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After the uproar was ceased
(μετα το παυσασθα τον θορυβον). Literally, after the ceasing (accusative of articular aorist middle infinitive of παυω, to
make cease) as to the uproar (accusative of general reference). Noise and riot, already in Mt 26:5; 27:24; Mr 5:38; 14:2
; and see in Ac 21:34; 24:18
. Pictures the whole incident as bustle and confusion.
(τα μερη εκεινα). We have no way of knowing why Luke did not tell of Paul's stay in Troas (2Co 2:12f.
) nor of meeting Titus in Macedonia (2Co 2:13-7:16
) nor of Paul's visit to Illyricum (Ro 15:19f.
) to give time for II Corinthians to do its work (2Co 13
), one of the most stirring experiences in Paul's whole career when he opened his heart to the Corinthians and won final victory
in the church by the help of Titus who also helped him round up the great collection in Achaia. He wrote II Corinthians during
this period after Titus arrived from Corinth. The unity of II Corinthians is here assumed. Paul probably met Luke again in
Macedonia, but all this is passed by except by the general phrase: "had given them much exhortation" (παρακαλεσας αυτους λογω
πολλω). Literally, "having exhorted them (the Macedonian brethren) with much talk" (instrumental case).
When he had spent three months there
(ποιησας μηνας τρεις). Literally, "having done three months," the same idiom in Ac 14:33; 18:23; Jas 5:13
. During this period Paul may have written Galatians as Lightfoot argued and certainly did Romans. We do not have to say that
Luke was ignorant of Paul's work during this period, only that he did not choose to enlarge upon it.
38163816 Accompanied him (συνειπετο αυτω). Imperfect of συνεπομα, old and common verb, but only here in the N.T. The singular is used agreeing with the first name mentioned Σωπατρος and to be supplied with each of the others. Textus Receptus adds here "into Asia" (αχρ της Ασιας, as far as Asia), but the best documents (Aleph B Vulg. Sah Boh) do not have it. As a matter of fact, Trophimus went as far as Jerusalem (Ac 21:29 ) and Aristarchus as far as Rome (27:2; Col 4:10 ), The phrase could apply only to Sopatros. It is not clear though probable that Luke means to say that these seven brethren, delegates of the various churches (2Co 8:19-23 ) started from Corinth with Paul. Luke notes the fact that they accompanied Paul, but the party may really have been made up at Philippi where Luke himself joined Paul, the rest of the party having gone on to Troas (20:5f.. ). These were from Roman provinces that shared in the collection (Galatia, Asia, Macedonia, Achaia). In this list three were from Macedonia, Sopater of Beroea, Aristarchus and Secundus of Thessalonica; two from Galatia, Gaius of Derbe and Timothy of Lystra; two from Asia, Tychicus and Trophimus. It is a bit curious that none are named from Achaia. Had Corinth failed after all (2Co 8; 9 ) to raise its share of the collection after such eager pledging? Rackham suggests that they may have turned their part over directly to Paul. Luke joined Paul in Philippi and could have handled the money from Achaia. It was an important event and Paul took the utmost pains to remove any opportunity for scandal in the handling of the funds.
38173817 Were waiting for us in Troas (εμενον ημας εν Τροιαδ). Here again we have "us" for the first time since chapter 16 where Paul was with Luke in Philippi. Had Luke remained all this time in Philippi? We do not know, but he is with Paul now till Rome is reached. The seven brethren of verse 4 went on ahead from Philippi to Troas while Paul remained with Luke in Philippi.
After the days of unleavened bread
(μετα τας ημερας των αζυμων). Paul was a Jew, though a Christian, and observed the Jewish feasts, though he protested against
Gentiles being forced to do it (Ga 4:10; Col 2:16
). Was Luke a proselyte because he notes the Jewish feasts as here and in Ac 27:9
? He may have noted them merely because Paul observed them. But this passover was a year after that in Ephesus when Paul expected
to remain there till Pentecost (1Co 16:8
). He was hoping now to reach Jerusalem by Pentecost (Ac 20:16
) as he did. We do not know the precise year, possibly A.D. 56 or 57.
