|« Prev||Mark 16||Next »|
When the sabbath was past (διαγενομενου του σαββατου). Genitive absolute, the sabbath having come in between, and now over. For this sense of the verb (common from Demosthenes on) see Ac 25:13; 27:9 . It was therefore after sunset.
Bought spices (ηγορασαν αρωματα). As Nicodemus did on the day of the burial (Joh 19:40 ). Gould denies that the Jews were familiar with the embalming process of Egypt, but at any rate it was to be a reverential anointing (ινα αλειψωσιν) of the body of Jesus with spices. They could buy them after sundown. Salome in the group again as in Mr 15:40 . See on Mt 28:1 for discussion of "late on the sabbath day" and the visit of the women to the tomb before sundown. They had returned from the tomb after the watching late Friday afternoon and had prepared spices (Lu 23:56 ). Now they secured a fresh supply.
When the sun was risen (ανατειλαντος του ηλιου). Genitive absolute, aorist participle, though some manuscripts read ανατελλοντος, present participle. Lu 24:1 has it "at early dawn" (ορθρου βαθεος) and Joh 20:1 "while it was yet dark." It was some two miles from Bethany to the tomb. Mark himself gives both notes of time, "very early" (λιαν πρω), "when the sun was risen." Probably they started while it was still dark and the sun was coming up when they arrived at the tomb. All three mention that it was on the first day of the week, our Sunday morning when the women arrive. The body of Jesus was buried late on Friday before the sabbath (our Saturday) which began at sunset. This is made clear as a bell by Lu 23:54 "and the sabbath drew on." The women rested on the sabbath (Luke 23:56 ). This visit of the women was in the early morning of our Sunday, the first day of the week. Some people are greatly disturbed over the fact that Jesus did not remain in the grave full seventy-two hours. But he repeatedly said that he would rise on the third day and that is precisely what happened. He was buried on Friday afternoon. He was risen on Sunday morning. If he had really remained in the tomb full three days and then had risen after that, it would have been on the fourth day, not on the third day. The occasional phrase "after three days" is merely a vernacular idiom common in all languages and not meant to be exact and precise like "on the third day." We can readily understand "after three days" in the sense of "on the third day." It is impossible to understand "on the third day" to be "on the fourth day." See my Harmony of the Gospels, pp. 289-91.
Who shall roll us away the stone? (Τις αποκυλισε ημιν τον λιθον;). Alone in Mark. The opposite of προσκυλιω in 15:46. In verse 4 rolled back (ανεκεκυλιστα, perfect passive indicative) occurs also. Both verbs occur in Koine writers and in the papyri. Clearly the women have no hope of the resurrection of Jesus for they were raising the problem (ελεγον, imperfect) as they walked along.
Looking up they see (αναβλεψασα θεωρουσιν). With downcast eyes and heavy hearts (Bruce) they had been walking up the hill. Mark has his frequent vivid dramatic present "behold." Their problem is solved for the stone lies rolled back before their very eyes. Lu 24:2 has the usual aorist "found."
For (γαρ). Mark explains by the size of the stone this sudden and surprising sight right before their eyes.
Entering into the tomb (εισελθουσα εις το μνημειον). Told also by Lu 24:3 , though not by Matthew.
A young man (νεανισκον). An angel in Mt 28:5 , two men in Lu 24 . These and like variations in details show the independence of the narrative and strengthen the evidence for the general fact of the resurrection. The angel sat upon the stone (Mt 28:2 ), probably at first. Mark here speaks of the young man
sitting on the right side (καθημενον εν τοις δεξιοις) inside the tomb. Luke has the two men standing by them on the inside (Luke 24:4 ). Possibly different aspects and stages of the incident.
Arrayed in a white robe (περιβεβλημενον στολην λευκην). Perfect passive participle with the accusative case of the thing retained (verb of clothing). Lu 24:4 has "in dazzling apparel."
They were amazed (εξεθαμβηθησαν). They were utterly (εξ in composition) amazed. Lu 24:5 has it "affrighted." Mt 28:3f. tells more of the raiment white as snow which made the watchers quake and become as dead men. But this was before the arrival of the women. Mark, like Matthew and Luke, does not mention the sudden departure of Mary Magdalene to tell Peter and John of the grave robbery as she supposed (Joh 20:1-10 ).
Be not amazed (μη εκθαμβεισθε). The angel noted their amazement (verse 5) and urges the cessation of it using this very word.
The Nazarene (τον Ναζαρηνον). Only in Mark, to identify "Jesus" to the women.
