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70737073     Another sign in heaven (αλλο σημειον εν τω ουρανω). Looking back to 12:1,3 , after the series intervening. The Seven Bowls are parallel with the Seven Seals (ch. Re 6 ) and the Seven Trumpets (chapters Re 8 -11 ), but there is an even closer connection with chapters Re 12 -14 , "the drama of the long conflict between the church and the world" (Swete).
    Great and marvellous (μεγα κα θαυμαστον). Θαυμαστος is an old verbal adjective (from θαυμαζω, to wonder) and is already in Mt 21:42 . The wonder extends to the end of this vision or sign (16:21).

    Seven angels (αγγελους επτα). Accusative case in apposition with σημειον after ειδον. Cf. 8:2.

    Which are the last (τας εσχατας). "Seven plagues the last." As in 21:9, "the final cycle of such visitations" (Swete).

    Is finished (ετελεσθη). Proleptic prophetic first aorist passive indicative of τελεω as in 10:7. The number seven seems particularly appropriate here for finality and completeness.

70747074     As it were a glassy sea (ως θαλασσαν υαλινην). Accusative case after ειδον and ως here, not in 4:6, which see for the symbol.
    Mingled with fire (μεμιγμενην πυρ). Perfect passive participle of μιγνυμ, to mix, and the associative instrumental case πυρ. This item not in 4:6 (a vision of peace), but here it adds to the splendour of the vision. This parenthesis (2-4) gives a picture of the martyrs in their state of bliss.

    Them that come off victorious (τους νικωντας). Present active articular participle of νικαω, accusative after ειδον, "those that come off victorious" (14:4).

    From the beast and from his image (εκ του θηριου κα εκ της εικονος αυτου). This use of εκ after νικαω is unusual, also with εκ του αριθμου. For these items see 13:1,14,17; 14:9,11; 19:20; 20:4 .

    By the glassy sea (επ την θαλασσαν την υαλινην). Or "upon" more likely (4:6) with the accusative as in Mt 14:25ff .

    Harps of God (κιθαρας του θεου). Objective genitive, for the worship of God (5:8; 14:2; 1Ch 16:42 ).

70757075     The song of Moses (την ωιδην του Μωυσεως). Ex 14:31; 15:1-19 . A song of victory like that of Moses after crossing the Red Sea.
    And the song of the Lamb (την ωιδην του αρνιου). A separate note of victory like that of Moses, though one song, not two. Charles finds it impossible to reconcile the two expressions, if genuine, but it is a needless objection. The words come from the O.T.: "great" (μεγαλα) from Ps 111:2 , "wonderful" (θαυμαστα) from Ps 139:14 , "O Lord God the Almighty" (Κυριε ο θεος ο παντοκρατωρ) from Am 4:13 (Re 4:8 ), "righteous and true" (δικαια κα αληθινα) from De 32:4 , "Thou King of the ages" (ο βασιλευς των αιωνων) like Jer 10:10; 1Ti 1:17 . Some MSS. have "the king of the saints" and some "the king of the nations," like Jer 10:7 . John thus combines in Hebraic tone the expressions of the old and the new in the song to the Glorified Messiah.

70767076     Who shall not fear? (τις ου μη φοβηθηι;). Rhetorical question with ου μη (double negative) and first aorist passive subjunctive of φοβεομα future passive in Jer 10:7 ).
    And glorify (κα δοξασε). Change here to the future indicative instead of the aorist subjunctive, as often. Cf. Ps 86:9 .

    Thou only art holy (μονος οσιος). Both predicate adjectives, "Thou art alone holy." God alone is perfectly holy (16:5).

    Shall come (ηξουσιν). Future active of ηκω.

    And worship (κα προσκυνησουσιν). Future active of προσκυνεω. Both from Ps 86:9 .

    Have been made manifest (εφανερωθησαν). Prophetic first aorist passive indicative of φανεροω. This martyr's song has the ring of great poetry.

70777077     The temple of the tabernacle of the testimony (ο ναος της σκηνης του μαρτυριου). Charles calls this "strange" language. Probably the tabernacle or tent of witness (Nu 9:15; 17:7 ) is in mind and the tent of meeting (Ex 27:21 rather than the temple in Jerusalem.
    Was opened (ηνοιγη). Second aorist passive indicative of ανοιγω as in 11:19. For ναος see 3:12; 7:15; 14:15,17; 16:1,17 .

70787078     There came out (εξηλθαν). Second aorist active indicative of εξερχομα with -αν rather than -ον. Proleptic and prophetic aorist.
    The seven angels (ο επτα αγγελο). Those in verse 1.

    The seven plagues (τας επτα πληγας). The bowls are not given them till verse 7.

    Arrayed (ενδεδυμενο). Perfect passive participle of ενδυω.

    With precious stone pure and bright (λιθον καθαρον λαμπρον). Accusative case retained with verb of clothing as so often, literally "with a stone pure bright." For both adjectives together see 19:8,14 . Some MSS. read λινον (linen). For λιθον see 17:4; 18:16; Eze 28:13 .

    Girt (περιεζωσμενο). Perfect passive participle of περιζωννυω. See 1:13 for both participles. For στηθος (breast) see Lu 18:13 .

    With golden girdles (ζωνας χρυσας). Accusative case after the perfect passive participle περιεζωσμενο as in 1:13.

70797079     Seven golden bowls (επτα φιαλας χρυσας). Golden saucers, but not full of incense as in 5:8, but "full (γεμουσας for which see 5:8) of the wrath of God who liveth for ever and ever" (του θυμου του θεου του ζωντος εις τους αιωνας των αιωνων). Portents of dreadful events.

70807080     Was filled with smoke (εγεμισθη καπνου). First aorist passive indicative of γεμιζω (from γεμω), to fill full, and with the genitive καπνου (smoke). Smoke is here the symbol of God's presence (Ex 19:18; Isa 6:5 ).
    Till should be finished (αχρ τελεσθωσιν). Temporal clause for future time with αχρ (equal to εως in import) and the first aorist passive subjunctive of τελεω, a metaphorical and symbolic "smoke screen" to keep all out of the sanctuary for the time being.


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