Upon the first day of the week
(εν δε μια των σαββατων). The cardinal μια used here for the ordinal πρωτη (Mr 16:9
) like the Hebrew ehadh as in Mr 16:2; Mt 28:1; Lu 24:1; Joh 20:1
and in harmony with the Koine idiom (Robertson, Grammar, p. 671). Either the singular (Mr 16:9
) σαββατου or the plural σαββατον as here was used for the week (sabbath to sabbath). For the first time here we have services
mentioned on the first day of the week though in 1Co 16:2
it is implied by the collections stored on that day. In Re 1:10
the Lord's day seems to be the day of the week on which Jesus rose from the grave. Worship on the first day of the week instead
of the seventh naturally arose in Gentile churches, though Joh 20:26
seems to mean that from the very start the disciples began to meet on the first (or eighth) day. But liberty was allowed as
Paul makes plain in Ro 14:5f
(λαμπαδες ικανα). It was dark at night since the full moon (passover) was three weeks behind. These lamps were probably filled
with oil and had wicks that flickered and smoked. They would not meet in the dark.
(καθεζομενος). Sitting (present middle participle describing his posture).
Fell on him
(επεπεσεν αυτω). Second aorist active indicative of επιπιπτω with dative case as Elijah did (1Ki 17:21
) and Elisha (2Ki 4:34
When he was gone up
(αναβας). Second aorist active participle in sharp contrast to καταβας (went down) of verse
They brought the lad alive
(ηγαγον τον παιδα ζωντα). Second aorist active indicative of αγω. Evidently the special friends of the lad who now either
brought him back to the room or (Rendall) took him home to his family. Knowling holds that ζωντα (living) here is pointless
unless he had been dead. He had been taken up dead and now they brought him living.
To the ship
(επ το πλοιον). Note article. It is possible that Paul's party had chartered a coasting vessel from Philippi or Troas to
take them to Patara in Lycia. Hence the boat stopped when and where Paul wished. That is possible, but not certain, for Paul
could simply have accommodated himself to the plans of the ship's managers.
(συνεβαλλεν ημιν). Imperfect active where the aorist (συνεβαλεν, as C D have it) would seem more natural. It may mean that
as soon as (ως) Paul "came near or began to meet us" (inchoative imperfect), we picked him up. Luke alone in the N.T. uses
συνβαλλω to bring or come together either in a friendly sense as here or as enemies (Lu 14:31
We came over against Chios
(κατηντησαμεν αντικρυς Χιου). Luke uses this Koine verb several times (16:1; 18:19
), meaning to come right down in front of and the notion of αντα is made plainer by αντικρυς, face to face with, common "improper"
preposition only here in the N.T. They probably lay off the coast (anchoring) during the night instead of putting into the
harbour. The Island of Chios is about eight miles from the mainland.
For Paul had determined
(κεκρικε γαρ ο Παυλος). Past perfect active (correct text) of κρινω and not the aorist εκρινε. Either Paul controlled the
ship or the captain was willing to oblige him.
Called to him
(μετεκαλεσατο). Aorist middle (indirect) indicative of μετακαλεω, old verb to call from one place to another (μετα for "change"),
middle to call to oneself, only in Acts in the N.T. (7:14; 10:32; 20:17; 24:25
). Ephesus was some thirty miles, a stiff day's journey each way. They would be with Paul the third day of the stay in Miletus.
Ye yourselves know
(υμεις επιστασθε). Pronoun expressed and emphatic. He appeals to their personal knowledge of his life in Ephesus.
How that I shrank not
(ως ουδεν υπεστειλαμεν). Still indirect discourse (question) after επιστασθε (ye know) with ως like πως in verse
18. First aorist middle of υποστελλω, old verb to draw under or back. It was so used of drawing back or down sails on a ship
and, as Paul had so recently been on the sea, that may be the metaphor here. But it is not necessarily so as the direct middle
here makes good sense and is frequent, to withdraw oneself, to cower, to shrink, to conceal, to dissemble as in Hab 2:4
). Demosthenes so used it to shrink from declaring out of fear for others. This open candour of Paul is supported by his Epistles
(1Th 2:4,11; 2Co 4:2; Ga 1:10
(διαμαρτυρομενος). As Peter did (Ac 2:40
) where Luke uses this same word thoroughly Lucan and Pauline. So again in verses 23,24
. Paul here as in Ro 1:16
includes both Jews and Greeks, to the Jew first.
Bound in the spirit
(δεδεμενος τω πνευματ). Perfect passive participle of δεω, to bind, with the locative case. "Bound in my spirit" he means,
19:21, from a high sense of duty. The mention of "the Holy Spirit" specifically in verse
23 seems to be in contrast to his own spirit here. His own spirit was under the control of the Holy Spirit (Ro 8:16
) and the sense does not differ greatly.
