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Then after the space of fourteen years I went up again
(επειτα δια δεκατεσσαρων ετων παλιν ανεβην) This use of δια for interval between is common enough. Paul is not giving a recital
of his visits to Jerusalem, but of his points of contact with the apostles in Jerusalem. As already observed, he here refers
to the Jerusalem Conference given by Luke in Ac 15
when Paul and Barnabas were endorsed by the apostles and elders and the church over the protest of the Judaizers who had attacked
them in Antioch (Ac 15:1f.
). But Paul passes by another visit to Jerusalem, that in Ac 11:30
when Barnabas and Saul brought alms from Antioch to Jerusalem and delivered them to "the elders" with no mention of the apostles
who were probably out of the city since the events in Ac 12
apparently preceded that visit and Peter had left for another place (Ac 12:17
). Paul here gives the inside view of this private conference in Jerusalem that came in between the two public meetings (Ac 15:4,6-29
(κατα αποκαλυψιν). In Ac 15:2
the church sent them. But surely there is no inconsistency here.
Being a Greek
(Hελλην ων). Concessive participle, though he was a Greek.
But because of the false brethren privately brought in
(δια δε τους παρεισακτους ψευδαδελφους). Late verbal adjective παρεισακτος from the double compound verb παρεισαγω, found
in papyri in the sense of brought in by the side or on the sly as here. Evidently some of the Judaizers or sympathizers whom
Paul had not invited had come in as often happens. Paul terms them "false brethren" like "the false apostles" in 2Co 11:13
of the Judaizers in Corinth.
No, not for an hour
(ουδε προς ωραν). Pointed denial that he and Barnabas yielded at all "in the way of subjection" (τη υποταγη, in the subjection
demanded of them). The compromisers pleaded for the circumcision of Titus "because of the false brethren" in order to have
peace. The old verb εικω, to yield, occurs here alone in the N.T. See 2Co 9:13
(τ). Something, not somebody. Paul refers to the Big Three (Cephas, James, and John). He seems a bit embarrassed in the reference.
He means no disrespect, but he asserts his independence sharply in a tangled sentence with two parentheses (dashes in Westcott
(αλλα τουναντιον). But on the contrary (accusative of general reference, το εναντιον). So far from the three championing
the cause of the Judaizers as some hoped or even the position of the compromisers in verses 4f.
, they came boldly to Paul's side after hearing the case argued in the private conference. This is the obvious interpretation
rather than the view that Peter, James, and John first proposed the circumcision of Titus and afterwards surrendered to Paul's
52335233 He that wrought for Peter unto the apostleship of the circumcision (ο γαρ ενεργησας Πετρω εις αποστολην της περιτομης). Paul here definitely recognizes Peter's leadership (apostleship, αποστολην, late word, already in Ac 1:25; 1Co 9:2 ) to the Jews and asserts that Peter acknowledges his apostleship to the Gentiles. This is a complete answer to the Judaizers who denied the genuineness of Paul's apostleship because he was not one of the twelve.
They who were reputed to be pillars
(ο δοκουντες στυλο εινα). They had that reputation (δοκουντες) and Paul accepts them as such. Στυλο, old word for pillars,
columns, as of fire (Re 10:1
). So of the church (1Ti 3:15
). These were the Pillar Apostles.
(μονον). One item was emphasized.
I resisted him to the face
(κατα προσωπον αυτω αντεστην). Second aorist active indicative (intransitive) of ανθιστημ. "I stood against him face to face."
In Jerusalem Paul faced Peter as his equal in rank and sphere of work. In Antioch he looked him in the eye as his superior
in character and courage.
For before that certain came from James
(προ του γαρ ελθειν τινας απο Ιακωβου). The reason (γαρ) for Paul's condemnation of Peter. Articular infinitive in the genitive
after προ with the accusative of general reference (τινας), "for before the coming as to some from James." Does Paul mean
to say that these "certain" ones had been sent by James to Antioch to inspect the conduct of Peter and the other Jewish brethren?
Some scholars think so. No doubt these brethren let the idea get out that they were emissaries "from James." But that idea
is inconsistent with the position of James as president of the conference and the author of the resolution securing liberty
to the Gentile Christians. No doubt these brethren threatened Peter to tell James and the church about his conduct and they
reminded Peter of his previous arraignment before the Jerusalem Church on this very charge (Ac 11:1-18
). As a matter of fact the Jerusalem Conference did not discuss the matter of social relations between Jews and Gentiles though
that was the charge made against Peter (Ac 11:1ff.
Dissembled likewise with him
(συνυπεκριθησαν αυτω κα). First aorist passive indicative of the double compound verb συνυποκρινομα, a late word often in
Polybius, only here in N.T. One example in Polybius means to pretend to act a part with. That idea here would help the case
of the rest of the Jews, but does not accord with Paul's presentation.
But when I saw
(Αλλ' οτε ειδον). Paul did see and saw it in time to speak.
52405240 Not sinners of the Gentiles (ουκ εξ εθνων αμαρτωλο). The Jews regarded all Gentiles as "sinners" in contrast with themselves (cf. Mt 26:45 "sinners" and Lu 18:32 "Gentiles"). It is not clear whether verses 15-21 were spoken by Paul to Peter or whether Paul is now simply addressing the Galatians in the light of the controversy with Peter. Burton thinks that he is "mentally addressing Peter, if not quoting from what he said to him."
Is not justified
(ου δικαιουτα). Present passive indicative of δικαιοω, an old causative verb from δικαιος, righteous (from δικε, right),
to make righteous, to declare righteous. It is made like αξιοω, to deem worthy, and κοινοω, to consider common. It is one
of the great Pauline words along with δικαιοσυνη, righteousness. The two ways of getting right with God are here set forth:
by faith in Christ Jesus (objective genitive), by the works of the law (by keeping all the law in the most minute fashion,
the way of the Pharisees). Paul knew them both (see Ro 7
). In his first recorded sermon the same contrast is made that we have here (Ac 13:39
) with the same word δικαιοω, employed. It is the heart of his message in all his Epistles. The terms faith (πιστις), righteousness
(δικαιοσυνη), law (νομος), works (εργα) occur more frequently in Galatians and Romans because Paul is dealing directly with
the problem in opposition to the Judaizers who contended that Gentiles had to become Jews to be saved. The whole issue is
here in an acute form.
We ourselves were found sinners
(ευρεθημεν κα αυτο αμαρτωλο). Like the Gentiles, Jews who thought they were not sinners, when brought close to Christ, found
that they were. Paul felt like the chief of sinners.
52435243 A transgressor (παραβατην). Peter, by his shifts had contradicted himself helplessly as Paul shows by this condition. When he lived like a Gentile, he tore down the ceremonial law. When he lived like a Jew, he tore down salvation by grace.
I have been crucified with Christ
(Χριστω συνεσταυρωμα). One of Paul's greatest mystical sayings. Perfect passive indicative of συσταυροω with the associative
instrumental case (Χριστω). Paul uses the same word in Ro 6:6
for the same idea. In the Gospels it occurs of literal crucifixion about the robbers and Christ (Mt 27:44; Mr 15:32; Joh 19:32
). Paul died to the law and was crucified with Christ. He uses often the idea of dying with Christ (Ga 5:24; 6:14; Ro 6:8; Col 2:20
) and burial with Christ also (Ro 6:4; Col 2:12
I do not make void the grace of God
(ουκ αθετω την χαριν του θεου). Common word in LXX and Polybius and on, to make ineffective (α privative and τιθημ, to place
or put). Some critic would charge him with that after his claim to such a close mystic union with Christ.
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