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Come now, ye rich
(αγε νυν ο πλουσιο). Exclamatory interjection as in
4:13. Direct address to the rich as a class as in 1Ti 6:17
. Apparently here James has in mind the rich as a class, whether believer, as in 1:10f..
, or unbeliever, as in 2:1f..,6
. The plea here is not directly for reform, but a warning of certain judgment (5:1-6) and for Christians "a certain grim comfort
in the hardships of poverty" (Ropes) in
(ο πλουτος). Masculine singular, but occasionally neuter το πλουτος in nominative and accusative (2Co 8:2
). Apparently πλεοτος fulness (from πλεος full, πιμπλημ to fill). "Wealth."
(κατιωτα). Perfect passive indicative (singular for χρυσος and αργυρος are grouped as one) of κατιοω, late verb (from ιος,
rust) with perfective sense of κατα, to rust through (down to the bottom), found only here, Sir. 12:11, Epictetus (Diss. 4, 6, 14).
(ο μισθος). Old word for wages (Mt 20:8
Ye have lived delicately
(ετρυφησατε). First aorist (constative, summary) active indicative of τρυφαω, old verb from τρυφη (luxurious living as in
, from θρυπτω, to break down, to enervate), to lead a soft life, only here in N.T.
Ye have condemned
(κατεδικασατε). First aorist active indicative of καταδικαζω, old verb (from καταδικη, condemnation, Ac 25:15
). The rich controlled the courts of justice.
Be patient therefore
(μακροθυμησατε ουν). A direct corollary (ουν, therefore) from the coming judgment on the wicked rich (5:1-6). First aorist
(constative) active imperative of μακροθυμεω, late compound (Plutarch, LXX) from μακροθυμος (μακροσ, θυμος, of long spirit,
not losing heart), as in Mt 18:26
. The appeal is to the oppressed brethren. Catch your wind for a long race (long-tempered as opposed to short-tempered). See
already the exhortation to patience (υπομονη) in 1:3f..,12
and repeated in
5:11. They will need both submission (υπομενω
5:11) and steadfastness (μακροθυμια
(κα υμεις). As well as the farmers.
(μη στεναζετε). Prohibition with μη and the present active imperative of στεναζω, old verb, to groan. "Stop groaning against
one another," as some were already doing in view of their troubles. In view of the hope of the Second Coming lift up your
For an example
(υποδειγμα). Late word for the old παραδειγμα, from υποδεικνυμ, to copy under, to teach (Lu 6:47
), here for copy to be imitated as in Joh 13:15
, as a warning (Heb 4:11
). Here predicate accusative with τους προφητας (the prophets) as the direct object of λαβετε (second aorist active imperative
We call blessed
(μακαριζομεν). Old word (present active indicative of μακαριζω), from μακαριος (happy), in N.T. only here and Lu 1:48
. "We felicitate." As in 1:3,12; Da 12:12
Above all things
(προ παντων). No connection with what immediately precedes. Probably an allusion to the words of Jesus (Mt 5:34-37
). It is not out of place here. See the same phrase in 1Pe 4:8
. Robinson (Ephesians, p. 279) cites like examples from the papyri at the close of letters. Here it means "But especially" (Ropes).
Is any suffering?
(κακοπαθε τισ;). See verse
10 for κακοπαθια. The verb in N.T. occurs only here and in 2Ti 2:3,9; 4:5
. The lively interrogative is common in the diatribe and suits the style of James.
Is any among you sick?
(ασθενε τις εν υμιν;). Present active indicative of ασθενεω, old verb, to be weak (without strength), often in N.T. (Mt 10:8
The prayer of faith
(η ευχη της πιστεως). Cf.
1:6 for prayer marked by faith.
Confess therefore your sins one to another
(εξομολογεισθε ουν αλληλοις τας αμαρτιας). Present middle (indirect) of εξομολογεω. Confession of sin to God is already assumed.
But public confession of certain sins to one another in the meetings is greatly helpful in many ways. This is not confessing
to one man like a priest in place of the public confession. One may confess to the pastor without confessing to God or to
the church, with little benefit to anybody.
Of like passions with us
(ομοιοπαθης ημιν). Associative-instrumental case ημιν as with ομοιος. This old compound adjective (ομοιοσ, πασχω), suffering
the like with another, in N.T. only here and Ac 14:15
(υετον εδωκεν). This idiom is in the LXX of God as here of heaven (1Sa 12:17; 1Ki 18:1
) and also in Ac 14:17
instead of εβρεξεν of verse
17. Hυετον is old word for rain (from υω, to rain), genuine here, but not in verse
If any one among you do err
(εαν τις εν υμιν πλανηθη). Third-class condition (supposed case) with εαν and the first aorist passive subjunctive of πλαναω,
old verb, to go astray, to wander (Mt 18:12
), figuratively (Heb 5:2
Let him know
(γινωσκετω). Present active imperative third person singular of γινωσκω, but Westcott and Hort read γινωσκετε (know ye) after
B. In either case it is the conclusion of the condition in verse
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