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[Selected footnotes moved to the end and renumbered.  Originally it was intended only to include a few footnotes, but they had scanned so well that the majority were included.  Those omitted were usually those unintelligible unless the Syriac was transcribed -- a task beyond my abilities.]

1.  1 The order "Weights and Measures" is based on B.

2.  2 Lit., "what occasion called and St. Epiphanius made."

3.  3 I.e., Valentinian II, emperor of the West, is said to have joined with Theodosius, emperor of the East, and the two sons of the latter in summoning Epiphanius to Constantinople.

4.  4 But it is actually neither an orderly nor a complete list.

5.  5 We use this Latin term throughout except in a single paragraph; the Greek litra seems to be derived from it.

6.  6 I.e., a synonym for libra; weights are under discussion.

7.  7 Incorrect; see §§45 and 54. The Greek nomisma usually meant "coin" in general, but was also specifically applied to a coin or coin unit not in circulation.

8.  8 SG, pp. 149, 341.

9.  9 The spelling found in Sophocles' Lexicon; cf. § 52.

10.  10 The solidus was 1/6 ounce in the Roman system; see Sir W. M. Flinders Petrie, Ancient Weights and Measures (London, 1926) p. 25. Doubtless the word written here is an error for sela c, written @@ in § 53.

11.  11 I.e., small silver pieces, called miliarenses.

12.  12 B indicates a major pause here.

13.  13 B has the plural here.  

14.  14 Margin: αρουρα.

15.  15 The Greek γομορ represents both the omer and the homer; there is only the context to guide in the choice between the two terms. 

16.  17 Cf. Lagarde, Orientalia II (Gottingen, 1880) 2 f.

17.  18 Lit.: "indicating a measure that fills the grasp of the hand."

18.  19  κανισκιον, diminutive of κανεος, a basket of reed or cane, especially a bread basket.

19.  20 Greek: ἀλάβαστρον; cf. Mark 14:3 and Peshitta.

20.  21  I Kings 19:6.

21.  22 B has @@@@, which denotes a dish practically square, about the same as the Latin scutella.

22.  23 Heb. 9:4; cf. LXX, Exod. 16:33.

23.  2 "And an understanding of other things" is not in the Greek.  Note to the online text: I have placed material not in the Greek in grey.

24.  3 Margin: "in the divine Scriptures."

25.  4 These two words are the same in Syriac and in Greek, literally, "theories"; in the second case both A and B employ the singular.

26.  5 Plural in B.

27.  6 Not in Greek mss. employed by Lagarde and Dindorf; Lagarde supplies ἐλέγχους .

28.  7 Not in the Greek; apparently a gloss on "threatenings."

29.  8 B has this as a marginal gloss.. .

30.  9 Never in general use and of no special value...

31.  10 The ancient forms of our 'and '.

32.  11 I.e., in the Hexapla of Origen or in quotations from that work. Cf. H. B. Swete, An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge, 1914) pp. 59-76. Greek: "Likewise also concerning the rest of the signs. Concerning the asterisk."

33.  12 Preceding part of the sentence not in Greek.

34.  13 An English transliteration of the Syriac transliteration of the original Greek of Epiphanius, which itself appears to be a blundering attempt to reconstruct in Greek letters the Hebrew of Gen. 5:5 from which the LXX reading came.

35.  14 Lit., "with clearness."

36.  16 Margin: "(lover of the) good."     

37.  18 Both Syriac and Greek here use the singular in imitation of the Hebrew idiom employed in Gen. 5:5.

38.  19 Dindorf's Greek reads: "According to Attic usage it is called the obelus, but by others it is called the spear."

39.  21 Cf. the Letter of Aristeas, ed. H. St. J. Thackeray (London, 1917) §301: "northern district"; also ibid. p. 109. A later edition by Raffaele Tramontano, La lettera di Aristea a Filocrate (Napoli, 1931), renders similarly.

40.  22 Margin adds the word "meal."   

41.  23 Lit., "fast."

42.  24 I.e., the writer is thinking of the final and medial forms.

43.  25 I.e., following the usage of LXX.

44.  26 This sentence not in the Greek.

45.  27 Lit., "Creation."

46.  30 Word not in the Greek.

47.  31 Greek: "and this is the prophetic 'pentateuch.' "

48.  32 I.e., the Wisdom of Solomon.    

49.  33-33 Not in the Greek.

50.  34 Negative omitted by the Greek. 

51.  35-35 Not in the Greek.

52.  36 This sentence not in the Greek.

53.  38 Lit., both Syriac and Greek, "is sung." 

54.  39-39 Not in the Greek; cf. IV Esdras, chap. iv.

55.  40-40 Not in the Greek; "below" is justified by the marginal readings of both A and B.

56.  41 The Greek omits the negative.

57.  42 Greek: "those not taken away." 

58.  44 An English transliteration of the Syriac transliteration of the original Greek of Epiphanius, which seems itself to be a blundering attempt to reconstruct in Greek letters the Hebrew original of Ps. 141:1.

59.  45 This sentence not in the Greek.

60.  46 Greek: "as to style" or "as to phraseology."

61.  47 Greek: "is said to be."

62.  48 Cf. § 3.

63.  49 The Greek here has a wordplay impossible in the Syriac. Just as the sword is "the destructive one," in the sense of killing, so the obelus indicates a word that "is to be lifted up" or destroyed.

64.  50-50 Not in the Greek.

65.  53 Greek: "two cuttings."

66.  54 This word not in the Greek. 

