|« Prev||1John.4||Next »|
(αγαπητο). Three times in this chapter (1,7,11
) we have this tender address on love.
Hereby know ye
(εν τουτω γινωσκετε). Either present active indicative or imperative. The test of "the Spirit of God" (το πνευμα του θεου)
here alone in this Epistle, save verse
13. With the clamour of voices then and now this is important. The test (εν τουτω, as in
(μη ομολογε). Indefinite relative clause with the subjective negative μη rather than the usual objective negative ου (verse
6). It is seen also in 2Pe 1:9; Tit 1:11
, a survival of the literary construction (Moulton, Prolegomena, p. 171). The Vulgate (along with Irenaeus, Tertullian, Augustine) reads solvit (λυε) instead of μη ομολογε, which means "separates Jesus," apparently an allusion to the Cerinthian heresy (distinction
between Jesus and Christ) as the clause before refers to the Docetic heresy. Many MSS. have here also εν σαρκ εληλυθοτα repeated
from preceding clause, but not A B Vg Cop. and not genuine.
Have overcome them
(νενικηκατε αυτους). Perfect active indicative of νικαω, calm confidence of final victory as in 2:13; Joh 16:33
. The reference in αυτους (them) is to the false prophets in
Of the world
(εκ του κοσμου). As Jesus is not and as the disciples are not (Joh 17:14ff.
(ημεις). In sharp contrast with the false prophets and the world. We are in tune with the Infinite God. Hence "he that knoweth
God" (ο γινωσκων τον θεον, present active articular participle, the one who keeps on getting acquainted with God, growing
in his knowledge of God) "hears us" (ακουε ημων). This is one reason why sermons are dull (some actually are, others so to
dull hearers) or inspiring. There is a touch of mysticism here, to be sure, but the heart of Christianity is mysticism (spiritual
contact with God in Christ by the Holy Spirit). John states the same idea negatively by a relative clause parallel with the
preceding articular participle, the negative with both clauses. John had felt the cold, indifferent, and hostile stare of
the worldling as he preached Jesus.
67456745 Of God (εκ του θεου). Even human love comes from God, "a reflection of something in the Divine nature itself" (Brooke). John repeats the old commandment of 2:7f . Persistence in loving (present tense αγαπωμεν indicative and αγαπων participle) is proof that one "has been begotten of God" (εκ του θεου γεγεννητα as in 2:29) and is acquainted with God. Otherwise mere claim to loving God accompanied by hating one's brother is a lie (2:9-11).
He that loveth not
(ο μη αγαπων). Present active articular participle of αγαπαω "keeps on not loving."
(εφανερωθη). First aorist passive indicative of φανεροω. The Incarnation as in
3:5. Subjective genitive as in
If God so loved us
(ε ουτως ο θεος ηγαπησεν ημας). Condition of first class with ε and the first aorist active indicative. As in Joh 3:16
, so here ουτως emphasises the manifestation of God's love both in its manner and in its extent (Ro 8:32
No one hath beheld God at any time
(θεον ουδεις πωποτε τεθεατα). Perfect middle indicative of θεαομα (Joh 1:14
). Almost the very words of Joh 1:18
θεον ουδεις πωποτε εωρακεν (instead of τεθεατα).
67516751 Hereby know we (εν τουτω γινωσκομεν). The Christian's consciousness of the fact of God dwelling in him is due to the Spirit of God whom God has given (δεδωκεν, perfect active indicative here, though the aorist εδωκεν in 3:24). This gift of God is proof of our fellowship with God.
We have beheld
(τεθεαμεθα). Perfect middle of θεαομα as in verse
12, though the aorist in 1:1; Joh 1:14
(εθεασαμεθα). John is qualified to bear witness (μαρτυρουμεν as in
1:2) as Jesus had charged the disciples to do (Ac 1:8
Whosoever shall confess
(ος εαν ομολογηση). Indefinite relative clause with modal εαν (=an) and the first aorist active subjunctive, "whoever confesses."
See 2:23; 4:2f..
(εγνωκαμεν). Perfect active indicative, "we have come to know and still know" as in Joh 6:9
, only there order is changed (πεπιστευκαμεν coming before εγνωκαμεν). Confession (ομολογεω) follows experimental knowledge
(γινωσκω) and confident trust (πιστευω). Believers are the sphere (εν ημιν, in our case) in which the love of God operates
(Westcott). See Joh 13:35
for "having love."
(εν τουτω). It is not clear whether the ινα clause (sub-final use) is in apposition with εν τουτω as in Joh 15:8
or the οτ clause (because) with the ινα clause as parenthesis. Either makes sense. Westcott argues for the latter idea, which
is reinforced by the preceding sentence.
(φοβος). Like a bond-slave (Ro 8:15
), not the reverence of a son (ευλαβεια, Heb 5:7f.
) or the obedience to a father (εν φοβω, 1Pe 1:17
). This kind of dread is the opposite of παρρησια (boldness).
(αυτος πρωτος). Note πρωτος (nominative), not πρωτον, as in Joh 20:4,8
. God loved us
If a man say
(εαν τις ειπη). Condition of third class with εαν and second aorist active subjunctive. Suppose one say. Cf.
|« Prev||1John.4||Next »|
►Proofing disabled for this book
► Printer-friendly version