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Who am a fellow-elder
(ο συνπρεσβυτερος). Earliest use of this compound in an inscription of B.C. 120 for fellow-elders (alderman) in a town, here
only in N.T., in eccles. writers. For the word πρεσβυτερος in the technical sense of officers in a Christian church (like
elder in the local synagogues of the Jews) see Ac 11:30; 20:17
. It is noteworthy that here Peter the Apostle (1:1) calls himself an elder along with (συν) the other "elders."
(ποιμανατε). First aorist active imperative of ποιμαινω, old verb, from ποιμην (shepherd) as in Lu 17:7
. Jesus used this very word to Peter in the interview by the Sea of Galilee (Joh 21:16
) and Peter doubtless has this fact in mind here. Paul used the word to the elders at Miletus (Ac 20:28
2:25 for the metaphor.
Lording it over
(κατακυριευοντες). Present active participle of κατακυριευω, late compound (κατα, κυριος) as in Mt 20:25
When the chief Shepherd shall be manifested
(φανερωθεντος του αρχιποιμενος). Genitive absolute with first aorist passive participle of φανεροω, to manifest, and genitive
of αρχιποιμην, a compound (αρχι, ποιμην) after analogy of αρχιερευς, here only in N.T., but in Testam. of Twelve Patrs. (Jud. 8) and on a piece of wood around an Egyptian mummy and also on a papyrus A.D. 338 (Deissmann, Light, etc., p. 100). See Heb 13:20
for ο ποιμην ο μεγας (the Shepherd the great).
(οποταγητε). Second aorist passive imperative of υποτασσω.
Humble yourselves therefore
(ταπεινωθητε ουν). First aorist passive imperative of ταπεινοω, old verb, for which see Mt 18:4
. Peter is here in the role of a preacher of humility. "Be humbled."
(επιριψαντες). First aorist active participle of επιριπτω, old verb, to throw upon, in N.T. only here and Lu 19:35
(casting their clothes on the colt), here from Ps 55:22
. For μεριμνα see Mt 6:25,31,34
(γρηγορησατε). First aorist active imperative of γρηγορεω, late present imperative from perfect εγρηγορα (to be awake) from
εγειρω (to arouse), as in Mt 24:42
. For νηψατε see 1:13; 4:7
(ω αντιστητε). Imperative second aorist active (intransitive) of ανθιστημ; same form in Jas 4:7
, which see. Dative case of relative (ω). For the imperative in a subordinate clause see verse 12; 2Th 3:10; 2Ti 4:15; Heb 13:7
. Cowardice never wins against the devil (2Ti 1:7
), but only courage.
The God of all grace
(ο θεος της χαριτος). See
4:10 for ποικιλης χαριτος θεου (of the variegated grace of God).
(δια Σιλουανου). Probably this postscript (12-14) is in Peter's own handwriting, as Paul did (2Th 3:17f.; Ga 6:11-18
). If so, Silvanus (Silas) was the amanuensis and the bearer of the Epistle.
She that is in Babylon, elect together with you
(η εν Βαβυλων συνεκλεκτη). Either actual Babylon or, as most likely, mystical Babylon (Rome) as in the Apocalypse. If Peter
is in Rome about A.D. 65, there is every reason why he should not make that fact plain to the world at large and least of
all to Nero. It is also uncertain whether η συνεκλεκτη (found here alone), "the co-elect woman," means Peter's wife (1Co 9:5
) or the church in "Babylon." The natural way to take it is for Peter's wife. Cf. εκλεκτη κυρια in 2Jo 1:1
(also verse 2Jo 1:13
With a kiss of love
(εν φιληματ αγαπης). As in 1Co 16:20
. The abuse of this custom led to its confinement to men with men and women with women and to its final abandonment (Apost. Const. ii. 57, 12).
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