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892892     Into his own country (εις την πατριδα αυτου). So Mt 13:54 . There is no real reason for identifying this visit to Nazareth with that recorded in Lu 4:26-31 at the beginning of the Galilean Ministry. He was rejected both times, but it is not incongruous that Jesus should give Nazareth a second chance. It was only natural for Jesus to visit his mother, brothers, and sisters again. Neither Mark nor Matthew mention Nazareth here by name, but it is plain that by πατριδα the region of Nazareth is meant. He had not lived in Bethlehem since his birth.

893893     Began to teach (ηρξατο διδασκειν). As was now his custom in the synagogue on the sabbath. The ruler of the synagogue (αρχισυναγωγος, see Mt 5:22 ) would ask some one to speak whensoever he wished. The reputation of Jesus all over Galilee opened the door for him. Jesus may have gone to Nazareth for rest, but could not resist this opportunity for service.
    Whence hath this man these things? (Ποθεν τουτω ταυτα;). Laconic and curt,

    Whence these things to this fellow? With a sting and a fling in their words as the sequel shows. They continued to be amazed (εξεπλησσοντο, imperfect tense passive). They challenge both the apparent

    wisdom (σοφια) with which he spoke and

    the mighty works or powers (α δυναμεις)

    such as those (τοιαυτα)

    coming to pass (γινομενα, present middle participle, repeatedly wrought)

    by his hands (δια των χειρων). They felt that there was some hocus-pocus about it somehow and somewhere. They do not deny the wisdom of his words, nor the wonder of his works, but the townsmen knew Jesus and they had never suspected that he possessed such gifts and graces.

894894     Is not this the carpenter? (Ουχ ουτος εστιν ο τεκτων;). Mt 13:55 calls him "the carpenter's son" (ο του τεκτονος υιος). He was both. Evidently since Joseph's death he had carried on the business and was "the carpenter" of Nazareth. The word τεκτων comes from τεκειν, τικτω, to beget, create, like τεχνη (craft, art). It is a very old word, from Homer down. It was originally applied to the worker in wood or builder with wood like our carpenter. Then it was used of any artisan or craftsman in metal, or in stone as well as in wood and even of sculpture. It is certain that Jesus worked in wood. Justin Martyr speaks of ploughs, yokes, et cetera, made by Jesus. He may also have worked in stone and may even have helped build some of the stone synagogues in Galilee like that in Capernaum. But in Nazareth the people knew him, his family (no mention of Joseph), and his trade and discounted all that they now saw with their own eyes and heard with their own ears. This word carpenter "throws the only flash which falls on the continuous tenor of the first thirty years from infancy to manhood, of the life of Christ" (Farrar). That is an exaggeration for we have Lu 2:41-50 and "as his custom was" (Lu 4:16 ), to go no further. But we are grateful for Mark's realistic use of τεκτων here.
    And they were offended in him (κα εσκανδαλιζοντο εν αυτω). So exactly Mt 13:56 ,

    were made to stumble in him , trapped like game by the σκανδαλον because they could not explain him, having been so recently one of them. "The Nazarenes found their stumbling block in the person or circumstances of Jesus. He became--πετρα σκανδαλου (1Pe 2:7,8; Ro 9:33 ) to those who disbelieved" (Swete). Both Mark and Mt 13:57 , which see, preserve the retort of Jesus with the quotation of the current proverb about a prophet's lack of honour in his own country. Joh 4:44 quoted it from Jesus on his return to Galilee long before this. It is to be noted that Jesus here makes a definite claim to being a prophet (προφητης, forspeaker for God), a seer. He was much more than this as he had already claimed to be Messiah (Joh 4:26; Lu 4:21 ), the Son of man with power of God (Mr 1:10; Mt 9:6; Lu 5:24 ), the Son of God (Joh 5:22 ). They stumble at Jesus today as the townspeople of Nazareth did.

    In his own house (εν τη οικια αυτου). Also in Mt 13:57 . This was the saddest part of it all, that his own brothers in his own home disbelieved his Messianic claims (Joh 7:5 ). This puzzle was the greatest of all.

895895     And he marvelled because of their unbelief (κα εθαυμασεν δια την απιστιαν αυτων). Aorist tense, but Westcott and Hort put the imperfect in the margin. Jesus had divine knowledge and accurate insight into the human heart, but he had human limitations in certain things that are not clear to us. He marvelled at the faith of the Roman centurion where one would not expect faith (Mt 8:10; Lu 7:9 ). Here he marvels at the lack of faith where he had a right to expect it, not merely among the Jews, but in his own home town, among his kinspeople, even in his own home. One may excuse Mary, the mother of Jesus, from this unbelief, puzzled, as she probably was, by his recent conduct (Mr 3:21,31 ). There is no proof that she ever lost faith in her wonderful Son.
    He went round about the villages teaching (περιηγεν τας κωμας κυκλω διδασκων). A good illustration of the frequent poor verse division. An entirely new paragraph begins with these words, the third tour of Galilee. They should certainly be placed with verse 7. The Revised Version would be justified if it had done nothing else than give us paragraphs according to the sense and connection. "Jesus resumes the role of a wandering preacher in Galilee" (Bruce). Imperfect tense, περιηγεν.

