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(ο θεος). This Epistle begins like Genesis and the Fourth Gospel with God, who is the Author of the old revelation in the
prophets and of the new in his Son. Verses
1-3 are a proemium (Delitzsch) or introduction to the whole Epistle. The periodic structure of the sentence (1-4) reminds one of Lu 1:1-4, Ro 1:1-7, 1Jo 1:1-4
. The sentence could have concluded with εν υιω in verse
2, but by means of three relatives (ον, δι' ου, ος) the author presents the Son as "the exact counterpart of God" (Moffatt).
At the end of these days
(επ' εσχατου των ημερων τουτων). In contrast with παλα above.
(ων). Absolute and timeless existence (present active participle of ειμ) in contrast with γενομενος in verse
4 like ην in Joh 1:1
(in contrast with εγενετο in
1:14) and like υπαρχων and γενομενος in Php 2:6f
(γενομενος). Second aorist middle participle of γινομα. In contrast with on in verse
(Τιν). "To which individual angel." As a class angels are called sons of God (Elohim) (Ps 29:1
), but no single angel is called God's Son like the Messiah in Ps 2:7
. Dods takes "have I begotten thee" (γεγεννηκα σε, perfect active indicative of γενναω) to refer to the resurrection and ascension
while others refer it to the incarnation.
And when he again bringeth in
(οταν δε παλιν εισαγαγη). Indefinite temporal clause with οταν and second aorist active subjunctive of εισαγω. If παλιν is
taken with εισαγαγη, the reference is to the Second Coming as in
9:28. If παλιν merely introduces another quotation (Ps 97:7
) parallel to κα παλιν in verse
5, the reference is to the incarnation when the angels did worship the Child Jesus (Lu 2:13f.
). There is no way to decide certainly about it.
Of the angels
(προς τους αγγελους). "With reference to" (προς) as in Lu 20:9
. So "of the Son" in verse
8. Note μεν here and δε in verse
8 in carefully balanced contrast. The quotation is from Ps 104:4
(ο θεος). This quotation (the fifth) is from Ps 45:7f
. A Hebrew nuptial ode (επιθαλαμιυμ) for a king treated here as Messianic. It is not certain whether ο θεος is here the vocative
(address with the nominative form as in Joh 20:28
with the Messiah termed θεος as is possible, Joh 1:18
) or ο θεος is nominative (subject or predicate) with εστιν (is) understood: "God is thy throne" or "Thy throne is God." Either
makes good sense.
Hath anointed thee
(εχρισεν σε). First aorist active indicative of χριω, to anoint, from which verb the verbal Χριστος (Anointed One) comes.
See Christ's use of εχρισεν in Lu 4:18
from Isa 66:1
(Κυριε). In the LXX, not in the Hebrew. Quotation (the sixth) from Ps 102:26-28
10-12. Note emphatic position of συ here at the beginning as in verses
11-12 (συ δε). This Messianic Psalm pictures the Son in his Creative work and in his final triumph.
(αυτο). The heavens (ουρανο).
(περιβολαιον). Old word for covering from παριβαλλω, to fling around, as a veil in 1Co 11:15
, nowhere else in N.T.
Hath he said
(ειρηκεν). Perfect active common use of the perfect for permanent record. This seventh quotation is proof of the Son's superiority
as the Son of God (his deity) to angels and is from Ps 110:1
, a Messianic Psalm frequently quoted in Hebrews.
(λειτουργικα πνευματα). Thayer says that λειτουργικος was not found in profane authors, but it occurs in the papyri for "work
tax" (money in place of service) and for religious service also. The word is made from λειτουργια (Lu 1:23; Heb 8:6; 9:21
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