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In Christ (εν Χριστω). Paul really takes a triple oath here so strongly is he stirred. He makes a positive affirmation in Christ, a negative one (not lying), the appeal to his conscience as co-witness (συνμαρτυρουσης, genitive absolute as in 2:15 which see) "in the Holy Spirit."
Sorrow (λυπη). Because the Jews were rejecting Christ the Messiah. "We may compare the grief of a Jew writing after the fall of Jerusalem" (Sanday and Headlam).
Unceasing pain in my heart (αδιαλειπτος οδυνη τη καρδια). Like angina pectoris. Οδυνη is old word for consuming grief, in N.T. only here and and 1Ti 6:10 .
Unceasing (αδιαλειπτος). Late and rare adjective (in an inscription 1 cent. B.C.), in N.T. only here and 2Ti 1:3 . Two rare words together and both here only in N.T. and I and II Timothy (some small argument for the Pauline authorship of the Pastoral Epistles).
I could wish (ηυχομην). Idiomatic imperfect, "I was on the point of wishing." We can see that ευχομα (I do wish) would be wrong to say. Αν ηυχομην would mean that he does not wish (conclusion of second class condition). Αν ηυχομην would be conclusion of fourth class condition and too remote. He is shut up to the imperfect indicative (Robertson, Grammar, p. 886).
According to the flesh (κατα σαρκα). As distinguished from Paul's Christian brethren.
Who (οιτινες). The very ones who, inasmuch as they.
Israelites (Ισραηλειτα). Covenant name of the chosen people.
Whose (ων). Predicate genitive of the relative, used also again with ο πατερες. For "the adoption" (η υιοθεσια) see 8:15.
The giving of the law (η νομοθεσια). Old word, here only in N.T., from νομος and τιθημ.
Of whom (εξ ων). Fourth relative clause and here with εξ and the ablative.
Christ (ο Χριστος). The Messiah.
As concerning the flesh (το κατα σαρκα). Accusative of general reference, "as to the according to the flesh." Paul limits the descent of Jesus from the Jews to his human side as he did in 1:3f .
Who is over all, God blessed for ever (ο ον επ παντων θεος ευλογητος). A clear statement of the deity of Christ following the remark about his humanity. This is the natural and the obvious way of punctuating the sentence. To make a full stop after σαρκα (or colon) and start a new sentence for the doxology is very abrupt and awkward. See Ac 20:28; Tit 2:13 for Paul's use of θεος applied to Jesus Christ.
But it is not as though (ουχ οιον δε οτ). Supply εστιν after ουχ: "But it is not such as that," an old idiom, here alone in N.T.
Hath come to nought (εκπεπτωκεν). Perfect active indicative of εκπιπτω, old verb, to fall out.
For they are not all Israel, which are of Israel (ου γαρ παντες ο εξ Ισραηλ ουτο Ισραηλ). "For not all those out of Israel (the literal Jewish nation), these are Israel (the spiritual Israel)." This startling paradox is not a new idea with Paul. He had already shown (Ga 3:7-9 ) that those of faith are the true sons of Abraham. He has amplified that idea also in Ro 4 . So he is not making a clever dodge here to escape a difficulty. He now shows how this was the original purpose of God to include only those who believed.
The children of the promise (τα τεκνα της επαγγελιας). Not through Ishmael, but through Isaac. Only the children of the promise are "children of God" (τεκνα του θεου) in the full sense. He is not speaking of Christians here, but simply showing that the privileges of the Jews were not due to their physical descent from Abraham. Cf. Lu 3:8 .
Having conceived of one (εξ ενος κοιτην εχουσα). By metonomy with cause for the effect we have this peculiar idiom (κοιτη being bed, marriage bed), "having a marriage bed from one" husband. One father and twins.
The children being not yet born (μηπω γεννηθεντων). Genitive absolute with first aorist passive participle of γενναω, to beget, to be born, though no word for children nor even the pronoun αυτων (they).
Neither having done anything good or bad (μηδε πραξαντων τ αγαθον η φαυλον). Genitive absolute again with first active participle of πρασσω. On φαυλον, see 2Co 5:10 .
The purpose of God (η προθεσις του θεου). See 8:28 for προθεσις.
According to election (κατ' εκλογην). Old word from εκλεγω, to select, to choose out. See 1Th 1:4 . Here it is the purpose (προθεσις) of God which has worked according to the principles of election.
Not of works (ουκ εξ εργων). Not of merit.
But of him that calleth (αλλ' εκ του καλουντος). Present active articular participle of καλεω in the ablative case after εκ. The source of the selection is God himself. Paul quotes Ge 25:33 (LXX).
Paul quotes Mal 1:2f .