67.  56 At about this point the margin has: "concerning what is called the lemniscus.''

68.  57 Margin: "brought" or "introduced." 

69.  58 Ps. 71:15.   

70.  59-59 Not in the Greek. 

71.  60 Some Greek mss. read "his." 

72.  61 Ps. 72:14.

73.  62 Lit., "without the others." . 

74.  63 This word not in the Greek. 

75.  64- 64 Not in the Greek.

76.  65 Greek: ... "one that has a brother."

77.  66 This word not in the Greek.   

78.  68 The Greek adds πότε , "when."

79.  69 Greek: "his."

80.  70 The marginal @ is paralleled by a similar numeral for each of the versions.

81.  71 Cf. that text in Swete, op. cit. p. 560. Everything following, to and including "These are the names, as we have already said, of the seventy-two translators," is absent from the Greek.

82.  72 Such names as are familiar through biblical and classical literature are given in their usual form; others are transliterated from the Greek of Aristeas, following Thackeray in Swete, op. cit.

83.  73 Cf. R. Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus, col. 546.

84.  74 Thackeray in Swete, op. cit., has χαβριας and omits Hilkiah. 

85.  75- 75 Not in the Greek.

86.  76 Margin: "Alexandria."

87.  77 I.e., the original harbor of Athens. The margin undertakes to explain the word as meaning "bald white head," confusing the proper name with φαλαρές , "coot"; margin adds in Greek letters: φαλαρηνω.

88.  78 Dindorf, following Petavius, omits the word "Romans" where it first occurs and amends in the second instance so as to read, "the Syrians and those in Greece among the Romans, called not yet Romans but Latins." Most probably the Romaeans are meant in this latter occurrence, a term early applied to the inhabitants of the Eastern Roman Empire.

89.  79 Greek: "send for."

90.  80 In common use as a designation of royalty before A.D. 1500.

91.  81-81 Not in the Greek.

92.  82 Greek: ... "to consecrate"; the margin explains the Syriac verb to mean "priestly separation."

93.  83-83 Not in the Greek.

94.  84 Margin: "When Antiochus Epiphanes had captured your place and sent many of you as captives to our place, to Egypt, for sale, having purchased them with much gold, giving a sum of dinars for every man (and) redeeming (him), I sent them away."

95.  85 Greek: "a vow and piety."    

96.  86 This word not in the Greek.  

97.  87-87 Greek: "the gifts gladly."

98.  88 Margin: "written."

99.  89 Greek: "to explain the books in the Greek language by means of the Hebrew."

100.  90 The idea of a second letter is as early as Justin Apology i. 31, according to Thackeray, op. cit. pp. 101-2.

101.  91-91 Not in the Greek.

102.  92 Cf. Ecclesiasticus 20:30 and Cant. 4:12 (LXX). 

103.  93-93 Not in the Greek.   

104.  94 Margin: "of God."

105.  95 Cf. Exod. 24:1.

106.  96-96 Not in the Greek.

107.  97 Greek: "But there was later also another library in the Serapeum, smaller than the first, which was also called its daughter, in which were placed the translations of Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, and the rest, two hundred and fifty years later."

108.  98 I.e., from the time of the translation of the LXX; sentence not in the Greek.

109.  99 Greek: "the same Ptolemy Philadelphus under whom the seventy-two translators translated reigned thirty-eight years."

110.  100 Preceding portion of sentence not in the Greek.

111.  101 Greek: "Philopator."

112.  102 Cf. J. K. Fotheringham, The Bodleian Manuscript of Jerome' s Version of the Chronicle of Eusebius, fol. 103b. [Note to the online edition: see introduction]

113.  104 The fuller Greek text: "Altogether from the first Ptolemy, the son of Lagos, to Cleopatra, three hundred and six years. From the seventh year of Ptolemy Philadelphus, under whom in this year the seventy-two translated, to Cleopatra, is two hundred and forty-nine."

114.  105 The Greek adds "plainly" or "clearly."      

115.  106 I.e., the Lagid; but the Greek says, "who having built the race course in Alexandria named it the λαϊον."

116.  107 Cf. the Chronicle of Eusebius.  

117.  108-108 Not in the Greek.

118.  109 This word not in the Greek.

119.  110 Greek: "eighteen."

120.  111 Greek: "sixty-five years .... and some days"; cf. the long note of Petavius in the edition of Dindorf. Margin adds "some" to "three."

121.  112-112 Not in the Greek.

122.  113 I.e., including the entire reigns of both Augustus and Hadrian. 

123.  114-114 Not in the Greek.

124.  115 This last calculation not in the Greek.

125.  116 Margin: "I.e., he became lionlike," or leprous; Greek: λωβηθεές

126.  117-117 a mere doublet of the preceding Greek verb.

127.  118 Instead of ὃς the Greek has ὡς καὶ and the infinitive.

128.  119 The margin corrects the spelling.

129.  120 Greek: "devoid of knowledge, because of the illness....."

130.  121 Greek: "cities."   

131.  123 So margin and B; the text is lit. "valley."

132.  124 I.e., Vespasian's reign.     

133.  125Isa. 1:8.     

134.  126-126 Not in the Greek.

135.  128-128 Not in the Greek.

136.  129-129 Not in the Greek, according to Dindorf's text.

137.  130-130 Not in the Greek. 

138.  131-131 Not in the Greek.      

139.  132 Margin: "in the Lord."

140.  133 Margin merely adds a synonym.

141.  135-135 Not in the Greek.

142.  136 The Greek omits this participle and makes the next one refer to both Christianity and life.