(πλην οτ). The οτ clause is really in the ablative case after πλην, here a preposition as in Php 1:18
, this idiom πλην οτ occasionally in ancient Greek.
But I hold not my life of any account
(αλλ' ουδενος λογου ποιουμα την ψυχην). Neat Greek idiom, accusative ψυχην and genitive λογου and then Paul adds "dear unto
myself" (τιμιαν εμαυτω) in apposition with ψυχην (really a combination of two constructions).
And now, behold
(κα νυν, ιδου). Second time and solemn reminder as in verse
(μαρτυρομα). Elsewhere in the N.T. only in Paul's Epistles (Ga 5:3; Eph 4:17; 1Th 2:12
). It means "I call to witness" while μαρτυρεω means "I bear witness."
38383838 Paul here repeats the very words and idioms used in verse 20, adding "the whole counsel of God" (πασαν την βουλην του θεου). All the counsel of God that concerned Paul's work and nothing inconsistent with the purpose of God of redemption through Christ Jesus (Page).
Take heed unto yourselves
(προσεχετε εαυτοις). The full phrase had τον νουν, hold your mind on yourselves (or other object in the dative), as often
in old writers and in Job 7:17
. But the ancients often used the idiom with νουν understood, but not expressed as here and Ac 5:35; Lu 12:1; 17:3; 21:34; 1Ti 1:4; 3:8; 4:13
. Επεχε is so used in 1Ti 4:16
After my departing
(μετα την αφιξιν μου). Not his death, but his departure from them. From αφικνεομα and usually meant arrival, but departure
in Herodotus IX. 17, 76 as here.
From among your own selves
(εξ υμων αυτων). In sheep's clothing just as Jesus had foretold. The outcome fully justified Paul's apprehensions as we see
in Colossians, Ephesians, I and II Timothy, Revelation. False philosophy, immorality, asceticism will lead some astray (Col 2:8,18; Eph 4:14; 5:6
). John will picture "antichrists" who went out from us because they were not of us (1Jo 2:18f.
). There is a false optimism that is complacently blind as well as a despondent pessimism that gives up the fight.
Wherefore watch ye
(διο γρηγορειτε). Paul has concluded his defence of himself and his warning. Now he exhorts on the basis of it (διο) because
of which thing. The very command of Jesus concerning the perils before his return as in Mr 13:35
(γρηγορειτε), the very form (late present imperative from the second perfect εγρηγορα of εγειρω, to arouse). Stay awake.
(κα τα νυν). Same phrase as in verses 22,25
save that ιδου (behold) is wanting and the article τα occurs before νυν, accusative of general reference. And as to the present
things (or situation) as in
38443844 No man's silver or gold or apparel (αργυριου η χρυσιου η ιματισμου ουδενος). Genitive case after επεθυμησα. One of the slanders against Paul was that he was raising this collection, ostensibly for the poor, really for himself (2Co 12:17f. ). He includes "apparel" because oriental wealth consisted largely in fine apparel (not old worn out clothes). See Ge 24:53; 2Ki 5:5; Ps 45:13f.; Mt 6:19 . Paul did not preach just for money.
(αυτο). Intensive pronoun. Certainly they knew that the church in Ephesus had not supported Paul while there.
I gave you an example
(υπεδειξα). First aorist active indicative of υποδεικνυμ, old verb to show under one's eyes, to give object lesson, by deed
as well as by word (Lu 6:47
). Hυποδειγμα means example (Joh 13:15; Jas 5:10
). So Paul appeals to his example in 1Co 11:1; Php 3:17
. Παντα is accusative plural of general reference (in all things).
38473847 He kneeled down (θεις τα γονατα αυτου). Second aorist active participle of τιθημ, to place. The very idiom used in 7:60 of Stephen. Not in ancient writers and only six times in the N.T. (Mr 15:19; Lu 22:41; Ac 7:60; 9:40; 20:36; 21:5 ). Certainly kneeling in prayer is a fitting attitude (cf. Jesus, Lu 22:41 ), though not the only proper one (Mt 6:5 ). Paul apparently prayed aloud (προσηυξατο).
They all wept sore
(ικανος κλαυθμος εγενετο παντων). Literally, There came considerable weeping of all (on the part of all, genitive case).
(οδυνωμενο). Present middle participle of οδυναω, old verb to cause intense pain, to torment (Lu 16:24
), middle to distress oneself (Lu 2:48; Ac 20:38
). Nowhere else in N.T.
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