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They entered together
(κατα το αυτο εισελθειν). Like επ το αυτο in
3:1. The infinitive εισελθειν is the subject of εγενετο.
That were disobedient
(ο απειθησαντες). First aorist active articular participle, not the present απειθουντες as the Textus Receptus has it. But
the meaning is probably the Jews that disbelieved, rather than that disobeyed. Strictly απειθεω does mean to disobey and απιστεω
to disbelieve, but that distinction is not observed in Joh 3:36
nor in Ac 19:9; 28:24
. The word απειθεω means to be απειθης, to be unwilling to be persuaded or to withhold belief and then also to withhold obedience.
The two meanings run into one another. To disbelieve the word of God is to disobey God.
36063606 Long time therefore (ικανον μεν ουν χρονον). Accusative of duration of time (possibly six months) and note μεν ουν. There is an antithesis in εσχισθη δε (verse 4) and in verse 5 (εγενετο δε). After the persecution and vindication there was a season of great opportunity which Paul and Barnabas used to the full, "speaking boldly" (παρρησιαζομενο as in 13:46 at Antioch in Pisidia, "in the Lord" (επ τω κυριω), upon the basis of the Lord Jesus as in 4:17f . And the Lord Jesus "bore witness to the word of his grace" as he always does, "granting signs and wonders to be done by their hands" (διδοντ σημεια κα τερατα γινεσθα δια των χειρων αυτων). Present participle (διδοντ) and present infinitive (γινεσθα) repetition of both signs and wonders (note both words) just as had happened with Peter and John and the other apostles (2:43; 4:29f..; 5:12 ; cf. Heb 2:4 ). The time of peace could not last forever with such a work of grace as this. A second explosion of persecution was bound to come and some of the MSS. actually have εκ δευτερου (a second time).
36073607 But the multitude of the city was divided (εσχισθη δε το πληθος της πολεως). First aorist passive indicative of σχιζω, old verb to split, to make a schism or factions as Sadducees and Pharisees (23:7). This division was within the Gentile populace. Part held (ο μεν ησαν), literally "some were with the Jews" (συν τοις Ιουδαιοις), part with the apostles (ο δε συν τοις αποστολοις). Common demonstrative of contrast (ο μεν, ο δε, Robertson, Grammar, p. 694). The Jewish leaders made some impression on the Gentiles as at Antioch in Pisidia and later at Thessalonica (17:4f.. ). This is the first time in the Acts that Paul and Barnabas are termed "apostles" (see also verse 14). Elsewhere in the Acts the word is restricted to the twelve. Certainly Luke does not here employ it in that technical sense. To have followed Jesus in his ministry and to have seen the Risen Christ was essential to the technical use (1:22f.. ). Whether Barnabas had seen the Risen Christ we do not know, but certainly Paul had (1Co 9:1f.; 15:8 ). Paul claimed to be an apostle on a par with the twelve (Ga 1:1,16-18 ). The word originally means simply one sent (Joh 13:16 ) like messengers of the churches with the collection (2Co 8:23 ). The Jews used it of those sent from Jerusalem to collect the temple tribute. Paul applies the word to James the Lord's brother (Ga 1:19 ), to Epaphroditus (Php 2:25 ) as the messenger of the church in Philippi, to Silvanus and Timothy (1Th 2:6; Ac 18:5 ), apparently to Apollos (1Co 4:9 ), and to Andronicus and Junias (Ro 16:6f. ). He even calls the Judaizers "false apostles" (2Co 11:13 ).
(ορμη). A rush or impulse as in Jas 3:4
. Old word, but only twice in the N.T. (here and James). It probably denotes not an actual attack so much as the open start,
the co-operation of both Jews and Gentiles (the disaffected portion), "with their rulers" (συν τοις αρχουσιν αυτων), that
is the rulers of the Jewish synagogue (13:27). The city officials would hardly join in a mob like this, though Hackett and
Rackham think that the city magistrates were also involved as in Antioch in Pisidia (13:50).
They became aware of it
(συνιδοντες). Second aorist (ingressive) active participle of συνοραω (συνειδον), old word to see together, to become conscious
of as already in
12:12. In the N.T. only by Luke and Paul.
