|« Prev||Mark 10||Next »|
Into the border of Judea and beyond Jordan (εις τα ορια της Ιουδαιας κα περαν του Ιορδανου). See on Mt 19:1 for discussion of this curious expression. Matthew adds "from Galilee" and Lu 17:11 says that Jesus "was passing through the midst of Samaria and Galilee" after leaving Ephraim (Joh 11:54 ). A great deal has intervened between the events at the close of Mark 9 and those in the beginning of Mark 10. For these events see Mt 18; Joh 7-11; Lu 9:57-18:14 (one-third of Luke's Gospel comes in here). It was a little over six months to the end at the close of Mark 9. It is just a few weeks now in Mark 10. Jesus has begun his last journey to Jerusalem going north through Samaria, Galilee, across the Jordan into Perea, and back into Judea near Jericho to go up with the passover pilgrims from Galilee.
Multitudes (οχλο). Caravans and caravans journeying to Jerusalem. Many of them are followers of Jesus from Galilee or at least kindly disposed towards him. They go together (συνπορευοντα) with Jesus. Note dramatic historical present.
As he was wont (ως ειωθε). Second past perfect used like an imperfect from ειωθα, second perfect active. Jesus
was teaching (εδιδασκεν, imperfect, no longer present tense) this moving caravan.
Tempting him (πειραζοντες). As soon as Jesus appears in Galilee the Pharisees attack him again (cf. 7:5; 8:11 ). Gould thinks that this is a test, not a temptation. The word means either (see on Mt 4:1 ), but their motive was evil. They had once involved the Baptist with Herod Antipas and Herodias on this subject. They may have some such hopes about Jesus, or their purpose may have been to see if Jesus will be stricter than Moses taught. They knew that he had already spoken in Galilee on the subject (Mt 5:31f. ).
What did Moses command you? (Τ υμιν ενετειλατο Μωυσησ;). Jesus at once brought up the issue concerning the teaching of Moses (De 24:1 ). But Jesus goes back beyond this concession here allowed by Moses to the ideal state commanded in Ge 1:27 .
To write a bill of divorcement and to put her away (βιβλιον αποστασιου γραψα κα απολυσα). The word for "bill" (βιβλιον) is a diminutive and means "little book," like the Latin libellus, from which comes our word libel (Vincent). Wycliff has it here "a libel of forsaking." This same point the Pharisees raise in Mt 19:7 , showing probably that they held to the liberal view of Hillel, easy divorce for almost any cause. That was the popular view as now. See on Mt 19:7 for this and for discussion of "for your hardness of heart" (σκληροκαρδια). Jesus expounds the purpose of marriage (Ge 2:24 ) and takes the stricter view of divorce, that of the school of Shammai. See on Mt 19:1-12 for discussion. Mr 10:10 notes that the disciples asked Jesus about this problem "in the house" after they had gone away from the crowd.
Mark does not give the exception stated in Mt 19:9 "except for fornication" which see for discussion, though the point is really involved in what Mark does record. Mere formal divorce does not annul actual marriage consummated by the physical union. Breaking that bond does annul it.
If she herself shall put away her husband and marry another (εαν αυτη απολυσασα τον ανδρα αυτης γαμηση). Condition of the third class (undetermined, but with prospect of determination). Greek and Roman law allowed the divorce of the husband by the wife though not provided for in Jewish law. But the thing was sometimes done as in the case of Herodias and her husband before she married Herod Antipas. So also Salome, Herod's sister, divorced her husband. Both Bruce and Gould think that Mark added this item to the words of Jesus for the benefit of the Gentile environment of this Roman Gospel. But surely Jesus knew that the thing was done in the Roman world and hence prohibited marrying such a "grass widow."
