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For yourselves know
(αυτο γαρ οιδατε). This explanatory γαρ takes up in verses
1-12 the allusion in
1:9 about the "report" concerning the entrance (εισοδον, way in, εισ, οδον),
But having suffered before
(αλλα προπαθοντες). Strong adversative αλλα, antithesis to κενη. Appeal to his personal experiences in Thessalonica known
to them (
as ye know
, καθως οιδατε). Second aorist active participle of προπασχω, old compound verb, but here alone in the N.T. The force of προ-
(before) is carried over to the next verb. The participle may be regarded as temporal (Ellicott) or concessive (Moffatt).
(παρακλησις). Persuasive discourse, calling to one's side, for admonition, encouragement, or comfort.
But even as we have been approved by God
(αλλα καθως δεδοκιμασμεθα υπο του θεου). Perfect passive indicative of δοκιμαζω, old verb to put to the test, but here the
tense for completed state means tested and proved and so approved by God. Paul here claims the call of God for his ministry
and the seal of God's blessing on his work and also for that of Silas and Timothy.
Using words of flattery
(εν λογω κολακειας). Literally,
Nor seeking glory of men
(ουτε ζητουντες εξ ανθρωπων δοξαν). "Upon the repudiation of covetousness follows naturally the repudiation of worldly ambition"
(Milligan). See Ac 20:19; 2Co 4:5; Eph 4:2
. This third disclaimer is as strong as the other two. Paul and his associates had not tried to extract praise or glory out
of (εξ) men.
But we were gentle in the midst of you
(αλλα εγενηθημεν νηπιο εν μεσω υμων). Note εγενηθημεν (became), not ημεθα (were). This rendering follows ηπιο instead of
νηπιο (Aleph B D C Vulg. Boh.) which is clearly correct, though Dibelius, Moffatt, Ellicott, Weiss prefer ηπιο as making better
sense. Dibelius terms νηπιο
unmoglich (impossible), but surely that is too strong. Paul is fond of the word νηπιο (babes). Lightfoot admits that he here works
the metaphor to the limit in his passion, but does not mar it as Ellicott holds.
Even so, being affectionately desirous of you
(ουτως ομειρομενο υμων). Clearly the correct text rather than ιμειρομενο from ιμειρω, old verb to long for. But the verb
ομειρομα (Westcott and Hort om., smooth breathing) occurs nowhere else except MSS. in Job 3:21; Ps 62:2
(Symmachus) and the Lycaonian sepulchral inscription (4th cent. A.D.) about the sorrowing parents ομειρομενο περ παιδος,
(μοχθον). Old word for difficult labour, harder than κοπος (toil). In the N.T. only here, 2Th 3:8; 2Co 11:27
. Note accusative case here though genitive with μνημονευω in
57125712 How holily and righteously and unblameably (ως οσιως κα δικαιως κα αμεμπτως). Paul calls the Thessalonians and God as witnesses (μαρτυρες) to his life toward you the believers (υμιν τοις πιστευουσιν) dative of personal interest. He employs three common adverbs that show how holily toward God and how righteously toward men so that they did not blame him and his associates in either respect. So there is a reason for each adverb. All this argues that Paul spent a considerable time in Thessalonica, more than the three sabbaths mentioned by Luke. The pastor ought to live so that his life will bear close inspection.
57135713 As a father with his own children (ως πατηρ τεκνα εαυτου). Change from the figure of the mother-nurse in verse 7. There is ellipse of a principal verb with the participles παρακαλουντεσ, παραμυθουμενοι, μαρτυρουμενο. Lightfoot suggests ενουθετουμεν (we admonished) or εγενηθημεν (we became). The three participles give three phases of the minister's preaching (exhorting, encouraging or consoling, witnessing or testifying). They are all old verbs, but only the first (παρακαλεω) is common in the N.T.
To the end that
(εις το). Final use of εις and the articular infinitive, common idiom in the papyri and Paul uses εις to and the infinitive
fifty times (see again in
3:2), some final, some sub-final, some result (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 989-91).
And for this cause we also
(κα δια τουτο κα ημεις). Note κα twice. We as well as you are grateful for the way the gospel was received in Thessalonica.
Imitators of the churches of God which are in Judea
(μιμητα των εκκλησιων του θεου των ουσων εν τη Ιουδαια). On μιμητα see on
1:5. "This passage, implying an affectionate admiration of the Jewish churches on the part of St. Paul, and thus entirely
bearing out the impression produced by the narrative in the Acts, is entirely subversive of the theory maintained by some
and based on a misconception of Ga 2
, and by the fiction of the Pseudo-Clementines, of the feud existing between St. Paul and the Twelve" (Lightfoot).
Who both killed the Lord Jesus and the prophets
(των κα τον Κυριον αποκτειναντων Ιησουν κα τους προφητας). First aorist active participle of αποκτεινω. Vivid justification
of his praise of the churches in Judea. The Jews killed the prophets before the Lord Jesus who reminded them of their guilt
). Paul, as Peter (Ac 2:23
), lays the guilt of the death of Christ on the Jews.
(κωλυοντων ημας). Explanatory participle of the idea in εναντιων. They show their hostility to Paul at every turn. Right
here in Corinth, where Paul is when he writes, they had already shown venomous hostility toward Paul as Luke makes plain (Ac 18:6ff.
). They not simply oppose his work among the Jews, but also to the Gentiles (εθνεσ, nations outside of the Abrahamic covenant
as they understood it).
Being bereaved of you
(απορφανισθεντες αφ' υμων). First aorist passive participle of the rare compound verb (απορφανιζω, in Aeschylus, but nowhere
else in N.T.). Literally,
(διοτ). As in
Crown of glorying
(στεφανος καυχησεως). When a king or conqueror came on a visit he was given a chaplet of glorying. Paul is answering the
insinuation that he did not really wish to come.
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