36103610 And there they preached the gospel (κακε ευαγγελιζομενο ησαν). Periphrastic imperfect middle. We are to think of extensive evangelistic work perhaps with the assistance of disciples from Antioch and Iconium since Paul and Barnabas could not speak Lycaonian. Κακε is crasis for κα εκε.
(εν Λυστροις). Neuter plural as in 16:2; 2Ti 3:11
while feminine singular in 14:6,21; 16:1
. There was apparently no synagogue in Lystra and so not many Jews. Paul and Barnabas had to do open-air preaching and probably
had difficulty in being understood by the natives though both Greek and Latin inscriptions were discovered here by Professor
Sterrett in 1885. The incident narrated here (verses
8-18) shows how they got a real hearing among these rude heathen.
(ουτος). Just "this one."
(ορθος). Predicate adjective. In this sense Galen and Hippocrates frequently use ορθος (erect, straight). Paul spoke in a
loud (μεγαλη) voice so that all could hear and know.
Lifted up their voice
(επηραν την φωνην αυτων). First aorist active of επαιρω. In their excitement they elevated their voices.
(εκαλουν). Inchoative imperfect began to call.
Whose temple was before the city
(του οντος προ της πωλεως). The god (Zeus) is identified with his temple. He had a statue and temple there.
(ακουσαντες). Such elaborate preparation "with the multitudes" (συν τοις οχλοις) spread rumours and some who spoke Greek
told Paul and Barnabas. It is possible that the priest of Jupiter may have sent a formal request that the visiting "gods"
might come out to the statue by the temple gates to make it a grand occasion. They rent their garments (διαρρηξαντες). First
aorist active participle from διαρρηγνυμ, old verb to rend in two. Like the high priest in Mt 26:65
as if an act of sacrilege was about to be committed. It was strange conduct for the supposed gods!
(ανδρες). Literally, Men. Abrupt, but courteous.
In the generations gone by
(εν ταις παρωιχημεναις γενεαις). Perfect middle participle from παροιχομα, to go by, old verb, here alone in the N.T.
(καιτο). Old Greek compound particle (κα το). In the N.T. twice only, once with finite verb as here, once with the participle
(μολις). Adverb in same sense as old μογις, from μολος, toil.
But there came thither Jews from Antioch and Iconium
(Επηλθαν δε απο Αντιοχειας κα Ικονιου Ιουδαιο). Came to or upon them, επηλθαν, second aorist (ingressive) indicative of επερχομα.
Whether news of the miracle had reached those cities we do not know. These may have been travelling grain merchants. At any
rate there was an interval in which Paul and Barnabas won some disciples (verse
22). There would be a natural reaction, even revulsion, in the minds of many who had come so near to worshipping Paul and
Barnabas. The pendulum swings easily from one extreme to the other. The hostile Jews from Antioch and Iconium may even have
followed Paul and Barnabas along the fine Roman road on purpose to keep them on the run. They had driven them out of Antioch
and out of Iconium and now appear at Lystra at an opportune moment for their work.
Stood round about him
(κυκλωσαντων αυτον). Genitive absolute with first aorist active participle of κυκλοω, old verb from κυκλος (circle, cycle)
to make a circle round, to encircle. The would-be murderers left and a group of disciples gathered round to see if Paul was
dead or alive and, if dead, to bury him. In that group Timothy may very well have been along with Eunice and Barnabas. Timothy,
a lad of about fifteen, would not soon forget that solemn scene (2Ti 3:11
). But Paul suddenly (apparently a miraculous recovery) rose up (αναστας) and entered the city to the surprise and joy of
the disciples who were willing to brave persecution with Paul.
When they had preached the gospel to that city
(ευαγγελισαμενο την πολιν εκεινην). Having evangelized (first aorist middle participle) that city, a smaller city and apparently
with no trouble from the Jews.
(επιστηριζοντες). Late verb (in LXX), in N.T. only in Ac 14:22; 15:32,41
, to make more firm, to give additional (επ) strength. Each time in Acts the word is used concerning these churches.