They brought (προσεφερον). Imperfect active tense, implying repetition. So also Lu 18:15 , though Mt 19:13 has the constative aorist passive (προσηνεχθησαν). "This incident follows with singular fitness after the Lord's assertion of the sanctity of married life" (Swete). These children (παιδια, Mark and Matthew; βρεφη in Luke) were of various ages. They were brought to Jesus for his blessing and prayers (Matthew). The mothers had reverence for Jesus and wanted him to touch (αψητα) them. There was, of course, no question of baptism or salvation involved, but a most natural thing to do.
He was moved with indignation (ηγανακτησεν). In Mark alone. The word is ingressive aorist, became indignant, and is a strong word of deep emotion (from αγαν and αχθομα, to feel pain). Already in Mt 21:15; 26:8 . Old and common word.
Suffer the little children to come unto me (αφετε τα παιδια ερχεσθα προς με). Mark has the infinitive ερχεσθα (come) not in Matthew, but in Luke. Surely it ought to be a joy to parents to bring their children to Jesus, certainly to allow them to come, but to hinder their coming is a crime. There are parents who will have to give answer to God for keeping their children away from Jesus.
As a little child (ως παιδιον). How does a little child receive the kingdom of God? The little child learns to obey its parents simply and uncomplainingly. There are some new psychologists who argue against teaching obedience to children. The results have not been inspiring. Jesus here presents the little child with trusting and simple and loving obedience as the model for adults in coming into the kingdom. Jesus does not here say that children are in the kingdom of God because they are children.
He took them in his arms (εναγκαλισαμενος). A distinct rebuke to the protest of the over-particular disciples. This word already in Mr 9:36 . In Lu 2:28 we have the full idiom, to receive into the arms (εις τας αγκαλας δεχεσθα). So with tender fondling Jesus repeatedly blessed (κατευλογε, imperfect), laying his hands upon each of them (τιθεις, present participle). It was a great moment for each mother and child.
Ran (προσδραμων). Jesus had left the house ( 10:10) and was proceeding with the caravan on the way (εις οδον) when this ruler eagerly ran and kneeled (γονυπετησας) and was asking (επηρωτα, imperfect) Jesus about his problem. Both these details alone in Mark.
Why callest thou me good? (Τ με λεγεις αγαθον;). So Lu 18:19 . Mt 19:17 has it: "Why asketh thou concerning that which is good? "The young ruler was probably sincere and not using mere fulsome compliment, but Jesus challenges him to define his attitude towards him as was proper. Did he mean "good" (αγαθος) in the absolute sense as applied to God? The language is not a disclaiming of deity on the part of Jesus.
That I may inherit (ινα κληρονομησω). Mt 19:16 has (σχω), that I may "get."
All these (ταυτα παντα). Literally,
these all (of them).
Looking upon him loved him (εμβλεψας αυτω ηγαπησεν). Mark alone mentions this glance of affection, ingressive aorist participle and verb. Jesus fell in love with this charming youth.
One thing thou lackest (Hεν σε υστερε). Lu 18:22 has it: "One thing thou lackest yet" (Ετ εν σο λειπε). Possibly two translations of the same Aramaic phrase. Mt 19:20 represents the youth as asking "What lack I yet?" (Τ ετ υστερω;). The answer of Jesus meets that inquiry after more than mere outward obedience to laws and regulations. The verb υστερω is from the adjective υστερος (behind) and means to be too late, to come short, to fail of, to lack. It is used either with the accusative, as here, or with the ablative as in 2Co 11:5 , or the dative as in Textus Receptus here, σο.
But his countenance fell (ο δε στυγνασας). In the LXX and Polybius once and in Mt 16:3 (passage bracketed by Westcott and Hort). The verb is from στυγνος, sombre, gloomy, like a lowering cloud. See on Mt 19:22 for discussion of "sorrowful" (λυπουμενος).
Looked round about (περιβλεψαμενος). Another picture of the looks of Jesus and in Mark alone as in 3:5,34 . "To see what impression the incident had made on the Twelve" (Bruce). "When the man was gone the Lord's eye swept round the circle of the Twelve, as he drew for them the lesson of the incident" (Swete).