896896     By two and two (δυο δυο). This repetition of the numeral instead of the use of ανα δυο or κατα δυο is usually called a Hebraism. The Hebrew does have this idiom, but it appears in Aeschylus and Sophocles, in the vernacular Koine (Oxyrhynchus Papyri No. 121), in Byzantine Greek, and in modern Greek (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, pp. 122f.). Mark preserves the vernacular Koine better than the other Gospels and this detail suits his vivid style. The six pairs of apostles could thus cover Galilee in six different directions. Mark notes that he "began to send them forth" (ηρξατο αυτους αποστελλειν). Aorist tense and present infinitive. This may refer simply to this particular occasion in Mark's picturesque way. But the imperfect tense εδιδου means he kept on giving them all through the tour, a continuous power (authority) over unclean spirits singled out by Mark as representing "all manner of diseases and all manner of sickness" (Mt 10:1 ), "to cure diseases" (ιασθα, Lu 9:1 ), healing power. They were to preach and to heal (Lu 9:1; Mt 10:7 ). Mark does not mention preaching as a definite part of the commission to the twelve on this their first preaching tour, but he does state that they did preach (6:12). They were to be missioners or missionaries (αποστελλειν) in harmony with their office (αποστολο).

897897     Save a staff only (ε μη ραβδον μονον). Every traveller and pilgrim carried his staff. Bruce thinks that Mark has here preserved the meaning of Jesus more clearly than Mt 10:10 (nor staff) and Lu 9:3 (neither staff). This discrepancy has given trouble to commentators. Grotius suggests no second staff for Matthew and Luke. Swete considers that Matthew and Luke report "an early exaggeration of the sternness of the command." "Without even a staff is the ne plus ultra of austere simplicity, and self-denial. Men who carry out the spirit of these precepts will not labour in vain" (Bruce).

898898     Shod with sandals (υποδεδεμενους σανδαλια). Perfect passive participle in the accusative case as if with the infinitive πορευεσθα or πορευθηνα, (to go). Note the aorist infinitive middle, ενδυσασθα (text of Westcott and Hort), but ενδυσησθε (aorist middle subjunctive) in the margin. Change from indirect to direct discourse common enough, not necessarily due to "disjointed notes on which the Evangelist depended" (Swete). Mt 10:10 has "nor shoes" (μηδε υποδηματα), possibly preserving the distinction between "shoes" and "sandals" (worn by women in Greece and by men in the east, especially in travelling). But here again extra shoes may be the prohibition. See on Mt 10:10 for this.
    Two coats (δυο χιτωνας). Two was a sign of comparative wealth (Swete). The mention of "two" here in all three Gospels probably helps us to understand that the same thing applies to shoes and staff. "In general, these directions are against luxury in equipment, and also against their providing themselves with what they could procure from the hospitality of others" (Gould).

899899     There abide (εκε μενετε). So also Mt 10:11; Lu 9:4 . Only Matthew has city or village (10:11), but he mentions house in verse 12. They were to avoid a restless and dissatisfied manner and to take pains in choosing a home. It is not a prohibition against accepting invitations.

900900     For a testimony unto them (εις μαρτυριον αυτοις). Not in Matthew. Lu 9:5 has "for a testimony against them" (εις μαρτυριον επ αυτους). The dative αυτοις in Mark is the dative of disadvantage and really carries the same idea as επ in Luke. The dramatic figure of
    shaking out (εκτιναξατε, effective aorist imperative, Mark and Matthew),

    shaking off (αποτινασσετε, present imperative, Luke).

901901     Preached that men should repent (εκηρυξαν ινα μετανοωσιν). Constative aorist (εκηρυξαν), summary description. This was the message of the Baptist (Mt 3:2 ) and of Jesus (Mr 1:15 ).

902902     They cast out many demons and they anointed with oil (εξεβαλλον κα ηλειφον ελαιω). Imperfect tenses, continued repetition. Alone in Mark. This is the only example in the N.T. of αλειφω ελαιω used in connection with healing save in Jas 5:14 . In both cases it is possible that the use of oil (olive oil) as a medicine is the basis of the practice. See Lu 10:34 for pouring oil and wine upon the wounds. It was the best medicine of the ancients and was used internally and externally. It was employed often after bathing. The papyri give a number of examples of it. The only problem is whether αλειφω in Mark and James is used wholly in a ritualistic and ceremonial sense or partly as medicine and partly as a symbol of divine healing. The very word αλειφω can be translated rub or anoint without any ceremony. "Traces of a ritual use of the unction of the sick appear first among Gnostic practices of the second century" (Swete). We have today, as in the first century, God and medicine. God through nature does the real healing when we use medicine and the doctor.

903903     Heard (ηκουσεν). This tour of Galilee by the disciples in pairs wakened all Galilee, for the name of Jesus thus became known (φανερον) or known till even Herod heard of it in the palace. "A palace is late in hearing spiritual news" (Bengel).
    Therefore do these powers work in him (δια τουτο ενεργουσιν α δυναμεις εν αυτω). "A snatch of Herod's theology and philosophy" (Morison). John wrought no miracles (Joh 10:41 ), but if he had risen from the dead perhaps he could. So Herod may have argued. "Herod's superstition and his guilty conscience raised this ghost to plague him" (Gould). Our word energy is this same Greek word here used (ενεργουσιν). It means at work. Miraculous powers were at work in Jesus whatever the explanation. This all agreed, but they differed widely as to his personality, whether Elijah or another of the prophets or John the Baptist. Herod was at first much perplexed (διηπορε, Lu 9:7 and Mr 6:20 ).