And when they had appointed for them elders in every church
(χειροτονησαντες δε αυτοις κατ' εκκλησιαν πρεσβυτερους). They needed also some form of organization, though already churches.
Note distributive use of κατα with εκκλησιαν (2:46; 5:42; Tit 1:5
). Χειροτονεω (from χειροτονος, extending the hand, χειρ, hand, and τεινω, to stretch) is an old verb that originally meant
to vote by show of the hands, finally to appoint with the approval of an assembly that chooses as in 2Co 8:19
, and then to appoint without regard to choice as in Josephus (Ant. XIII. 2, 2) of the appointment of Jonathan as high priest by Alexander. So in Ac 10:41
the compound προχειρατονεω is used of witnesses appointed by God. But the seven (deacons) were first selected by the Jerusalem
church and then appointed (καταστησομεν) by the apostles. That is probably the plan contemplated by Paul in his directions
to Titus (Tit 1:5
) about the choice of elders. It is most likely that this plan was the one pursued by Paul and Barnabas with these churches.
They selected the elders in each instance and Paul and Barnabas "ordained" them as we say, though the word χειροτονεω does
not mean that. "Elders" were mentioned first in
11:30. Later Paul will give the requirements expected in these "elders" or "bishops" (Php 1:1
) as in 1Ti 3:1-7; Tit 1:5-9
. It is fairly certain that these elders were chosen to correspond in a general way with the elders in the Jewish synagogue
after which the local church was largely copied as to organization and worship. Paul, like Jesus, constantly worshipped and
spoke in the synagogues. Already it is plain, as at Antioch in Syria (11:26), that the Christians can no longer count on the
use of the Jewish synagogue. They must have an organization of their own. The use of the plural here implies what was true
at Philippi (Php 1:1
) and Ephesus (Ac 20:17,28
) that each church (one in each city) "had its college of elders" (Hackett) as in Jerusalem (21:18). Elder (πρεσβυτερος) was
the Jewish name and bishop (επισκοπος) the Greek name for the same office. "Those who are called elders in speaking of Jewish
communities are called bishops in speaking of Gentile communities" (Hackett). Hovey rightly holds against Hackett that teaching
was a normal function of these elders, pastors or bishops as they were variously called (1Ti 3:2; Tit 1:9; 1Co 12:28,30; Eph 4:11
36273627 When they had spoken the word in Perga (λαλησαντες εν Περγη τον λογον). Now they stopped and preached in Perga which they had apparently not done before (see 13:13f.. ). After leaving Antioch they passed on through Pisidia, as if Antioch was not strictly in Pisidia (see on 13:14) and into Pamphylia. They crossed from Perga to Attaleia, the port of Perga, sixteen miles down the Cestus, and capital of Pamphylia, to find a ship for Antioch in Syria. It is now called Adala and for long was the chief harbour of the south coast of Asia Minor. We do not know why they did not revisit Cyprus, perhaps because no permanent Gentile churches were founded there.
They sailed away to Antioch
(απεπλευσαν εις Αντιοχειαν). Effective aorist active indicative of αποπλεω, to sail off. They had been gone some eighteen
Gathered the church together
(συναγαγοντες την εκκλησιαν). Second aorist active participle of συναγω. It "was the first missionary meeting in history"
(Furneaux). It was not hard to get the church together when the news spread that Paul and Barnabas had returned. "The suitability
of the Gospel to become the religion of the world had not before been put to the test" (Furneaux). Doubtless many "wise-acres"
had predicted failure as they did for William Carey and for Adoniram Judson and Luther Rice.
36303630 And they tarried no little time (διετριβον δε χρονον ουκ ολιγον). Imperfect active of διατριβω, old verb to rub hard, to consume, with accusative of extent of time. It was a happy time of fellowship. The experiment entered upon by the church of Antioch was now a pronounced success. It was at the direct command of the Holy Spirit, but they had prayed for the absent missionaries and rejoiced at their signal success. There is no sign of jealousy on the part of Barnabas when Paul returns as the chief hero of the expedition. A new corner has been turned in the history of Christianity. There is a new centre of Christian activity. What will Jerusalem think of the new developments at Antioch? Paul and Barnabas made no report to Jerusalem.
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