But Esau I hated (τον δε Εσαυ εμισησα). This language sounds a bit harsh to us. It is possible that the word μισεω did not always carry the full force of what we mean by "hate." See Mt 6:24 where these very verbs (μισεω and αγαπαω) are contrasted. So also in Lu 14:26 about "hating" (μισεω) one's father and mother if coming between one and Christ. So in Joh 12:25 about "hating" one's life. There is no doubt about God's preference for Jacob and rejection of Esau, but in spite of Sanday and Headlam one hesitates to read into these words here the intense hatred that has always existed between the descendants of Jacob and of Esau.
Is there unrighteousness with God? (μη αδικια παρα τω θεωι?). Paul goes right to the heart of the problem. Μη expects a negative answer. "Beside" (παρα) God there can be no injustice to Esau or to any one because of election.
For he says to Moses (τω Μωυσε γαρ λεγε). He has an Old Testament illustration of God's election in the case of Pharaoh (Ex 33:19 ).
On whom I have mercy (ον αν ελεω). Indefinite relative with αν and the present active subjunctive of ελεαω, late verb only here and Jude 1:23 in N.T. "On whomsoever I have mercy." The same construction in ον αν οικτειρω, "on whomsoever I have compassion."
So then (αρα ουν). In view of this quotation.
It is not of (ου). We must supply εστιν ελεος with ου. "Mercy is not of." The articular participles (του θελοντοσ, του τρεχοντοσ, του ελεωντος) can be understood as in the genitive with ελεος understood (mercy is not a quality of) or as the predicate ablative of source like επιλυσεως in 2 Peter 1:20 . Paul is fond of the metaphor of running.
To Pharaoh (τω Φαραω). There is a national election as seen in verses 7-13, but here Paul deals with the election of individuals. He "lays down the principle that God's grace does not necessarily depend upon anything but God's will" (Sanday and Headlam). He quotes Ex 9:16 .
Might be published (διαγγελη). Second aorist passive subjunctive of διαγγελλω.
He hardeneth (σκληρυνε). Pharaoh hardened his own heart also (Ex 8:15,32; 9:34 ), but God gives men up also (1:24,26,28 ). This late word is used by the Greek physicians Galen and Hippocrates. See on Ac 19:9 . Only here in Paul.
Why doth he still find fault? (τ ετ μεμφεται?). Old verb, to blame. In N.T. only here and Heb 8:8 . Paul's imaginary objector picks up the admission that God hardened Pharaoh's heart. "Still" (ετ) argues for a change of condition since that is true.
Withstandeth his will (τω βουληματ αυτου ανθεστηκεν). Perfect active indicative of ανθιστημ, old verb, maintains a stand (the perfect tense). Many have attempted to resist God's will (βουλημα, deliberate purpose, in N.T. only here and Ac 27:43; 1Pe 4:3 ). Elsewhere θελημα (Mt 6:10 ).
Nay, but, O man, who art thou? (Ο ανθρωπε, μεν ουν γε συ τις ει?). "O man, but surely thou who art thou?" Unusual and emphatic order of the words, prolepsis of συ (thou) before τις (who) and μεν ουν γε (triple particle, μεν, indeed, ουν, therefore, γε, at least) at the beginning of clause as in Ro 10:18; Php 3:8 contrary to ancient idiom, but so in papyri.
That repliest (ο ανταποκρινομενος). Present middle articular participle of double compound verb ανταποκρινομα, to answer to one's face (αντι-) late and vivid combination, also in Lu 14:6 , nowhere else in N.T., but in LXX.
The thing formed (το πλασμα). Old word (Plato, Aristophanes) from πλασσω, to mould, as with clay or wax, from which the aorist active participle used here (τω πλασαντ) comes. Paul quotes these words from Isa 29:16 verbatim. It is a familiar idea in the Old Testament, the absolute power of God as Creator like the potter's use of clay (Isa 44:8; 45:8-10; Jer 18:6 ). Μη expects a negative answer.
Why didst thou make me thus? (τ με εποιησας ουτωσ?). The original words in Isaiah dealt with the nation, but Paul applies them to individuals. This question does not raise the problem of the origin of sin for the objector does not blame God for that but why God has used us as he has, made some vessels out of the clay for this purpose, some for that. Observe "thus" (ουτως). The potter takes the clay as he finds it, but uses it as he wishes.
Or hath not the potter a right over the clay? (η ουκ εχε εξουσιαν ο κεραμευς του πηλου?). This question, expecting an affirmative answer, is Paul's reply to the previous one, "Why didst thou make me thus?" Πηλος, old word for clay, is mud or wet clay in Joh 9:6,11,14f . The old word for potter (κεραμευς) in N.T. only here and Mt 27:7,10 .
Lump (φυραματος). Late word from φυραω, to mix (clay, dough, etc.).