904904     John, whom I beheaded (ον εγο απεκεφαλισα Ιωανην). His fears got the best of him and so Herod settled down on this nightmare. He could still see that charger containing John's head coming towards him in his dreams. The late verb αποκεφαλιζω means to cut off the head. Herod had ordered it done and recognizes his guilt.

905905     For Herod himself (Αυτος γαρ ο Hηρωιδης). Mark now proceeds to give the narrative of the death of John the Baptist some while before these nervous fears of Herod. But this post eventum narrative is very little out of the chronological order. The news of John's death at Machaerus may even have come at the close of the Galilean tour. "The tidings of the murder of the Baptist seem to have brought the recent circuit to an end" (Swete). The disciples of John "went and told Jesus. Now when Jesus heard it, he withdrew from thence in a boat" (Mt 14:12f. ). See on Mt 14:3-12 for the discussion about Herod Antipas and John and Herodias.

906906     Thy brother's wife (την γυναικα του αδελφου). While the brother was alive (Le 18:16; 20:21 ). After a brother's death it was often a duty to marry his widow.

907907     And Herodias set herself against him (Hη δε Hηρωιδιας ενειχεν αυτω). Dative of disadvantage. Literally,
    had it in for him . This is modern slang, but is in exact accord with this piece of vernacular Koine. No object of ειχεν is expressed, though οργην or χολον may be implied. The tense is imperfect and aptly described the feelings of Herodias towards this upstart prophet of the wilderness who had dared to denounce her private relations with Herod Antipas. Gould suggests that she "kept her eye on him" or kept up her hostility towards him. She never let up, but bided her time which, she felt sure, would come. See the same idiom in Ge 49:23 . She

    desired to kill him (ηθελεν αυτον αποκτεινα). Imperfect again.

    And she could not (κα ουκ ηδυνατο). Κα here has an adversative sense, but she could not. That is, not yet. "The power was wanting, not the will" (Swete).

908908     Feared John (εφοβειτο τον Ιωανην). Imperfect tense, continual state of fear. He feared John and also Herodias. Between the two Herod vacillated. He knew him to be righteous and holy (δικαιον κα αγιον) and so innocent of any wrong. So he
    kept him safe (συνετηρε). Imperfect tense again. Late Greek verb. From the plots and schemes of Herodias. She was another Jezebel towards John and with Herod.

    Much perplexed (πολλα ηπορε). This the correct text not πολλα εποιε, did many things. Imperfect tense again.

    He heard him gladly (ηδεως ηκουεν). Imperfect tense again. This is the way that Herod really felt when he could slip away from the meshes of Herodias. These interviews with the Baptist down in the prison at Machaerus during his occasional visits there braced "his jaded mind as with a whiff of fresh air" (Swete). But then he saw Herodias again and he was at his wits' end (ηπορε, lose one's way, α privative and πορος, way), for he knew that he had to live with Herodias with whom he was hopelessly entangled.

909909     When a convenient day was come (γενομενης ημερας ευκαιρου). Genitive absolute. A day well appointed ευ, well, καιρος, time) for the purpose, the day for which she had long waited. She had her plans all laid to spring a trap for her husband Herod Antipas and to make him do her will with the Baptist. Herod was not to know that he was the mere catspaw of Herodias till it was all over. See on Mt 14:6 for discussion of Herod's birthday (γενεσιοις, locative case or associative instrumental of time).
    Made a supper (δειπνον εποιησεν). Banquet.

    To his lords (τοις μεγιστασιν αυτου). From μεγισταν (that from μεγας, great), common in the LXX and later Greek. Cf. Re 6:15; 18:23 . In the papyri. The grandees, magnates, nobles, the chief men of civil life.

    The high captains (τοις χιλιαρχοις). Military tribunes, commanders of a thousand men.

    The chief men of Galilee (τοις πρωτοις της Γαλιλαιας). The first men of social importance and prominence. A notable gathering that included these three groups at the banquet on Herod's birthday.

910910     The daughter of Herodias herself (της θυγατρος αυτης Hηρωιδιαδος). Genitive absolute again. Some ancient manuscripts read αυτου (his, referring to Herod Antipas. So Westcott and Hort) instead of αυτης (herself). In that case the daughter of Herodias would also have the name Herodias as well as Salome, the name commonly given her. That is quite possible in itself. It was toward the close of the banquet, when all had partaken freely of the wine, that Herodias made her daughter come in and dance (εισελθουσης κα ορχησαμενης) in the midst (Matthew). "Such dancing was an almost unprecedented thing for women of rank, or even respectability. It was mimetic and licentious, and performed by professionals" (Gould). Herodias stooped thus low to degrade her own daughter like a common εταιρα in order to carry out her set purpose against John.
    She pleased Herod and them that sat at meat (ηρεσεν Hηρωιδη κα τοις συνανακειμενοις). The maudlin group lounging on the divans were thrilled by the licentious dance of the half-naked princess.

    Whatsoever thou wilt (ο εαν θεληις) The drunken Tetrarch had been caught in the net of Herodias. It was a public promise.