Were amazed (εθαμβουντο). Imperfect passive. A look of blank astonishment was on their faces at this statement of Jesus. They in common with other Jews regarded wealth as a token of God's special favour.
Children (τεκνα). Here alone to the Twelve and this tender note is due to their growing perplexity.
For them that trust in riches (τους πεποιθοτας επ τοις χρημασιν). These words do not occur in Aleph B Delta Memphitic and one Old Latin manuscript. Westcott and Hort omit them from their text as an evident addition to explain the difficult words of Jesus.
Needle's eye (τρυμαλιας ραφιδος). See on Mt 19:24 for discussion. Luke uses the surgical needle, βελονης. Matthew has the word ραφις like Mark from ραπτω, to sew, and it appears in the papyri. Both Matthew and Luke employ τρηματος for eye, a perforation or hole from τιτραω, to bore. Mark's word τρυμαλιας is from τρυω, to wear away, to perforate. In the LXX and Plutarch.
Then who (κα τις). Mt 19:25 has Τις ουν. Evidently κα has here an inferential sense like ουν.
But not with God (αλλ' ου παρα θεω). Locative case with παρα (beside). The impossible by the side of men (παρα ανθρωποις) becomes possible by the side of God. That is the whole point and brushes to one side all petty theories of a gate called needle's eye, etc.
Peter began to say (ηρξατο λεγειν ο Πετρος). It was hard for Peter to hold in till now. Mt 19:27 says that "Peter answered" as if the remark was addressed to him in particular. At any rate Peter reminds Jesus of what they had left to follow him, four of them that day by the sea (Mr 1:20; Mt 4:22; Lu 5:11 ). It was to claim obedience to this high ideal on their part in contrast with the conduct of the rich young ruler.
With persecutions (μετα διωγμων). This extra touch is in Mark alone. There is a reminiscence of some of "the apocalyptic of the familiar descriptions of the blessings of the Messianic kingdom. But Jesus uses such language from the religious idiom of this time only to idealize it" (Gould). The apostles were soon to see the realization of this foreshadowing of persecution. Vincent notes that Jesus omits "a hundred wives" in this list, showing that Julian the Apostate's sneer on that score was without foundation.
See on Mt 19:30 for the use of the paradox about
last , probably a rebuke here to Peter's boast.
And they were amazed (κα εθαμβουντο). Imperfect tense describing the feelings of the disciples as Jesus was walking on in front of them (ην προαγων αυτους, periphrastic imperfect active), an unusual circumstance in itself that seemed to bode no good as they went on through Perea towards Jerusalem. In fact,
they that followed were afraid (ο δε ακολουθουντες εφοβουντο) as they looked at Jesus walking ahead in solitude. The idiom (ο δε) may not mean that all the disciples were afraid, but only some of them. "The Lord walked in advance of the Twelve with a solemnity and a determination which foreboded danger" (Swete). Cf. Lu 9:5 . They began to fear coming disaster as they neared Jerusalem. They read correctly the face of Jesus.
And he took again the twelve (κα παραλαβων τους δωδεκα). Matthew has "apart" from the crowds and that is what Mark also means. Note παραλαβων, taking to his side.
And began to tell them the things that were to happen to him (ηρξατο αυτοις λεγειν τα μελλοντα αυτω συμβαινειν). He had done it before three times already (Mr 8:31; 9:13; 9:31 ). So Jesus tries once more. They had failed utterly heretofore. How is it now? Luke adds ( 18:34): "They understood none of these things." But Mark and Matthew show how the minds of two of the disciples were wholly occupied with plans of their own selfish ambition while Jesus was giving details of his approaching death and resurrection.
There come near unto him James and John (κα προσπορευοντα Ιακωβος κα Ιωανης). Dramatic present tense. Matthew has τοτε, then, showing that the request of the two brothers with their mother (Mt 20:20 ) comes immediately after the talk about Christ's death.
We would (θελομεν). We wish, we want, bluntly told.
She came worshipping (προσκυνουσα) Matthew says. The mother spoke for the sons. But they try to commit Jesus to their desires before they tell what they are, just like spoiled children.