One part (ο μεν)
--another (ο δε). Regular idiom for contrast (μεν--δε) with the old demonstrative ο (this), "this vessel (σκευος, old word as in Mr 11:16 ) for honour, that for dishonour." Paul thus claims clearly God's sovereign right (εξουσιαν, power, right, authority, from εξεστ) to use men (already sinners) for his own purpose.
Willing (θελων). Concessive use of the participle, "although willing," not causal, "because willing" as is shown by "with much long-suffering" (εν πολλη μακροθυμια, in much long-suffering).
His power (το δυνατον αυτου). Neuter singular of the verbal adjective rather than the substantive δυναμιν.
Endured (ηνεγκεν). Constative second aorist active indicative of the old defective verb φερω, to bear.
Fitted (κατηρτισμενα). Perfect passive participle of καταρτιζω, old verb to equip (see Mt 4:21; 2Co 13:11 ), state of readiness. Paul does not say here that God did it or that they did it. That they are responsible may be seen from 1Th 2:15f .
Vessels of mercy (σκευη ελεους). Objective genitive like σκευη οργης.
Afore prepared (προητοιμασεν). First aorist active indicative of προετοιμαζω, old verb to make ready (from ετοιμος, ready) and προ, before, in N.T. only here and Eph 2:10 . But same idea in Ro 8:28-30 .
In Hosea (εν τω Hωσηε). He quotes 2:23 with some freedom. Hosea refers to the ten tribes and Paul applies the principle stated there to the Gentiles. Hosea had a son named Lo-ammi = ου λαος. So here ο ου λαος μου "the not people of mine." Ου with substantives obliterates the meaning of the substantive, an idiom seen in Thucydides and other Greek writers. See also Ro 10:19; 1Pe 2:10 .
Which was not beloved (την ουκ ηγαπημενην). The LXX rendering of Lo-ruhamah (not mercy, without mercy or love), name of Hosea's daughter. The use of ουκ with the perfect passive participle is emphatic, since μη is the usual negative of the participle in the Koine.
There (εκε). Palestine in the original, but Paul applies it to scattered Jews and Gentiles everywhere.
Isaiah (Εσαιας). Shortened quotation from Isa 10:22 (LXX).
It is the remnant that shall be saved (το υπολειμμα σωθησετα). First future passive of σωζω. Literally, "the remnant will be saved." Late word from υπολειπω, to leave behind ( 11:3), here only in N.T. Textus Receptus has καταλειμμα, but Aleph A B have υπολειμμα. Isaiah cries in anguish over the outlook for Israel, but sees hope for the remnant.
Finishing it and cutting it short (συντελων κα συντεμνων). Present active participles and note συν- with each (perfective use of the preposition, finishing completely as in Lu 4:13 , cutting off completely or abridging and here only in N.T.) The quotation is from Isa 28:22 .
Hath said before (προειρηκεν). Perfect active indicative of προειπον (defective verb). Stands on record in Isa 1:9 .
Had left (εγκατελιπεν). Second aorist active indicative of old verb εγκαταλειπω, to leave behind. Condition of second class, determined as unfulfilled, with αν εγενηθημεν and αν ωμοιωθημεν as the conclusions (both first aorist passives of γινομα and ομοιοω, common verbs).
A seed (σπερμα). The remnant of verse 27.
Attained (κατελαβεν). Second aorist active indicative of καταλαμβανω, old verb, to grasp, to seize, to overtake (carrying out the figure in διωκω (to pursue). It was a curious paradox.
Which is of faith (την εκ πιστεως). As Paul has repeatedly shown, the only way to get the God-kind of righteousness.
Did not arrive at that law (εις νομον ουκ εφθασεν). First aorist active indicative of φθανω, old verb to anticipate (1Th 4:15 ), now just to arrive as here and 2Co 10:14 . The word "that" is not in the Greek. Legal righteousness Israel failed to reach, because to do that one had to keep perfectly all the law.
We must supply the omitted verb εδιÂωξα (pursued) from verse 31. That explains the rest.
They stumbled at the stone of stumbling (προσεκοψαν τω λιθω του προσκομματος). The quotation is from Isa 8:14 . Προσκοπτω means to cut (κοπτω) against (προς) as in Mt 4:6; Joh 11:9f . The Jews found Christ a σκανδαλον (1Co 1:23 ).
Paul repeats the phrase just used in the whole quotation from Isa 8:14 with the same idea in "a rock of offence" (πετραν σκανδαλου, "a rock of snare," a rock which the Jews made a cause of stumbling). The rest of the verse is quoted from Isa 28:16 . However, the Hebrew means "shall not make haste" rather than "shall not be put to shame." In 1Pe 2:8 we have the same use of these Scriptures about Christ. Either Peter had read Romans or both Paul and Peter had a copy of Christian Testimonia like Cyprian's later.
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