911911     And he sware unto her (κα ωμοσεν αυτη). The girl was of marriageable age though called κορασιον (cf. Es 2:9 ). Salome was afterward married to Philip the Tetrarch. The swaggering oath to the half of the kingdom reminds one of Es 5:3f. , the same oath made to Esther by Ahasuerus.

912912     What shall I ask? (Τ αιτησωμαι;). The fact that she went and spoke to her mother proves that she had not been told beforehand what to ask. Mt 14:8 does not necessarily mean that, but he simply condenses the account. The girl's question implies by the middle voice that she is thinking of something for herself. She was no doubt unprepared for her mother's ghastly reply.

913913     Straightway with haste (ευθυς μετα σπουδης). Before the king's rash mood passed and while he was still under the spell of the dancing princess. Herodias knew her game well. See on Mt 14:8f .

914914     He would not reject her (ουκ ηθελησεν αθετησα αυτην). He was caught once again between his conscience and his environment. Like many since his day the environment stifled his conscience.

915915     A soldier of his guard (σπεκουλατορα). Latin word speculator. A spy, scout, lookout, and often executioner. It was used of the bodyguard of the Roman emperor and so for one of Herod's spies. He was used to do errands of this sort and it was soon done. It was a gruesome job, but he soon brought John's head to the damsel, apparently in the presence of all, and she took it to her mother. This miserable Tetrarch, the slave of Herodias, was now the slave of his fears. He is haunted by the ghost of John and shudders at the reports of the work of Jesus.

916916     His corpse (το πτωμα αυτου). See on Mt 24:28 . It was a mournful time for the disciples of John. "They went and told Jesus" (Mt 14:12 ). What else could they do?

917917     And the apostles gather themselves together unto Jesus (κα συναγοντα ο αποστολο προς τον Ιησουν). Vivid historical present.
    All things whatsoever they had done and whatsoever they had taught (παντα οσα εποιησαν κα οσα εδιδαξαν). Not past perfect in the Greek, just the aorist indicative, constative aorist that summed it all up, the story of this their first tour without Jesus. And Jesus listened to it all (Lu 9:10 ). He was deeply concerned in the outcome.

918918     Come ye yourselves apart into a desert place and rest awhile (Δευτε υμεις αυτο κατ' ιδιαν εις ερημον τοπον κα αναπαυεσθε ολιγον). It was plain that they were over-wrought and excited and needed refreshment (αναπαυεσθε, middle voice, refresh yourselves, "rest up" literally). This is one of the needed lessons for all preachers and teachers, occasional change and refreshment. Even Jesus felt the need of it.
    They had no leisure so much as to eat (ουδε φαγειν ευκαιρουν). Imperfect tense again. Crowds were coming and going. Change was a necessity.

919919     And they went away in a boat (κα απηλθον εν τω πλοιω). They accepted with alacrity and off they went.

920920     Outwent them (προηλθον αυτους). The crowds were not to be outdone. They recognized (εγνωσαν) Jesus and the disciples and ran around the head of the lake on foot (πεζη) and got there ahead of Jesus and were waiting for Him when the boat came.

921921     They were as sheep not having a shepherd (ησαν ως προβατα μη εχοντα ποιμενα). Matthew has these words in another context (Mt 9:26 ), but Mark alone has them here. Μη is the usual negative for the participle in the Koine. These excited and exciting people (Bruce) greatly needed teaching. Mt 14:14 mentions healing as does Lu 9:11 (both preaching and healing). But a vigorous crowd of runners would not have many sick. The people had plenty of official leaders but these rabbis were for spiritual matters blind leaders of the blind. Jesus had come over for rest, but his heart was touched by the pathos of this situation. So "he began to teach them many things" (ηρξατο διδασκειν αυτους πολλα). Two accusatives with the verb of teaching and the present tense of the infinitive. He kept it up.

922922     When the day was now far spent (ηδη ωρας πολλης γενομενης). Genitive absolute. Hωρα used here for day-time (so Mt 14:15 ) as in Polybius and late Greek.
    Much day-time already gone . Lu 9:12 has it began to

    incline (κλινειν) or wear away. It was after 3 P.M., the first evening. Note second evening or sunset in Mr 6:47; Mt 14:23; Joh 6:16 . The turn of the afternoon had come and sunset was approaching. The idiom is repeated at the close of the verse. See on Mt 14:15 .

923923     Into the country and villages round about (εις τους κυκλω αγρους κα κωμας). The fields (αγρους) were the scattered farms (Latin, villae). The villages (κωμας) may have included Bethsaida Julias not far away (Lu 9:10 ). The other Bethsaida was on the Western side of the lake (Mr 6:45 ).
    Somewhat to eat (τ φαγωσιν). Literally,

    what to eat ,

    what they were to eat . Deliberative subjunctive retained in the indirect question.

924924     Go and see (υπαγετε ιδετε). John says that Jesus asked Philip to find out what food they had (Joh 6:5f. ) probably after the disciples had suggested that Jesus send the crowd away as night was coming on (Mr 6:35f. ). On this protest to his command that they feed the crowds (Mr 6:37; Mt 14:16; Lu 9:13 ) Jesus said "Go see" how many loaves you can get hold of. Then Andrew reports the fact of the lad with five barley loaves and two fishes (Joh 6:8f. ). They had suggested before that two hundred pennyworth (δηναριων διακοσιων. See on Mt 18:28 ) was wholly inadequate and even that (some thirty-five dollars) was probably all that or even more than they had with them. John's Gospel alone tells of the lad with his lunch which his mother had given him.

