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Then we knew
(τοτε επεγνωμεν). Second aorist (ingressive) active indicative of επιγινωσκω. Then we recognized. See
(ο βαρβαρο). The Greeks called all men "barbarians" who did not speak Greek (Ro 1:14
), not "barbarians" in our sense of rude and uncivilized, but simply "foreign folk." Diodorus Siculus (V. 12) says that it
was a colony of the Phoenicians and so their language was Punic (Page). The word originally meant an uncouth repetition (βαρβαρ)
not understood by others (1Co 14:11
). In Col 3:11
Paul couples it with Scythian as certainly not Christian. These are (with verse
4 below) the only N.T. instances.
When Paul had gathered
(συστρεψαντος του Παυλου). Genitive absolute with first aorist active participle of συστρεφω, old verb to twist or turn together
or roll into a bundle. In N.T. only here and Mt 17:22
(το θηριον). Diminutive of θηρ and so little beast. See on Mr 1:13
. Aristotle and the medical writers apply the word to venomous serpents, the viper in particular (Knowling), as Luke does
here. Vincent calls attention to the curious history of our word "treacle" for molasses (Latin theriaca) from θηριακη, an antidote made from the flesh of vipers. Coverdale translates Jer 8:22
: "There is no more treacle in Gilead." Jeremy Taylor: "We kill the viper and make treacle of him."
But they expected
(ο δε προσεδοκων). Imperfect active, were expecting, continued to expect.
To the chief man of the island
(τω πρωτω της νησου). An official title correct in Malta (Ramsay, St. Paul, p. 343). An inscription in Malta calls Prudens "Primate of the Maltese" (πρωτος Μελιταιων). Here it is plainly a title and
not the common use seen in 13:50; 25:2; 28:17
(κατακεισθα). Common verb for the sick (Mr 1:30; Joh 5:6
Which had wintered
(παρακεχειμακοτ). Perfect active participle of παραχειμαζω, to pass the winter. Old verb, in N.T. only 27:12; 28:11; 1Co 16:6; Tit 3:12
. The locative case agreeing with πλοιω. Navigation in the Mediterranean usually opened up in February (always by March),
spring beginning on Feb. 9 (Page).
(καταχθεντες). First aorist passive participle of καταγω, to go down to land, just the opposite of ανηχθημεν in verse
11 from αναγω, to go up to sea.
We made a circuit
(περιελθοντες). Second aorist active of περιερχομα, to go around, old verb, already in
19:13. See also Heb 11:37; 1Ti 5:13
. But Westcott and Hort read περιελοντες after Aleph B (from περιαιρεω) as in
27:40, though here it could only mean casting loose, for which no other authority exists. At any rate the ship had to tack
to reach Rhegium and was not able to make a straight course (ενθυδρομεω,
Where we found brethren
(ου ευροντες αδελφους). Possibly from Alexandria, but, as Blass observes, it is no more strange to find "brethren" in Christ
in Puteoli when Paul arrives than in Rome. There was a large Jewish quarter.
When they heard of us
(ακουσαντες τα περ ημων). How "they heard the things concerning us" we do not know. Good news had its way of travel even
before the days of telegraph, telephone, daily papers. Possibly Julius had to send on special couriers with news of his arrival
after the shipwreck. Possibly some of the brethren in Puteoli at once (beginning of the week) sent on news to the brethren
in Rome. The church in Rome had long ago received Paul's letter from Corinth at the hands of Phoebe.
Paul was suffered to abide by himself
(επετραπη τω Παυλω μενειν καθ' εαυτον). Second aorist passive of επιτρεπο, to permit or allow. Literally, "It was permitted
to Paul to abide by himself." Some late documents (Textus Receptus) here add: "The centurion delivered the prisoners to the
captain of the guard" (or the στρατοπεδαρχ). This officer used to be considered Burrus who was Prefect of the Praetorian Guard
A.D. 51-62. But it is by no means certain that Julius turned the prisoners over to this officer. It seems more likely that
Julius would report to the captain of the Peregrini. If so, we may be sure that Julius would give a good report of Paul to
this officer who would be kindly disposed and would allow Paul comparative freedom (living by himself, in his lodging, verse
23, his own hired house verse
30, though still chained to a soldier).
Those that were the chief of the Jews
(τους οντας των Ιουδαιων πρωτους). This use of πρωτος for the leading men of a city or among the Jews we have already had
in 13:50; 25:2; Lu 19:47
. Literally, "Those that were first among the Jews." The position of the participle οντας between the article and the adjective
πρωτους is regular (Robertson, Grammar, p. 777).
When they had examined me
(ανακριναντες με). First aorist active participle of ανακρινω, the same verb used already in 24:8; 25:6,26
of the judicial examinations by Felix and Festus.
When the Jews spake against it
(αντιλεγοντων των Ιουδαιων). Genitive absolute again, αντιλεγοντων (αντιλεγω) common verb for speaking against as in
13:45. Clementer dicit (Bengel). "The word is a mild one to describe the bitter enmity of the Jews" (Knowling).
Did I intreat
(παρεκαλεσα). Did I invite you.
(γραμματα). Official documents from the Sanhedrin about the charges against Paul.
But we desire
(αξιουμεν δε). Old verb αξιοω, to deem worthy, to think right or proper as in
15:38 which see. They think it only fair to hear Paul's side of his case.
(ταξαμενο). First aorist middle participle of τασσω. Formal arrangement as in Mt 28:16
when Jesus appointed the mountain for his meeting in Galilee.
(ο μεν επειθοντο). Imperfect passive indicative of πειθω. More exactly, "some began to be persuaded" (inchoative).
When they agreed not
(ασυμφωνο οντες). Old adjective, only here in N.T., double compound (α privative, συμ, φωνη), without symphony, out of harmony,
dissonant, discordant. It was a triumph to gain adherents at all in such an audience.
41024102 Say (ειπον). Second aorist active imperative instead of the old form ειπε. The quotation is from Isa 6:9,10 . This very passage is quoted by Jesus (Mt 13:14,15; Mr 4:12; Lu 8:10 ) in explanation of his use of parables and in Joh 12:40 the very point made by Paul here, "the disbelief of the Jews in Jesus" (Page). See on Matthew for discussion of the language used. Here the first time ("go to this people and say") does not occur in Matthew. It is a solemn dirge of the doom of the Jews for their rejection of the Messiah foreseen so long ago by Isaiah.
(τουτο το σωτηριον). Adjective from σωτηρ (Saviour), saving, bringing salvation. Common in the old Greek. The neuter as here
often in LXX (as Ps 67:2
) as substantive like σωτηρια (cf. Lu 3:6
Two whole years
(διετιαν ολην). Only here in N.T. and
24:27 which see. During these busy years in Rome Paul wrote Philippians, Philemon, Colossians, Ephesians, Epistles that would
immortalize any man, unless, forsooth, one or more of them was written from Ephesus or Caesarea, which has not yet been proven.
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