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Let us fear therefore
(φοβηθωμεν ουν). First aorist passive volitive subjunctive of φοβεομα, to be afraid. There is no break in the argument on
. This is a poor chapter division. The Israelites perished because of disbelief. We today face a real peril.
For indeed we have had good tidings preached unto us
(κα γαρ εσμεν ευηγγελισμενο εσμεν). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of ευαγγελιζω (from ευαγγελιον, good news, glad
tidings) to bring good news, used here in its original sense as in verse
6 of the Israelites (ευαγγελισθεντες first aorist passive participle).
(εισερχομεθα). Emphatic futuristic present middle indicative of εισερχομα. We are sure to enter in, we who believe.
Somewhere on this wise
(που ουτως). See
2:6 for που τις for a like indefinite allusion to an Old Testament quotation. Here it is Ge 2:2
(cf. Ex 20:11; 31:17
). Moffatt notes that Philo quotes Ge 2:2
with the same "literary mannerism."
(απολειπετα). Present passive indicative of απολειπω, old verb to leave behind, to remain over. So again in 4:9; 10:26
. Here the infinitive clause (τινας εισελθειν εις αυτην) is the subject of απολειπετα. This left-over promise is not repeated,
though not utilized by the Israelites under Moses nor in the highest sense by Joshua and David.
He again defineth a certain day
(παλιν τινα οριζε ημεραν). Present active indicative of οριζω, old verb to set a limit (ορος, horizon) as in Ac 17:26; Ro 1:4
(Ιησους). The Greek form is Jesus. Condition of the second class (determined as unfulfilled) with ε and aorist indicative
in the condition and αν with the imperfect in the conclusion.
A sabbath rest
(σαββατισμος). Late word from σαββατιζω (Ex 16:30
) to keep the Sabbath, apparently coined by the author (a doubtful passage in Plutarch). Here it is parallel with καταπαυσις
(cf. Re 14:13
61656165 As God did from his (ωσπερ απο των ιδιων ο θεος). It is not cessation of work, but rather of the weariness and pain in toil. The writer pictures salvation as God's rest which man is to share and God will have perfect satisfaction when man is in harmony with him (Dods).
Let us therefore give diligence
(σπουδασωμεν ουν). Volitive subjunctive aorist of σπουδαζω, old verb to hasten (2Ti 4:9
), to be eager and alert (1Th 2:17
). The exhortation has a warning like that in
The word of God
(ο λογος του θεου). That just quoted about the promise of rest and God's rest, but true of any real word of God.
That is not manifest
(αφανης). Old adjective (α privative and φαινω, to show), here only in the N.T. God's microscope can lay bare the smallest
microbe of doubt and sin.
A great high priest
(αρχιερεα μεγαν). The author now takes up the main argument of the Epistle, already alluded to in 1:3; 2:17f..; 3:1
, the priestly work of Jesus as superior to that of the Levitical line (4:14-12:3). Jesus is superior to the prophets (1:1-3),
to angels (1:4-2:18), to Moses (3:1-4:13), he has already shown. Here he only terms Jesus "great" as high priest (a frequent
adjective with high priest in Philo) but the superiority comes out as he proceeds.
That cannot be touched with the feeling
(μη δυναμενον συνπαθησα). "Not able to sympathize with." First aorist passive infinitive of συνπαθεω, late compound verb
from the late adjective συνπαθος (Ro 12:15
), both from συνπασχω, to suffer with (1Co 12:26; Ro 8:17
), occurring in Aristotle and Plutarch, in N.T. only in Hebrews (here and
Let us therefore draw near
(προσερχωμεθα ουν). Present active middle volitive subjunctive of προσερχομα. "Let us keep on coming to" our high priest,
this sympathizing and great high priest. Instead of deserting him, let us make daily use of him. This verb in Hebrews means
reverent approach for worship (7:25; 10:1,22; 11:6
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