925925     By companies (συμποσια συμποσια). Distribution expressed by repetition as in Mr 6:7 (δυο δυο) instead of using ανα or κατα. Literally our word symposium and originally a drinking party, Latin convivium, then the party of guests of any kind without the notion of drinking. So in Plutarch and the LXX (especially I Macca.).
    Upon the green grass (επ τω χλωρω χορτω). Another Markan touch. It was passover time (Joh 6:4 ) and the afternoon sun shone upon the orderly groups upon the green spring grass. See on Mt 14:15 . They may have been seated like companies at tables, open at one end.

926926     They sat down in ranks (ανεπεσαν πρασια πρασια). They half-way reclined (ανακλιθηνα, verse 39). Fell up here (we have to say fell down), the word ανεπεσαν means. But they were arranged in groups by hundreds and by fifties and they looked like garden beds with their many-coloured clothes which even men wore in the Orient. Then again Mark repeats the word, πρασια πρασια, in the nominative absolute as in verse 39 instead of using ανα or κατα with the accusative for the idea of distribution. Garden beds, garden beds. Peter saw and he never forgot the picture and so Mark caught it. There was colour as well as order in the grouping. There were orderly walks between the rows on rows of men reclining on the green grass. The grass is not green in Palestine much of the year, mainly at the passover time. So here the Synoptic Gospels have an indication of more than a one-year ministry of Jesus (Gould). It is still one year before the last passover when Jesus was crucified.

927927     Brake the loaves; and he gave to the disciples (κα απο των ιχθυων). Apparently the fishes were in excess of the twelve baskets full of broken pieces of bread. See on Mt 14:20 for discussion of κοφινος and σφυρις, the two kinds of baskets.

928928     Men (ανδρες). Men as different from women as in Mt 14:21 . This remarkable miracle is recorded by all Four Gospels, a nature miracle that only God can work. No talk about accelerating natural processes will explain this miracle. And three eyewitnesses report it: the Logia of Matthew, the eyes of Peter in Mark, the witness of John the Beloved Disciple (Gould). The evidence is overwhelming.

929929     To Bethsaida (προς Βηθσαιδαν). This is Bethsaida on the Western side, not Bethsaida Julias on the Eastern side where they had just been (Lu 9:10 ).
    While he himself sendeth the multitude away (εως αυτος απολυε τον οχλον). Mt 14:22 has it "till he should send away" (εως ου απολυση) with the aorist subjunctive of purpose. Mark with the present indicative απολυε pictures Jesus as personally engaged in persuading the crowds to go away now. Joh 6:41f. explains this activity of Jesus. The crowds had become so excited that they were in the mood to start a revolution against the Roman government and proclaim Jesus king. He had already forced in reality the disciples to leave in a boat

    to go before him (προαγειν) in order to get them out of this atmosphere of overwrought excitement with a political twist to the whole conception of the Messianic Kingdom. They were in grave danger of being swept off their feet and falling heedlessly into the Pharisaic conception and so defeating the whole teaching and training of Jesus with them. See on Mt 14:22,23 . To this pass things had come one year before the Crucifixion. He had done his best to help and bless the crowds and lost his chance to rest. No one really understood Jesus, not the crowds, not the disciples. Jesus needed the Father to stay and steady him. The devil had come again to tempt him with world dominion in league with the Pharisees, the populace, and the devil in the background.

930930     When even was come (οψιας γενομενης). The second or late evening, six P.M. at this season, or sunset on.
    He alone on the land (κα αυτος μονος ηπ της γης). Another Markan touch. Jesus had come down out of the mountain where he had prayed to the Father. He is by the sea again in the late twilight. Apparently Jesus remained quite a while, some hours, on the beach. "It was now dark and Jesus had not yet come to them" (Joh 6:17 ).

931931     Seeing them distressed in rowing (ιδων αυτους βασανιζομενους εν τω ελαυνειν). See also Mt 8:29 for the word βασανιζω, to torture, torment (Mt 4:24 ) with a touch-stone, then to distress as here. Papyri have δια βασανων used on slaves like our third degree for criminals. Ελαυνειν is literally to drive as of ships or chariots. They drove the boat with oars. Common in Xenophon for marching.
    About the fourth watch of the night (περ τεταρτην φυλακην της νυκτος). That is, between three and six A.M. The wind was

    contrary to them (εναντιος αυτοις), that is in their faces and rowing was difficult, "a great wind" (Joh 6:18 ), and as a result the disciples had made little progress. They should have been over long before this.

    And he would have passed by them (κα ηθελεν παρελθειν αυτους). Only in Mark. He wished to pass by them, praeterire eos (Vulgate). Imperfect tense ηθελεν.

    They thought (εδοξαν). A natural conclusion.

    And cried out (ανεκραξαν).

    Cried up , literally, a shriek of terror, or scream.

932932     It is I (εγο ειμ). These were the astounding words of cheer. They did not recognize Jesus in the darkness. They had never seen him or any one walk on the water. His voice reassured them.