143.  137 The margin explains this word: "I.e., he became a proselyte to the Jews."

144.  139 Greek: "this one."  

145.  140-140 Not in the Greek.

146.  141 Incorrect; for the correct sequence of the emperors see § 18.

147.  142 Geta was really the younger brother of Caracalla.

148.  143 No; he was joint ruler with Marcus Aurelius Antoninus seven years.

149.  144 Margin: "eight."    

150.  145-145 Not in the Greek.

151.  146 Greek: "Severus." Cf. Swete, op. cit. p. 50. The margin would perhaps make it read: "of this Verus."

152.  147 Margin explains this word again, in the same terms as before.

153.  148 This word not in the Greek.

154.  149 The Greek omits "the same."         

155.  150 Greek: "what is called."

156.  151 1 Cor. 7:18.   

157.  152 Rom. 9:13; Mal. 1:2-3.

158.  153-153 Not in the Greek.

159.  154-154 Greek: "in the reign of Commodus II, who reigned after the above mentioned Lucius Commodus Aurelius thirteen years, a certain Theodotion." 

160.  155 Greek and margin: "of the succession (or following)." 

161.  156 Margin defines this participle: "i.e., holding anger."

162.  157 Greek: "And again, where there was need of casting out certain words, they cast out alike and translated in unison, just as though they had sat together and translated in consultation with one another."

163.  158 Before this sentence the Greek inserts: "It is quite clear that the truth is with the seventy-two."

164.  159 The Greek omits this section heading, and the Petavius text reads "Severus" instead of "Verus" in what follows.

165.  160 Margin: "Severus."

166.  161 Margin: "Antonius."

167.  162 The sequence of the Roman emperors is here given correctly, but Geta was the younger brother of Caracalla.

168.  163 For the "fifth" and "sixth" translations, cf. Swete, op. cit. pp. 53 ff.

169.  164 At this point begins a series of marginal numbers which merely repeat what is in the text.

170.  165 Commodus Lucius reigned jointly with Marcus Aurelius during the first seven years of the latter. This sentence is not in the Greek.

171.  166 This sentence not in the Greek.

172.  167 Syriac: "heard"; Greek: "said." 

173.  168-168 Not in the Greek.

174.  169 The Greek adds: "this." 

175.  170 The Greek adds: "another."

176.  171 Greek: "succeeded him, with his son Antoninus, and they reigned eighteen years." Margin adds: "and (some) months."

177.  172 The Greek adds: "another."

178.  173 Greek: "in his heptad."

179.  174 This parenthetic clause not in the Greek.

180.  175 Greek: "with other Hebrew and Greek books."

181.  176 This sentence not in the Greek.         

182.  177 Greek: "Caracalla."

183.  178 The Syriac word ends in -os, as though masculine.

184.  179 Margin: "Gallus," correctly.

185.  180 The dates for Origen are placed too late; cf. Swete, op. cit. pp. 6O ff.

186.  181-181 Not in the Greek. 

187.  182-182 Not in the Greek.

188.  183-183 Not in the Greek.

189.  184 Lit., "translated," in both Syriac and Greek.

190.  185 Swete (op. cit. p. 73, n. 1) calls this a confused and inexact account of Origen's labors, for he did not go to Tyre until near the end of his life, but performed his herculean tasks at Caesarea.

191.  186 Lit., "wove," in both Syriac and Greek.

192.  187 Greek: "writing the symbol above it."  

193.  188 The words after "Octapla" not in the Greek.

194.  189 This word not in the Greek.

195.  190 Greek: "before the seventy-two, according to the order of arrangement."

196.  191 The margin reads "Gallus," correctly.

197.  192 Cf. Epiphanius, Adversus haereses LXVI xi (ed. Migne, Vol. XLII, col. 46); also Acta Archelai, ed. Charles Henry Beeson (Leipzig, 1906).

198.  193 Is this the Turbo of the Acta Archelai?

199.  194 This sentence not in the Greek.  

200.  195 This word not in the Greek.

201.  196 Greek: "he was skinned with a reed by the command of the king of the Persians."

202.  197 The rest of the sentence is not in the Greek.

203.  198 The marginal @ seems intended to correct this figure.

204.  199 Margin: "and six months." 

205.  200-200 Not in the Greek.    

206.  201 Greek: "thirteen."

207.  202-202 Greek: "lasting twelve years in all."

208.  204 "Of Christ" not in the Greek. As to the death of Maximian, cf. Eusebius, Church History IX x.

209.  205 These two sentences in Greek: "All these having died, the blessed Constantine succeeded, who, dying, left his own sons to rule----Constans, Constantius, and Constantine."

210.  206 Greek: "After them Julian, Jovian ...."; nominatives.

211.  207-207 Omitted in 13. "Valens his brother" has a marginal note in A, "he that was burned." The same marginal note is in 13, but is not attached to any particular word. Cf. Socrates, Church History IV xxxviii; Sozomenus, Church History VI xl; Chronique de Michel le Syrien ... , 6d. ... par J. B. Chabot (Paris, 1899-1910) I 295 and IV 153; Barhebraeus, Chronicum Syriacum [ed.....Bedjan] (Parisiis, 1890) p. 66, 11. 10-11.

212.  208 The Greek has this word in the genitive, in agreement with the one preceding. By error the Syriac has mentioned three Valentinians.

213.  210 Greek: "his brother."  

214.  211 This word not in the Greek.