The crucified one (τον εσταυρωμενον). This also in Mt 28:5 . This description of his shame has become his crown of glory, for Paul (Gal 6:14 ), and for all who look to the Crucified and Risen Christ as Saviour and Lord. He is risen (ηγερθη). First aorist passive indicative, the simple fact. In 1Co 15:4 Paul uses the perfect passive indicative εγηγερτα to emphasize the permanent state that Jesus remains risen.
Behold the place (ιδε ο τοπος). Here ιδε is used as an interjection with no effect on the case (nominative). In Mt 28:6 ιδετε is the verb with the accusative. See Robertson, Grammar, p. 302.
And Peter (κα τω Πετρω). Only in Mark, showing that Peter remembered gratefully this special message from the Risen Christ. Later in the day Jesus will appear also to Peter, an event that changed doubt to certainty with the apostles (Lu 24:34; 1Co 15:5 ). See on Mt 28:7 for discussion of promised meeting in Galilee.
Had come upon them (ειχεν αυτας). Imperfect tense, more exactly,
held them, was holding them fast .
Trembling and astonishment (τρομος κα εκστασις, trembling and ecstasy), Mark has it, while Mt 28:8 has "with fear and great joy" which see for discussion. Clearly and naturally their emotions were mixed.
They said nothing to any one (ουδεν ουδεν ειπαν). This excitement was too great for ordinary conversation. Mt 28:8 notes that they "ran to bring his disciples word." Hushed to silence their feet had wings as they flew on.
For they were afraid (εφοβουντο γαρ). Imperfect tense. The continued fear explains their continued silence. At this point Aleph and B, the two oldest and best Greek manuscripts of the New Testament, stop with this verse. Three Armenian MSS. also end here. Some documents (cursive 274 and Old Latin k) have a shorter ending than the usual long one. The great mass of the documents have the long ending seen in the English versions. Some have both the long and the short endings, like L, Psi, 0112, 099, 579, two Bohairic MSS; the Harklean Syriac (long one in the text, short one in the Greek margin). One Armenian MS. (at Edschmiadzin) gives the long ending and attributes it to Ariston (possibly the Aristion of Papias). W (the Washington Codex) has an additional verse in the long ending. So the facts are very complicated, but argue strongly against the genuineness of verses 9-20 of Mark 16. There is little in these verses not in Mt 28 . It is difficult to believe that Mark ended his Gospel with verse 8 unless he was interrupted. A leaf or column may have been torn off at the end of the papyrus roll. The loss of the ending was treated in various ways. Some documents left it alone. Some added one ending, some another, some added both. A full discussion of the facts is found in the last chapter of my Studies in Mark's Gospel and also in my Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, pp. 214-16.
When he had risen early on the first day of the week (αναστας πρω πρωτη σαββατου). It is probable that this note of time goes with "risen" (αναστας), though it makes good sense with "appeared" (εφανη). Jesus is not mentioned by name here, though he is clearly the one meant. Mark uses μια in verse 2, but πρωτη in 14:12 and the plural σαββατων in verse 2, though the singular here.
First (πρωτον). Definite statement that Jesus
appeared (εφανη) to Mary Magdalene first of all. The verb εφανη (second aorist passive of φαινω) is here alone of the Risen Christ (cf. Ελειας εφανη, Lu 9:8 ), the usual verb being ωφθη (Lu 24:34; 1Co 15:5ff. ).
From whom (παρ' ης). Only instance of παρα with the casting out of demons, εκ being usual (1:25,26; 5:8; 7:26,29; 9:25 ). Εκβεβληκε is past perfect indicative without augment. This description of Mary Magdalene is like that in Lu 8:2 and seems strange in Mark at this point, described as a new character here, though mentioned by Mark three times just before (15:40,47; 16:1 ). The appearance to Mary Magdalene is given in full by Joh 20:11-18 .
Them that had been with him (τοις μετ' αυτου γενομενοις). This phrase for the disciples occurs here alone in Mark and the other Gospels if the disciples (μαθητα) are meant. All these items suggest another hand than Mark for this closing portion.
As they mourned and wept (πενθουσιν κα κλαιουσιν). Present active participles in dative plural agreeing with τοις ... γενομενοις and describing the pathos of the disciples in their utter bereavement and woe.
Disbelieved (ηπιστησαν). This verb is common in the ancient Greek, but rare in the N.T. and here again verse 16 and nowhere else in Mark. The usual N.T. word is απειθεω. Lu 24:11 uses this verb (ηπιστουν) of the disbelief of the report of Mary Magdalene and the other women. The verb εθεαθη (from θεαωμα) occurs only here and in verse 14 in Mark.