933933     They were sore amazed in themselves (λιαν εν εαυτοις εξισταντο). Only in Mark. Imperfect tense picturing vividly the excited disciples. Mark does not give the incident of Peter's walking on the water and beginning to sink. Perhaps Peter was not fond of telling that story.

934934     For they understood not (ου γαρ συνηκαν). Explanation of their excessive amazement, viz., their failure to grasp the full significance of the miracle of the loaves and fishes, a nature miracle. Here was another, Jesus walking on the water. Their reasoning process (καρδια in the general sense for all the inner man)
    was hardened (ην πεπωρωμενη). See on 3:5 about πωρωσις. Today some men have such intellectual hardness or denseness that they cannot believe that God can or would work miracles, least of all nature miracles.

935935     And moored to the shore (κα προσωρμισθησαν). Only here in the New Testament, though an old Greek verb and occurring in the papyri. Hορμος is roadstead or anchorage. They cast anchor or lashed the boat to a post on shore. It was at the plain of Gennesaret several miles south of Bethsaida owing to the night wind.

936936     Knew him (επιγνοντες αυτον). Recognizing Jesus, knowing fully (επ) as nearly all did by now. Second aorist active participle.

937937     Ran about (περιεδραμον). Vivid constative aorist picturing the excited pursuit of Jesus as the news spread that he was in Gennesaret.
    On their beds (επ τοις κραβαττοις). Pallets like that of the man let down through the roof (Mr 2:4 ).

    Where they heard he was (οπου ηκουον οτ εστιν). Imperfect tense of ακουω (repetition), present indicative εστιν retained in indirect discourse.

938938     Wheresoever he entered (οπου αν εισεπορευετο). The imperfect indicative with αν used to make a general indefinite statement with the relative adverb. See the same construction at the close of the verse, οσο αν ηψαντο αυτον (aorist indicative and αν in a relative clause),
    as many as touched him . One must enlarge the details here to get an idea of the richness of the healing ministry of Jesus. We are now near the close of the Galilean ministry with its many healing mercies and excitement is at the highest pitch (Bruce).

939939     With defiled, that is unwashen hands (κοιναις χερσιν, τουτ' εστιν ανιπτοις). Associative instrumental case. Originally κοινος meant what was common to everybody like the Koine Greek. But in later Greek it came also to mean as here what is vulgar or profane. So Peter in Ac 10:14 "common and unclean." The next step was the ceremonially unclean. The emissaries of the Pharisees and the scribes from Jerusalem had seen "some of the disciples" eat without washing their hands, how many we are not told. Swete suggests that in going through the plain the disciples were seen eating some of the bread preserved in the twelve baskets the afternoon before across the lake. There was no particular opportunity to wash the hands, a very proper thing to do before eating for sanitary reasons. But the objection raised is on ceremonial, not sanitary, grounds.

940940     Diligently (πυγμη). Instrumental case,
    with the fist , up to the elbow, rubbing one hand and arm with the other hand clenched. Aleph had πυκνα probably because of the difficulty about πυγμη (kin to Latin pugnus). Schultess considers it a dry wash or rubbing of the hands without water as a ritualistic concession. The middle voice νιψωντα means their own hands. This verb is often used for parts of the body while λουω is used of the whole body (Joh 13:10 ). On the tradition of the elders see on Mt 15:2 .

941941     From the marketplace (απ' αγορας). Ceremonial defilement was inevitable in the mixing with men in public. This αγορα from αγειρω to collect or gather, was a public forum in every town where the people gathered like the courthouse square in American towns. The disciples were already ceremonially defiled.
    Wash themselves (βαπτισωντα). First aorist middle subjunctive of βαπτιζω, dip or immerse. Westcott and Hort put ραντισωντα in the text translated "sprinkle themselves" in the margin of the Revised Version, because Aleph, B, and some of the best cursives have it. Gould terms ραντισωντα "a manifest emendation," to get rid of the difficulty of dipping or bathing the whole body. Meyer says: "The statement proceeds by way of climax: before eating they wash the hands always. When they come from market they take a bath before eating." This is not the place to enter into any controversy about the meaning of βαπτιζω, to dip, ραντιζω, to sprinkle, and εχχεω, to pour, all used in the New Testament. The words have their distinctive meanings here as elsewhere. Some scribes felt a difficulty about the use of βαπτισωντα here. The Western and Syrian classes of manuscripts add "and couches" (κα κλινων) at the end of the sentence. Swete considers the immersions of beds (βαπτισμους κλινων) "an incongruous combination." But Gould says: "Edersheim shows that the Jewish ordinance required immersions, βαπτισμους, of these vessels." We must let the Jewish scrupulosity stand for itself, though "and couches" is not supported by Aleph, B L D Bohairic, probably not genuine.

942942     Well (καλως). Appositely here, but ironical sarcasm in verse 9. Note here "you hypocrites" (υμων των υποκριτων).

943943     Ye leave the commandment of God (αφεντες την εντολην του θεου). Note the sharp contrast between the command of God and the traditions of men. Jesus here drives a keen wedge into the Pharisaic contention. They had covered up the Word of God with their oral teaching. Jesus here shows that they care more for the oral teaching of the scribes and elders than for the written law of God. The Talmud gives abundant and specific confirmation of the truthfulness of this indictment.