215.  212 I.e., a.d. 392. Arcadius had formerly been consul in 385; cf. H. F. Clinton, Fasti Romani I (Oxford, 1845) 508, 524.

216.  213-213 Not in the Greek.    

217.  215 This word not in the Greek...

218.  216-216 Greek: "according to rumor."

219.  218 Margin: "June, i.e., Haziran."

220.  219 Lit., "made known." 

221.  220-220 Greek: "in all the things said before."

222.  221-221 Not in the Greek.

223.  222 Both Syriac and Greek allow the sense "altered" or "corrected."

224.  223 Lit., "writings."   

225.  224 Luke 16:6-7.

226.  225 The Greek form of the word "seah"; hence the Greek has this word not at this point but in the place here held by "seah."

227.  226 See p. 13, n. 19. Margin: "measures."

228.  227 The Greek has tryblion, and so has the Syriac in § 38. 

229.  228-228 Not in the Greek.

230.  229 A Syriac term; hence a Syriac origin rather than a Hebrew one is postulated. 

231.  230-230 Not in the Greek.

232.  231 Epiphanius here cites a LXX reading not otherwise known for Hos. 3:2.

233.  232 But the author fails to cite a Hebrew term here; he seems to give a merely conjectural derivation, based on the homer (ass's load), which is equated with lethekh.

234.  233 The affirmative particle is repeated in A.

235.  234-234 Not in the Greek.  

236.  235 The Aramaic @@ means "oil press."

237.  236 Greek: "oil-presser." This ἐλαιοτρέπτης (in the Breslau ms., ἐλαιοτρήπτης ) should be inserted in the next edition of Liddell and Scott.

238.  237 Surely this remark is meant to apply only to medimnos.

239.  240-240 Not in the Greek.

240.  241 The Greek word is transliterated; "neither feminine nor masculine" is not in the Greek.

241.  242 The Greek term, not in common use among Syriac-speaking people.

242.  243 The Syriac term is an unusual one, requiring the added gloss. 

243.  245-245 Not in the Greek.

244.  246 But in reality Epiphanius' description attributes to the Hebrews the invention of the measure rather than the name.

245.  247 Cf. F. Hultsch, Griechische und romische Metrologie (Berlin, 1882) p. 631.

246.  248 Cf. Deut. 25:15.

247.  249 The days are numbered in the margin. The Greek adds, "he made"; for the preceding sentence there reads: "And the sacred measure is none other than the twenty-two works that God did in the six days of the hebdomad."

248.  250  In the Greek there follows: τήν τε ὑποκάτω τῆς γῆς καὶ τοῦ χάους. Dindorf in his ed. of Epiphanius (Vol. IV [Lipsiae, 1862] Pars I, p. xv) also cites the following, from Codex Venetus Marcianus: τάς τε ἐν ἀβύσσοις, τήν τε ὑποκάτω τῆς ἀβύσσου τῶν ὑδάτων τῶν τε ἐπάνω τῆς γῆς, ἐξ οὗ ὑπὲρ σκότος ἐστέ. καὶ σκότος .....

249.  251 Epiphanius would distinguish between the abyss of Sheol and the abysmal waters that in Gen. 1:2 are said to have covered the entire earth.

250.  252 The Greek continues: "and the division between the waters above the firmament and the waters below the firmament upon the face....."

251.  253 Greek: "And all the works done by God in the six days were twenty-two."

252.  254 Greek: "And God completed everything."

253.  255 Verb in margin.

254.  256-256 Not in the Greek. 

255.  257 LXX of Exod. 19:5 and Deut. 7:6 and 14:2.

256.  258-258 Not in the Greek.

257.  259 Greek order:.... Enosh, Enoch, Arpachshad, Shelah, Kenan, Peleg, Mahalalel, Eber, Reu, Jared, Serug, Nahor, Methuselah, Terah, Lamech, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob.

258.  260 LXX of Gen. 11:12 makes Cainan the son of Arpachshad and father of Shelah, but this is not in the Peshitta. Cf. Luke 3:36.

259.  261 The parenthetic statement is absent from the Greek.

260.  262-262 Not in the Greek.

261.  263 The Greek does not give the names of the letters, but otherwise the section closes practically as above. B is given in App. I. A spells out the names of the letters in both Syriac and Greek, then adds what may well be meant for the Hebrew letters (but ע is not given; it seems to be spelled out again in Greek, αιν ). In A the Greek alphabet follows, interspersed with other characters in part at least Semitic.

262.  264 The Syriac consonants are given, vocalized according to the Greek text so far as possible. For the five books of the Pentateuch the Hebrew titles are given fairly accurately, except that in the case of Numbers the first word of the Hebrew text is given rather than the conventional Hebrew title. The various books are numbered in the margin.

263.  265 The prefixed d in the Greek even shows clearly an Aramaic influence here and in most of the other titles.

264.  266 Another Aramaized form, not used by the Hebrews; cf. Origen's title in Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte: Hippolytus I 2 (Leipzig, 1897) 137.

265.  267 The title used in the Peshitta; therefore the vocalization of the Greek is not allowed above. This is the exact equivalent of the LXX paraleipomena.

266.  268 The initial d is present in B.

267.  270 So the Greek. Margin: d emethaloth (for B margin see last note), which seems to be the Aramaic root plus the Hebrew fem. pl. ending.

268.  271 In the Syriac lit. "he who collects together."

269.  272 The exact Syriac translation of the Hebrew title.

270.  273 The title used in the Peshitta.

271.  274 Vocalized according to the Greek, for there is no such Hebrew term. It can hardly be related to [ Hebrew] .