After these things (μετα ταυτα). Only here in Mark. Luke tells us that it was on the same day (Lu 24:13 ).
In another form (εν ετερα μορφη). It was not a μεταμορφωσις or transfiguration like that described in 9:2. Luke explains that their eyes were holden so that they could not recognize Jesus (Lu 24:16 ). This matchless story appears in full in Lu 24:13-32 .
Neither believed they them (ουδε εκεινοις επιστευσαν). The men fared no better than the women. But Luke's report of the two on the way to Emmaus is to the effect that they met a hearty welcome by them in Jerusalem (Lu 24:33-35 ). This shows the independence of the two narratives on this point. There was probably an element who still discredited all the resurrection stories as was true on the mountain in Galilee later when "some doubted" (Mt 28:17 ).
To the eleven themselves (αυτοις τοις ενδεκα). Both terms, eleven and twelve (Joh 20:24 ), occur after the death of Judas. There were others present on this first Sunday evening according to Lu 24:33 .
Afterward (υστερον) is here alone in Mark, though common in Matthew.
Upbraided (ωνειδισεν). They were guilty of unbelief (απιστιαν) and hardness of heart (σκληροκαρδιαν). Doubt is not necessarily a mark of intellectual superiority. One must steer between credulity and doubt. That problem is a vital one today in all educated circles. Some of the highest men of science today are devout believers in the Risen Christ. Luke explains how the disciples were upset by the sudden appearance of Christ and were unable to believe the evidence of their own senses (Lu 24:38-43 ).
To the whole creation (παση τη κτισε). This commission in Mark is probably another report of the missionary Magna Charta in Mt 28:16-20 spoken on the mountain in Galilee. One commission has already been given by Christ (Joh 20:21-23 ). The third appears in Lu 24:44-49; Ac 1:3-8 .
And is baptized (κα βαπτισθεις). The omission of
baptized with "disbelieveth" would seem to show that Jesus does not make baptism essential to salvation. Condemnation rests on disbelief, not on baptism. So salvation rests on belief. Baptism is merely the picture of the new life not the means of securing it. So serious a sacramental doctrine would need stronger support anyhow than this disputed portion of Mark.
They shall speak with new tongues (γλωσσαις λαλησουσιν [καιναισ]). Westcott and Hort put καιναις (new) in the margin. Casting out demons we have seen in the ministry of Jesus. Speaking with tongues comes in the apostolic era (Ac 2:3f.; 10:46; 19:6; 1Co 12:28; 14 ).
If they drink any deadly thing (κ'αν θανασιμον τ πιωσιν). This is the only N.T. instance of the old Greek word θανασιμος (deadly). Jas 3:8 has θανατηφορος, deathbearing. Bruce considers these verses in Mark "a great lapse from the high level of Matthew's version of the farewell words of Jesus" and holds that "taking up venomous serpents and drinking deadly poison seem to introduce us into the twilight of apocryphal story." The great doubt concerning the genuineness of these verses (fairly conclusive proof against them in my opinion) renders it unwise to take these verses as the foundation for doctrine or practice unless supported by other and genuine portions of the N.T.
Was received up into heaven (ανελημπθη εις τον ουρανον). First aorist passive indicative. Luke gives the fact of the Ascension twice in Gospel (Lu 24:50f. ) and Ac 1:9-11 . The Ascension in Mark took place after Jesus spoke to the disciples, not in Galilee ( 16:15-18), nor on the first or second Sunday evening in Jerusalem. We should not know when it took place nor where but for Luke who locates it on Olivet (Lu 24:50 ) at the close of the forty days (Ac 1:3 ) and so after the return from Galilee (Mt 28:16 ).
Sat down at the right hand of God (εκαθισεν εκ δεξιων του θεου). Swete notes that the author "passes beyond the field of history into that of theology," an early and most cherished belief (Ac 7:55f.; Ro 8:34; Eph 1:20; Col 3:1; Heb 1:3; 8:1; 10:12; 12:2; 1Pe 3:22; Re 3:21 ).
The Lord working with them (του κυριου συνεργουντος). Genitive absolute. This participle not in Gospels elsewhere nor is βεβαιουντος nor the compound επακολουθουντων, all in Paul's Epistles. Πανταχου once in Luke. Westcott and Hort give the alternative ending found in L: "And they announced briefly to Peter and those around him all the things enjoined. And after these things Jesus himself also sent forth through them from the east even unto the west the holy and incorruptible proclamation of the eternal salvation."
|« Prev||Mark 16||Next »|
►Proofing disabled for this book
► Printer-friendly version