944944     Full well do ye reject the commandment of God that ye may keep your traditions (καλως αθετειτε την εντολην του θεου ινα την παραδοσιν υμων τηρησητε). One can almost see the scribes withering under this terrible arraignment. It was biting sarcasm that cut to the bone. The evident irony should prevent literal interpretation as commendation of the Pharisaic pervasion of God's word. See my The Pharisees and Jesus for illustrations of the way that they placed this oral tradition above the written law. See on Mt 15:7 .

945945     Corban (κορβαν ο εστιν δωρον). See on Mt 15:5 . Mark preserves the Hebrew word for a gift or offering to God (Ex 21:17; Le 20:9 ), indeclinable here, meaning
    gift (δωρον), but declinable κορβανας in Mt 27:6 , meaning sacred treasury. The rabbis ( but ye say , υμεις δε λεγετε) actually allowed the mere saying of this word by an unfaithful son to prevent the use of needed money for the support of father or mother. It was a home thrust to these pettifogging sticklers for ceremonial punctilios. They not only justified such a son's trickery, but held that he was prohibited from using it for father or mother, but he might use it for himself.

946946     Making void the word of God by your tradition (ακυρουντες τον λογον του θεου τη παραδοσε υμων). See on Mt 15:6 for the word ακυρουντες, invalidating, a stronger word than αθετειν, to set aside, in verse 9. See both used in Ga 3:15,17 . Setting aside does invalidate.

947947     And he called to him the multitude again (κα προσκαλεσαμενος παλιν τον οχλον). Aorist middle participle, calling to himself. The rabbis had attacked the disciples about not washing their hands before eating. Jesus now turned the tables on them completely and laid bare their hollow pretentious hypocrisy to the people.
    Hear me all of you and understand (ακουσατε μου παντες κα συνιετε). A most pointed appeal to the people to see into and see through the chicanery of these ecclesiastics. See on Mt 15:11 for discussion.

948948     When he was entered into the house from the multitude (οτε εισηλθεν εις οικον απο του οχλου). This detail in Mark alone, probably in Peter's house in Capernaum. To the crowd Jesus spoke the parable of corban, but the disciples want it interpreted (cf. 4:10ff..,33ff. ). Mt 15:15 represents Peter as the spokesman as was usually the case.

949949     Are ye so without understanding also? (Hουτως κα υμεις ασυνετο εστε;). See on Mt 15:16 . You also as well as the multitude. It was a discouraging moment for the great Teacher if his own chosen pupils (disciples) were still under the spell of the Pharisaic theological outlook. It was a riddle to them. "They had been trained in Judaism, in which the distinction between clean and unclean is ingrained, and could not understand a statement abrogating this" (Gould). They had noticed that the Pharisees stumbled at the parable of Jesus (Mt 15:12 ). They were stumbling themselves and did not know how to answer the Pharisees. Jesus charges the disciples with intellectual dulness and spiritual stupidity.

950950     Making all meats clean (καθαριζων παντα τα βρωματα). This anacoluthon can be understood by repeating
    he says (λεγε) from verse 18. The masculine participle agrees with Jesus, the speaker. The words do not come from Jesus, but are added by Mark. Peter reports this item to Mark, probably with a vivid recollection of his own experience on the housetop in Joppa when in the vision Peter declined three times the Lord's invitation to kill and eat unclean animals (Ac 10:14-16 ). It was a riddle to Peter as late as that day. "Christ asserts that Levitical uncleanness, such as eating with unwashed hands, is of small importance compared with moral uncleanness" (Vincent). The two chief words in both incidents, here and in Acts, are

    defile (κοινοω) and

    cleanse (καθαριζω). "What God cleansed do not thou treat as defiled" (Ac 10:15 ). It was a revolutionary declaration by Jesus and Peter was slow to understand it even after the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. Jesus was amply justified in his astonished question:

    Perceive ye not? (ου νοειτε;). They were making little use of their intelligence in trying to comprehend the efforts of Jesus to give them a new and true spiritual insight.

951951     Evil thoughts (ο διαλογισμο ο κακο). These come out of the heart (εκ της καρδιας), the inner man, and lead to the dreadful list here given like the crimes of a modern police court:
    fornications (πορνεια, usually of the unmarried),

    adulteries (μοιχαια, of the married),

    thefts (κλοπα, stealings),

    covetings (πλεονεξια, craze for more and more),

    murders (φονο, growing out of the others often),

    wickednesses (πονηρια, from πονος, toil, then drudge, bad like our knave, serving boy like German Knabe, and then criminal),

    deceit (δολος, lure or snare with bait),

    lasciviousness (ασελγεια, unrestrained sex instinct),

    evil eye (οφθαλμος πονηρος) or eye that works evil and that haunts one with its gloating stare,

    railing (βλασφημια, blasphemy, hurtful speech),

    pride (υπερηφανια, holding oneself above others, stuck up),

    foolishness (αφροσυνη, lack of sense), a fitting close to it all.