272.  275-275 Greek: "among the Greeks."

273.  276 The usual form of the word in Epiphanius.

274.  277 Margin: "The Egyptians call the modius [ Syriac] ." The Syriac translator did not understand the Greek πεντοι, "indeed" or "really."

275.  278-278 Greek: "which is translated homologia," i.e., "agreement."

276.  279-279 Not in the Greek.

277.  280 The Greek sentence omits the negatives.

278.  281 Margin: "Gnomon is that which is translated: 'and he gave to every man what was due him.' "

279.  282 Margin: "Homologia, confession or acknowledgment; likewise also the other two names."

280.  283 This sentence not in the Greek.

281.  284 Greek: "the Law of our God," omitting "for us." 

282.  285-285 Greek: "teaching of God is prefigured."

283.  286 Greek: "it is shown that from the Law....."

284.  287 Lit., "said." The Greek has only "according to the above" after "xestai."

285.  289 Greek: ποδέου.

286.  290 I.e., to learn the alphabet; ἀλφεῖν does not appear even in the Lexicon of Sophocles.

287.  291 Greek: τὸ ἄλφα .

288.  292 Greek: "into Greek."

289.  293 ρηγλιάζω is found in Sophocles; [ Syriac] should have such a meaning assigned it in Brockelmann, op. cit. 

290.  294-294 Greek: "it confesses."

291.  295 This sentence not in the Greek.

292.  296 Greek: "different." From this point on the Greek is very fragmentary. Cf. App. III.

293.  297 A purely supposititious root so far as the Hebrew is concerned.

294.  298 The emphatic form of the Syriac; Greek: κάβος .

295.  299 Lit., "all."

296.  300 Lit., "said."

297.  301 Cf. SG, p. 315.

298.  302 The Syriac , @@@ is doubtless a transliteration of οφεν, which would be the Greek representation of [ Hebrew] . Only the dual occurs in MT: Eccles. 4:6; Ezek. 10:2, 7; Exod. 9:8; Lev. 16:12; Prov. 30:4. Cf. Lagarde, Orientalia II (Gottingen, 1880) 2 f.

299.  303 1 Kings 17:12.

300.  304 In the Syriac the verb "grasps" and the noun "handful" are from the same root; this could have been true of the Greek also.

301.  305 Gen. 11:1-9.

302.  306 Greek poetic term for men, commonly derived from meiromai.

303.  307 Reading @@@ and considering it an abstract noun from the root @@@; or we might possibly translate: "because there is a diminution in the xestes of the place," reading according to the root @@@. A third possibility would be a transliteration of the Greek ληνός, "wine vat."

304.  308 Margin: "Greek here, also Hebrew, because the Greek tongue and the Hebrew say (artabå)."

305.  309 LXX of Isa. 5:10; cf. Codex Syro-Hexaplaris Ambrosianus, ed. A. M. Ceriani (Mediolani, 1874).

306.  310 A has changed an original @ to @, "and."

307.  311 LXX of Isa. 5:10; cf. Codex Syro-Hexaplaris Ambrosianus.

308.  312 Gen. 18:6.

309.  313 Lit., "a hidden (cake) of bread."

310.  314 Cf. SG, p. 125.

311.  314a Lit., "2 and one-third and one-fifteenth." 

312.   316 Lev. 5:11 and 6:20. In Exod. 16:36 the LXX identifies the ephah with the "three measures."

313.  317 I.e., the tenth letter of the alphabet. This jumping from the fraction ( δεκάτη ) to the ordinal ( δέκατος ) would be much easier in the Greek which is the foundation of our Syriac text. I have been unable to consult Lagarde's Psalterium Hieronymi xiv, to which he refers in his Symmicta II 188.

314.  318 Lit., "gave."

315.  319 Cf. SG, p. 59. The confusion of Epiphanius is a reflection of a similar confusion in LXX, which identifies the ephah with the "three measures" (Exod. 16:36), and again identifies the seah with the ephah (I Sam. 25:18) and with the metretes (I Kings 18:32). Even the familiar "three measures of meal" of Matt. 13:33 and Luke 13:21 are a rendition of the Greek σάτα τπέα.

316.  320 Lit., "bread that is hidden."

317.  321 I Chron. 2:18f.;cf. LXX.

318.  322 Cf. R. Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus, col. 488. 

319.  323 Cf. Gen. 35:19 and 48:7; R. Payne Smith, loc. cit. 

320.  324 B omits Beth. Cf. I Chron. 2:51 and 4:4.

321.  325 B omits the first letter; cf. LXX of I Chron. 2:51.

322.  326 1 Chron. 2:18.

323.  327 It. Payne Smith, loc. cit.    

324.  328 Lit., "the name was named."

325.  329 John 6:51.

326.  330 The margin gives κανα, which is found in Gen. 40:16, 17, 18; Exod. 29:3, 23, 32; Lev. 8:2.

327.  331 Cf. p. 13, n. 19.

328.  332 Cf. Hultsch, Gr. und röm. Metrologie, p. 452, incl. footnote.

329.  333 Cf. @@@; Marcus Jastrow in his Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature (London, 1903) says this is synonymous with the Aramaic @@@.

330.  334 Apparently deriving nevel from the Aramaic root @@, which in the hiph cil means "lead, carry, bring."

331.  335 The Syriac text could be read "ass," but the margin says, "that which is drunk and not that which brays."

332.  336 I.e., a short distance from place to place, as the original Greek might more exactly express it.