In thy glory (εν τη δοξη). Mt 20:21 has "in thy kingdom." See on Mt 20:20 for the literal interpretation of Mt 19:28 . They are looking for a grand Jewish world empire with apocalyptic features in the eschatological culmination of the Messiah's kingdom. That dream brushed aside all the talk of Jesus about his death and resurrection as mere pessimism.
Or be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with (η το βαπτισμα ο εγω βαπτιζομα βαπτισθηνα). Cognate accusative with both passive verbs. Mt 20:22 has only the cup, but Mark has both the cup and the baptism, both referring to death. Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane will refer to his death again as "the cup" (Mr 14:36; Mt 26:39; Lu 22:42 ). He had already used baptism as a figure for his death (Lu 12:50 ). Paul will use it several times (1Co 15:29; Ro 6:3-6; Col 2:12 ).
See on Mt 20:23-28 for discussion on these memorable verses ( 39-45) identical in both Matthew and Mark. In particular in verse 45 note the language of Jesus concerning his death as "a ransom for many" (λυτρον αντ πολλων), words of the Master that were not understood by the apostles when spoken by Jesus and which have been preserved for us by Peter through Mark. Some today seek to empty these words of all real meaning as if Jesus could not have or hold such a conception concerning his death for sinners.
See on 39
See on 39
See on 39
See on 39
See on 39
See on 39
From Jericho (απο Ιερειχω). See on Mt 20:29 for discussion of this phrase and Luke's (Lu 18:35 ) "nigh unto Jericho" and the two Jerichos, the old and the new Roman (Luke). The new Jericho was "about five miles W. of the Jordan and fifteen E. of Jerusalem, near the mouth of the Wady Kelt, and more than a mile south of the site of the ancient town" (Swete).
Great multitude (οχλου ικανου). Considerable, more than sufficient. Often in Luke and the papyri in this sense. See Mt 3:11 for the other sense of fit for ικανος.
Bartimaeus (Βαρτιμαιος). Aramaic name like Bartholomew, βαρ meaning son like Hebrew ben. So Mark explains the name meaning "the son of Timaeus" (ο υιος Τιμαιου). Mark alone gives his name while Mt 20:30 mentions two which see for discussion.
Blind beggar (τυφλος προσαιτης), "begging" (επαιτων) Luke has it (Lu 18:35 ). All three Gospels picture him as
sitting by the roadside (εκαθητο παρα την οδον). It was a common sight. Bartimaeus had his regular place. Vincent quotes Thomson concerning Ramleh: "I once walked the streets counting all that were either blind or had defective eyes, and it amounted to about one-half the male population. The women I could not count, for they are rigidly veiled" (The Land and the Book). The dust, the glare of the sun, the unsanitary habits of the people spread contagious eye-diseases.
Should hold his peace (σιωπηση). Ingressive aorist subjunctive, become silent.
He calleth thee (φωνε σε). That was joyful news to Bartimaeus. Vivid dramatic presents here in Mark.
Casting away his garment (αποβαλων το ιματιον αυτου). Second aorist active participle. Outer robe in his haste.
Sprang up (αναπηδησας). Leaping up, vivid details again in Mark.
That I should do (ποιησω). Neat Greek idiom with aorist subjunctive without ινα after θελεις. For this asyndeton (or parataxis) see Robertson, Grammar, p. 430.
That I may receive my sight (ινα αναβλεψω). To recover sight (ανα-), see again. Apparently he had once been able to see. Here ινα is used though θελω is not (cf. 10:35). The Messiah was expected to give sight to the blind (Isa 61:1; Lu 4:18; 7:22 ).
Followed (ηκολουθε). Imperfect tense picturing joyful Bartimaeus as he followed the caravan of Jesus into the new Jericho.
Made thee whole (σεσωκεν). Perfect active indicative. The word commonly means
save and that may be the idea here.
|« Prev||Mark 10||Next »|