952952     Into the borders of Tyre and Sidon (εις τα ορια Τυρου κα Σιδωνος). The departure from Capernaum was a withdrawal from Galilee, the second of the four withdrawals from Galilee. The first had been to the region of Bethsaida Julias in the territory of Herod Philip. This is into distinctly heathen land. It was not merely the edge of Phoenicia, but into the parts of Tyre and Sidon (Mt 15:21 ). There was too much excitement among the people, too much bitterness among the Pharisees, too much suspicion on the part of Herod Antipas, too much dulness on the part of the disciples for Jesus to remain in Galilee.
    And he could not be hid (κα ουκ ηδυνασθη λαθειν). Jesus wanted to be alone in the house after all the strain in Galilee. He craved a little privacy and rest. This was his purpose in going into Phoenicia. Note the adversative sense of κα here= "but."

953953     Whose little daughter (ης το θυγατριον αυτης). Diminutive with tender touch. Note "whose" and "her" like vernacular today.
    Having heard of him (ακουσασα περ αυτου). Even in this heathen territory the fame of Jesus was known. When the Sermon on the Mount was preached people were there from "the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon" (Lu 6:17 ).

954954     A Greek, a Syro-Phoenician by race (Hελληνισ, Συροφοινικισσα τω γενε). "A Greek in religion, a Syrian in tongue, a Phoenician in race" (Bruce), from Euthymius Zigabenus. She was not a Phoenician of Carthage.
    She besought (ηρωτα). Imperfect tense. She kept at it. This verb, as in late Greek, is here used for a request, not a mere question. Abundant examples in the papyri in this sense.

955955     Let the children first be filled (αφες πρωτον χορτασθηνα τα παιδια). The Jews had the first claim. See the command of Jesus in the third tour of Galilee to avoid the Gentiles and the Samaritans (Mt 10:5 ). Paul was the Apostle to the Gentiles, but he gave the Jew the first opportunity (Ro 2:9f. ). See on Mt 15:24f .

956956     Even the dogs under the table (κα τα κυναρια υποκατω της τραπεζης). A delightful picture. Even the little dogs (κυναρια) under the table
    eat of the children's crumbs (εσθιουσιν απο των ψιχιων των παιδιων). Little dogs, little scraps of bread (ψιχιον, diminutive of ψιχος, morsel), little children (παιδια, diminutive of παις). Probably the little children purposely dropped a few little crumbs for the little dogs. These household dogs, pets of and loved by the children. Braid Scots has it: "Yet the wee dowgs aneath the table eat o' the moole o' the bairns." "A unique combination of faith and wit" (Gould). Instead of resenting Christ's words about giving the children's bread to the dogs (Gentiles) in verse 27, she instantly turned it to the advantage of her plea for her little daughter.

957957     For this saying (δια τουτον τον λογον). She had faith, great faith as Mt 15:28 shows, but it was her quick and bright repartee that pleased Jesus. He had missed his rest, but it was worth it to answer a call like this.

958958     And the demon gone out (κα το δαιμονιον εξεληλυθος). This was her crumb from the children's table. The perfect active participle expresses the state of completion. The demon was gone for good and all.

959959     Through the midst of the borders of Decapolis (ανα μεσον των οριων Δεκαπολεως). Jesus left Phoenicia, but did not go back into Galilee. He rather went east and came down east of the Sea of Galilee into the region of the Greek cities of Decapolis. He thus kept out of the territory of Herod Antipas. He had been in this region when he healed the Gadarene demoniac and was asked to leave.

960960     And they bring unto him (κα φερουσιν αυτω). Another of Mark's dramatic presents. This incident only in Mark.

961961     Took him aside (απολαβομενος αυτον). The secrecy here observed was partly to avoid excitement and partly to get the attention of the deaf and dumb demoniac. He could not hear what Jesus said. So Jesus put his fingers into his ears, spat, and touched his tongue. There was, of course, no virtue in the spittle and it is not clear why Jesus used it. Saliva was by some regarded as remedial and was used by exorcists in their incantations. Whether this was a concession to the man's denseness one does not know. But it all showed the poor man that Jesus healed him in his own way.

962962     Ephphatha (διανοιχθÂητ, be opened). Another one of Mark's Aramaic words preserved and transliterated and then translated into Greek. "Be thou unbarred" (Braid Scots). Jesus sighed (εστεναξεν) as he looked up into heaven and spoke the word εφφαθα. Somehow he felt a nervous strain in this complex case (deaf, dumb, demoniac) that we may not quite comprehend.

963963     He spake plain (ελαλε ορθως). He began to speak correctly. Inchoative imperfect tense.

964964     So much the more a great deal they published it (αυτο μαλλον περισσοτερον εκηρυσσον). Imperfect tense, continued action. Double comparative as occurs elsewhere for emphasis as in Php 1:23 "much more better" (πολλω μαλλον κρεισσον). See Robertson's Grammar, pp. 663f. Human nature is a peculiar thing. The command not to tell provoked these people to tell just as the leper had done (Mr 1:44f. ). The more Jesus commanded (οσον αυτοις διεστελλετο) them not to tell the more they told. It was a continuous performance. Prohibitions always affect some people that way, especially superficial and light-headed folks. But we have to have prohibitions or anarchy.

965965     He hath done all things well (Καλως παντα πεποιηκεν). The present perfect active shows the settled convictions of these people about Jesus. Their great amazement (υπερπερισσως εξεπλησσοντο), imperfect passive and compound adverb, thus found expression in a vociferous championship of Jesus in this pagan land.

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