333.  337 Cf. Hultsch, op. cit., p. 587.    

334.  338 Mark 14:3; Matt. 26:7.

335.  339 Cf. Hultsch, op. cit., p. 602.

336.  340 The Greek term employed in the Gospels.

337.  341 LXX of IV Kings 21:13.

338.  342 The kapsakes of 4 xestai mentioned just below seems a better match for the cab.

339.  344 Can this be an error for Audo's @@@, a vessel for dipping water (Dictionnaire de la langue chaldéenne [Mossoul, 1897] II 393a)? As written in our mss. this is a diminutive.

340.  345 Merely two spellings of the Greek σπονδεῖον

341.  346 1 Kings 19: 6.

342.  349 But MT of Exod. 16:33 says an omer of manna was the quantity. 

343.  350 Ezek. 1:5 ff.

344.  351  Matt. 2:1.   

345.  352 Mark 1:10

346.  353 Cf. Jer. 49:19.  

347.  354 Luke 23:44

348.  355 John 1:14.

349.  356 Cf. Rev. 3:18.

350.   357 Exod. 16:15

351.  358 Cf. Mark 2:7.      

352.  359 Lit., "being moved of itself."   

353.  360 B reads "new."      

354.  361 II Sam. 6:14.

355.  362 1 Cor. 10:11.

356.  363 Luke 1:41.

357.  364 Ps. 132:8.

358.  371 Cf. p. 13, n. 22.

359.  372 Greek: παροψές, defined as a dainty side dish or a dish on which such meats are served.

360.  373 Or, more lit., "it is variously standardized."

361.  374 Hultsch, op. cit., p. 630, n. 1.

362.  375 Lit., "brings" or "bears."

363.  376 Hultsch, op. cit. pp. 542 f.

364.  377 The Syriac construction makes "Gaza" and "Ashkelon" adjectives modifying "jar."

365.  378 Apparently from the Aramaic root @@@, "to incline, tilt, pour out slowly."

366.  379 Greek: ληνιαῖον ἄντλημα.

367.  380 Hultsch, op. cit. pp. 585 f.

368.  3811 have been unable to locate either of these phrases; but cf. Exod. 30:25, 31; Lev. 19:35; Deut. 25:13-15.

369.  382 Ezek. 4:11; cf. LXX and Syro-Hexaplaric version. See Hultsch, op. cit. pp. 369, 450, 456.

370.  383 Clearly Aramaic; cf. Jastrow, op. cit., and Jacob Levy, Wörterbuch über die Talmudim und Midraschim (Berlin und Wien, 1924).

371.  384 Hultsch, op. cit. pp. 628, 690.

372.  385 The two Syriac words here translated "equal" most likely translate some such Greek term as ἰσόμοιρος , ἰσομερής, ἰσόμορος .

373.  386 The root is @@, and there seems to be a word play on this and τάλαντον.

374.  387 Epiphanius has some idea of a reduplicated biliteral root, such as is cited from the Sabaean in Gesenius-Buhl, Hebräisches und aramäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament (Leipzig, 1921) under @@@ .

375.  388 The usual Syriac word translated "talent" above and elsewhere.

376.  389 Most likely a translation of the Greek κόπτω , which in such a context would mean "coined." 

377.  390 Observe the Greek margin, μοναδα.

378.  391 Matt. 10:29.

379.  392 Luke 12:6.

380.  393 Is Epiphanius trying to derive the term assarion from something like the elative of the root [ Hebrew] ?

381.  394  Denarion and denarius represent the very same Syriac or Greek word; the former is here used when reference is to the mina, for the word is used in two distinct senses. Cf. Oskar Viedebantt, Anlike Gewichtsnormen und Münzfüsse (Berlin, 1923) pp. 80-82.

382.  395 Margin: @@@, translated, 'of silver'; a man might say it, e.g., of a zuzå or anything else like this."

383.  396 Mark 12:42; Luke 21:2. The Greek has λεπτα in both cases.

384.  397 Cf. the λεπτεπίλεπτα suggested by Lagarde.

385.  398 Transliterating, in this sentence, the two adjectives, "silver."

386.  399 The word is the Greek τύμος, anything wrought of metal or stone.

387.  400 The Greek form of the Latin libra.

388.  402 The margin identifies these scales with the weighing instrument invented by Archimedes, χαριστιον .

389.  403 Someone saw the discrepancy here and tried to mend matters by adding on the margin: "It is the double zuzå, the great zuzå which weighs 2 zuze."

390.  404 Matt. 17:27.

391.  405 Matt. 17:24.

392.  406 Lit., "head money."

393.  407 I read the mark by the first letter in B as the Greek e, but the word might be taken as a participle with d except for this pointing. As a matter of fact, this spelling is much nearer to the English form of the word than the usual Greek writing of the word.

394.  408 This word, strangely enough, seems pointed as a participle in B; and if the word transliterated shekel is also a participle, we have: "for they call shåkel a pulling down."

395.  409 The Jewish temple tax of half a shekel is here called a shekel, for Epiphanius identifies it with the double zuzå, the Greek didrachmon, and this is what the LXX calls the shekel in Lev. 27:25.

396.  410 The Greek form of the Latin quadrans.

397.  411 This is the most obvious meaning of the Syriac; but it might be rendered "numbering," "counting," "sum," or even "part."

398.  412  κῳδάπιον, diminutive of κῴδιον, which is in turn a diminutive of κῶας , a sheepskin or fleece; kodrantes has a different origin.

399.  413 A Greek weight equal to the drachma.

