever is bought to be eaten with bread and then a soldier's pay or allowance (Polybius, and other late Greek writers) as in 1Co 9:7 . Paul uses the singular of a preacher's pay (2Co 11:8 ) and the plural of the wages of sin (Ro 6:23 ) = death (death is the diet of sin).
Were in expectation (προσδοκωντος). Genitive absolute of this striking verb already seen in 1:21.
Reasoned (διαλογιζομενων). Genitive absolute again. John's preaching about the Messiah and the kingdom of God stirred the people deeply and set them to wondering.
Whether haply he were the Christ (μηποτε αυτος ειη ο Χριστος). Optative ειη in indirect question changed from the indicative in the direct (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1031). John wrought no miracles and was not in David's line and yet he moved people so mightily that they began to suspect that he himself (αυτος) was the Messiah. The Sanhedrin will one day send a formal committee to ask him this direct question (Joh 1:19 ).
He that is mightier than I (ο ισχυροτερος μου). Like Mr 1:7 , "the one mightier than I." Ablative case (μου) of comparison. John would not turn aside for the flattery of the crowd. He was able to take his own measure in comparison with the Messiah and was loyal to him (see my John the Loyal). Compare Lu 3:16 with Mr 1:7f. and Mt 3:11f. for discussion of details. Luke has "fire" here after "baptize with the Holy Ghost" as Mt 3:11 , which see. This bold Messianic picture in the Synoptic Gospels shows that John saw the Messiah's coming as a judgment upon the world like fire and the fan of the thrashing-floor, and with unquenchable fire for the chaff (Lu 3:17; Mt 3:12 ). But he had the spiritual conception also, the baptism in the Holy Spirit which will characterize the Messiah's Mission and so will far transcend the water baptism which marked the ministry of John.
Many other exhortations (πολλα μεν ουν κα ετερα). Literally, many and different things did John εςανγελιζε, ευαγγελιζετο, to the people. Luke has given a bare sample of the wonderful messages of the Baptist. Few as his words preserved are they give a definite and powerful conception of his preaching.
Reproved (ελεγχομενος). Present passive participle of ελεγχω, an old verb meaning in Homer to treat with contempt, then to convict (Mt 18:15 ), to expose (Eph 5:11 ), to reprove as here. The substantive ελεγχος means proof (Heb 11:1 ) and ελεγμος, censure (2Ti 3:16 ). Josephus (Ant. XVIII. V.4) shows how repulsive this marriage was to Jewish feeling.
Evil things (πονηρων). Incorporated into the relative sentence. The word is from πονοσ, πονεω, toil, work, and gives the active side of evil, possibly with the notion of work itself as evil or at least an annoyance. The "evil eye" (οφθαλμος πονηρος in Mr 7:22 ) was a "mischief working eye" (Vincent). In Mt 6:23 it is a diseased eye. So Satan is "the evil one" (Mt 5:37; 6:13 , etc.). It is a very common adjective in the N.T. as in the older Greek.
Had done (εποιησεν). Aorist active indicative, not past perfect, merely a summary constative aorist,
he did .
Added (προσεθηκεν). First aorist active indicative (kappa aorist). Common verb (προστιθημ) in all Greek. In N.T. chiefly in Luke and Acts. Hippocrates used it of applying wet sponges to the head and Galen of applying a decoction of acorns. There is no evidence that Luke has a medical turn to the word here. The absence of the conjunction οτ (that) before the next verb κατεκλεισεν (shut up) is asyndeton. This verb literally means
shut down , possibly with a reference to closing down the door of the dungeon, though it makes sense as a perfective use of the preposition, like our "shut up" without a strict regard to the idea of "down." It is an old and common verb, though here and Ac 26:10 only in the N.T. See Mt 14:3 for further statement about the prison.
When all the people were baptised (εν τω βαπτισθηνα απαντα τον λαον). The use of the articular aorist infinitive here with εν bothers some grammarians and commentators. There is no element of time in the aorist infinitive. It is simply punctiliar action, literally "in the being baptized as to all the people." Luke does not say that all the people were baptized before Jesus came or were baptized at the same time. It is merely a general statement that Jesus was baptized in connexion with or at the time of the baptizing of the people as a whole.
Jesus also having been baptized (κα Ιησου βαπτισθεντος). Genitive absolute construction, first aorist passive participle. In Luke's sentence the baptism of Jesus is merely introductory to the descent of the Holy Spirit and the voice of the Father. For the narrative of the baptism see Mr 1:9; Mt 3:13-16 .
And praying (κα προσευχομενου). Alone in Luke who so often mentions the praying of Jesus. Present participle and so naturally meaning that the heaven was opened while Jesus was praying though not necessarily in answer to his prayer.