400.  414 This figure does not agree with II Sam. 14:26

401.  415 Cf. Hultsch, op. cil. pp. 133,150,193.

402.  416 The Syriac term would apply to any pointed missile for hurling by hand or otherwise; our "missile" is too broad a term, for it can be applied to a mere stone, and a "dart" is usually thought of as thrown by hand.

403.  417 This spelling with an e is justified by our present English usage, which comes down to us from the Greeks. The mss. do not of themselves justify a spelling here different from the "obolus" elsewhere. A has the word "obolus" or "obelus" seven times in this paragraph; in the first three instances there is no attempt to represent the medial vowel; in the last four it is indicated by @ . In B the vowel is so represented in six cases; only in the second instance is the vowel not represented.

404.  418 Prov. 17:6 in LXX.

405.  419 Cf. Hultsch, op. cit. p. 210.

406.  420 Lev. 27:25 in LXX.

407.  421 This is the transliteration of the Greek adjective corresponding to chalkus, a popular term for silver coins of small value.

408.  422 Cf. Hultsch, op. cit. pp. 133 f.

409.  423 The Hebrew term @@@. Lagarde's use of this term again in the next sentence is abundantly justified by the fragments of Epiphanius in his Symmicta I 214, first line 15, and 217, first line 10. The margins of A and B are contradictory.

410.  424 Cf. Hultsch, op. cit. pp. 293-97.

411.  425 Both A and B have marginal Greek spellings in dia-, and in the Syriac this a is represented in every case save one by @. I have followed the Lexicon of Sophocles, to avoid confusion with diachryson, "interwoven with gold."

412.  426 So the margin of B. This is the Roman miliarensis, named for its value, the one-thousandth of a pound of gold; cf. A. R. Burns, Money and Monetary Policy in Early Times (London, 1927) p. 242, n. 5.

413.  427 Lit.; but the term really means the daily wage of the soldier.

414.  428 Jer. 6:30; cf. LXX and Syro-Hexaplaric.

415.  429 Vocalized according to the Greek marginal glosses; not in the lexicons. Let students of Greek antiquities take notice of these terms.

416.  430 Speaking in Roman terms, Burns (op. cit. p. 439) says: "The purse of silver is estimated at 125 miliarenses weighing a little under two pounds, and was worth 9 solidi or one-eighth of a pound of gold." Cf. Hultsch, op. cit. pp. 340-48.

417.  431 The Greek of Petavius reads "208." Lagarde says the Breslau ms. reads "220." Cf. his Symmicta I 213, 217 f., 222, 224; also Hultsch, Metroloyicorum scriptorum reliquiae I 144 n.; also Burns, op. cit. p. 439.

418.  432 The copper denarius became so common that the term δηναρισμον was employed to mean copper coinage. Cf. Dindorf's ed. of Epiphanius, IV 1 138.

419.  433 Apparently a small silver coin (follis) worth 2 lepta.

420.  434 If the writing of A, with a double @, be correct, then the reference is to what people "say" is the number.                                                      .

421.  435 II Kings 5:21-23 in LXX.

422.  436 Lit., "accepted."

423.  437 Lit., "swallows."

424.  438 I.e., the silver denarius, just as the copper lepton was the copper denarius.

425.  439 I.e., a term in common use for expressing value but never an actual coin, in this respect like the English "mill." That the follis is said in one place to equal 125 pieces of silver, in another place 250, and is even assigned other values in the Greek text, is in exact accord with current usage in Palestine up until the recent World War. The mejidi was officially worth 19 piasters in the Turkish telegraph offices, but in current usage was worth 23 piasters in Jerusalem, 24 in Damascus, 26 in Jaffa, and 46 in Gaza. Cf. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria (Leipzig, 1912) p. xxiii and the frontispiece.

426.  440 The word as here spelled means lit. "baskets"; it is no doubt the @@, which has been transliterated into Greek and then back into Syriac and has thus become obscured.

427.  441 Gen. 23:16 in LXX. 

428.  442 Margin: "Concerning the said."

429.  443 Plural of folis, a Greek term here confused with follis, which latter was applied by the Romans to a small coin as well as to a leathern money bag.

430.  444 An interpretation of the term folides.

431.  445 B has 6,400 in text, and A adds 400 in the margin; but such a calculation does not fit Epiphanius' terms.

432.  446 Plural in B. A repeats the title in the margin; on left margin: "Concerning the mares, the kupros, and the choinix."

433.  447 Cf. Hultsch, Gr. und röm. Metrologie, pp. 480, 574 f., 586.

434.  448 Evidently an error for mares; but kupros occurs in both Syriac mss. and also in the fragmentary Greek given by Lagarde, Symmicla I 218 and II 182. So also Hultsch, Metrologicorum scriptorum reliquiae I 264, line 15, and 269, line 23. But cf. our § 3, where the meaning is clear.

435.  449  ἐτυμολογία is evidently the Greek that lies behind the Syriac @@@ .

436.  450 Lit., "we do not know much."

437.  451 Someone has added on the margin "6,912," and this seems to have provoked the further note: "Rather the barleycorns are doubled, for there it was one-fourth of a carat according to us."

438.  452 Margin: "Concerning the gram, the carat, the barleycorn, and the ounce."

439.  453 Lit., "falls."

440.  454 Margin: "Concerning the shekel, the stater, the lepta, and the obolus."

441.  455 Lit., "it causes to pass over."

442.  456 Is Epiphanius trying to suggest that the root idea in "stater" is akin to the Greek ἵστημι, "to stand"?