The heaven was opened (ανεωιχθηνα τον ουρανον). First aorist passive infinitive with double augment, whereas the infinitive is not supposed to have any augment. The regular form would be ανοιχθηνα as in D (Codex Bezae). So the augment appears in the future indicative κατεαξε (Mt 12:20 ) and the second aorist passive subjunctive κατεαγωσιν (Joh 19:31 ). Such unusual forms appear in the Koine. This infinitive here with the accusative of general reference is the subject of εγενετο (it came to pass). Mt 3:16 uses the same verb, but Mr 1:10 has σχιζομενους, rent asunder.
Descended (καταβηνα). Same construction as the preceding infinitive.
In a bodily form (σωματικω ειδε). Alone in Luke who has also "as a dove" (ως περιστεραν) like Matthew and Mark. This probably means that the Baptist saw the vision that looked like a dove. Nothing is gained by denying the fact or possibility of the vision that looked like a dove. God manifests his power as he will. The symbolism of the dove for the Holy Spirit is intelligible. We are not to understand that this was the beginning of the Incarnation of Christ as the Cerinthian Gnostics held. But this fresh influx of the Holy Spirit may have deepened the Messianic consciousness of Jesus and certainly revealed him to the Baptist as God's Son.
And a voice came out of heaven (κα φωνην εξ ουρανου γενεσθα). Same construction of infinitive with accusative of general reference. The voice of the Father to the Son is given here as in Mr 1:11 , which see, and Mt 3:17 for discussion of the variation there. The Trinity here manifest themselves at the baptism of Jesus which constitutes the formal entrance of Jesus upon his Messianic ministry. He enters upon it with the Father's blessing and approval and with the power of the Holy Spirit upon him. The deity of Christ here appears in plain form in the Synoptic Gospels. The consciousness of Christ is as clear on this point here as in the Gospel of John where the Baptist describes him after his baptism as the Son of God (Joh 1:34 ).
Jesus Himself (αυτος Ιησους). Emphatic intensive pronoun calling attention to the personality of Jesus at this juncture. When he entered upon his Messianic work.
When he began to teach (αρχομενος). The words "to teach" are not in the Greek text. The Authorized Version "began to be about thirty years of age," is an impossible translation. The Revised Version rightly supplies "to teach" (διδασκειν) after the present participle αρχομενος. Either the infinitive or the participle can follow αρχομα, usually the infinitive in the Koine. It is not necessary to supply anything (Ac 1:22 ).
Was about thirty years of age (ην ωσε ετων τριακοντα). Tyndale has it right "Jesus was about thirty yere of age when he beganne." Luke does not commit himself definitely to precisely thirty years as the age of Christ. The Levites entered upon full service at that age, but that proves nothing about Jesus. God's prophets enter upon their task when the word of God comes to them. Jesus may have been a few months under or over thirty or a year or two less or more.
Being Son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli (ων υιος ως ενομιζετο Ιωσηφ του Hελε). For the discussion of the genealogy of Jesus see on Mt 1:1-17 . The two genealogies differ very widely and many theories have been proposed about them. At once one notices that Luke begins with Jesus and goes back to Adam, the Son of God, while Matthew begins with Abraham and comes to "Joseph the husband of Mary of whom was born Jesus who is called Christ" (Mt 1:16 ). Matthew employs the word "begot" each time, while Luke has the article του repeating υιου (Son) except before Joseph. They agree in the mention of Joseph, but Matthew says that "Jacob begat Joseph" while Luke calls "Joseph the son of Heli." There are other differences, but this one makes one pause. Joseph, of course, did not have two fathers. If we understand Luke to be giving the real genealogy of Jesus through Mary, the matter is simple enough. The two genealogies differ from Joseph to David except in the cases of Zorobabel and Salathiel. Luke evidently means to suggest something unusual in his genealogy by the use of the phrase "as was supposed" (ως ενομιζετο). His own narrative in Lu 1:26-38 has shown that Joseph was not the actual father of Jesus. Plummer objects that, if Luke is giving the genealogy of Jesus through Mary, υιος must be used in two senses here (son as was supposed of Joseph, and grandson through Mary of Heli). But that is not an unheard of thing. In neither list does Matthew or Luke give a complete genealogy. Just as Matthew uses "begat" for descent, so does Luke employ "son" in the same way for descendant. It was natural for Matthew, writing for Jews, to give the legal genealogy through Joseph, though he took pains to show in Mt 1:16,18-25 that Joseph was not the actual father of Jesus. It was equally natural for Luke, a Greek himself and writing for the whole world, to give the actual genealogy of Jesus through Mary. It is in harmony with Pauline universality (Plummer) that Luke carries the genealogy back to Adam and does not stop with Abraham. It is not clear why Luke adds "the Son of God" after Adam ( 3:38). Certainly he does not mean that Jesus is the Son of God only in the sense that Adam is. Possibly he wishes to dispose of the heathen myths about the origin of man and to show that God is the Creator of the whole human race, Father of all men in that sense. No mere animal origin of man is in harmony with this conception.
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