443.  457 A reproduction of the Greek transliteration of "shekel"; cf. margin.

444.  458 Corresponding to the Aramaic meaning of the root.

445.  459 The Syriac root @@@ is practically equivalent to the Hebrew

446.  460 An attempt to reproduce an approximation of the original idea of Epiphanius; our Syriac mss. are not altogether consistent, but our e corresponds generally to @@ and our o to @.

447.  461 Derived from the Greek word for "table"; cf. our term "bankers," from a Middle English root akin to our "bench."

448.  462 Matt. 21:12 ff., with parallels in the other three Gospels.

449.  463 I.e., "coinage" ( νόμισμα ) is derived from the verb νομίζω , which Lagarde takes to be the word lying back of the Syriac.

450.  464 See § 45. This largest silver (coin) was only a term, not an actual coin in use.

451.  465 Or perhaps: "It is from the Greek usage."

452.  466 Lit., "scraped down." The Syriac verb doubtless represents the Greek ζέω or ζύω , and from this root Epiphanius would derive the term xestes.

453.  467 Low Latin may have had some such term as sexter for "six times," after the analogy of ter and quater.

454.  468 Lit., "the xestes much doubled."

455.  469 I.e., the Latin sextum, "the sixth."

456.  470 The same measure as the congius, but also meaning a gift of a congius distributed among the people, hence also in a more general sense a largess in money of undefined amount. Cf. Hultsch, Metrologicorum scriptorum reliquiae II 117.

457.  471 This corresponds to the second Greek term of this pair, συνεστραμμένον; and the second Syriac term corresponds to the first of the Greek, συνημμένον.

458.  472 B margin, κονγε, evidently a conflation of the two Latin verbs cogo and congero.

459.  473 The margin of B gives the original Greek, ἄρουρα.

460.  474 Following B; at this point four folios of A are from a second hand and much inferior to most of that ms.

461.  475 The reference is perhaps to Josh. 17:2 or to Judg. 6:11 and 8:32.

462.  476 I.e., the land these seahs would sow. B omits the word "seahs," and in the light of the next section we cannot be sure A has the correct form of the word.

463.  477 Otherwise jugerum (plural, jugera), called in the fragments in Lagarde, Symmicta I 219, ἰούγερα μικρά. The Syriac word is the same which was translated jugon just above and which there referred to the ἰουγον or ἔγγεον , a unit of land used in determining the imperial taxes. Cf. the Lexicon of Hesychius; also K. G. Bruns and Ed. Sachau, Syrisch-römisches Rechtsbuch aus dem fünften Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 1880) p. 33, line 19. In most cases the present section refers to the Roman jugum, an altogether different thing.

464.  478 I.e., most obviously, 10 days' plowing; but this was also perhaps the amount of land sown by 10 seahs of grain.

465.  479 This is the Greek margin of B, meaning primarily "yokes," and used as a synonym for the Roman jugera.

466.  480 This exact form does not occur in the mss.; the Syriac of B is @@@, and the Greek margin is τελεσματα. The data of both mss. make it clear that syntelesmata is the form lying back of the Syriac here, as Lagarde recognized.

467.  481 The dimensions immediately following and the previous reference to the use of the field as a land measure among the Egyptians make it certain that the field here mentioned is the Egyptian. Cf. A. H. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar (Oxford, 1927) p. 200.

468.  482 This first number must mean rods, since there are 5 plethra in a field; if taken as cubits in both cases, there would be 25 plethra in a field. Hultsch, Gr. und röm. Metrologie, p. 599, now reads 60 by 60 cubits as the meaning of the fragments in Lagarde, Symmicta I 218 f.; and this agrees practically with what we have just said about the Syriac text. Bar Bahlul, Lexicon Syriacum (ed. R. Duval) col. 1576, line 3, calls the plethron a jugum. Does he mean in Palestine?

469.  483 I.e., a land measure corresponding to the seah as a measure of seed; the Syriac and Greek have an adjectival form here. The term koraean below has the same explanation.

470.  484 The modius is mentioned in Matt. 5:15; Mark 4:21; Luke 11:33.

471.  485 As the square brackets indicate, the word does not occur in A; the Greek of Lagarde's Symmicta I 219, καβίεας, again indicates such an adjectival form as we have indicated by sataean and koraean.

472.  486 Reading according to B, which the context demands.

473.  487  § 58 has called the seah or sataean one-fifth of the field, and this parenthesis must really belong to that term.

474.  488 Lit., "has it thus?" or "has it so much?"

475.  489 Lit., "half"; but it cannot be this in the light of what immediately follows.

476.  490 Lit., "compressed."

477.  491 Gen. 6:15-16; cf. SG, p. 37.   

478.  492 Lit., "hand."

479.  493 Cf. SG, p. 37. Lagarde translates: ". . . . und hinzugefügt wird unterhalb der spanne, das heisst aber welche eine geschlossene faust ausfüllt."

480.  494 More exactly, "fingerbreadths."

481.  495 I.e., Epiphanius measures 24 fingers along one side of the quadrangle and 24 fingers along another side, then takes their sum.

482.  496 Epiphanius seems to think of a cubic block, around which he makes two complete measurements, each of them amounting to 96 fingers.

483.  497 The significance of this last figure can only be the area of a cross-section of the piece of timber, and that would be 412+ units, if the circumference be 72---- not very exact calculation.

484.  498 The only reason for this second division is that the science of mathematics was not far advanced in the author's day, and he must divide by successive subtractions.

485.  499 I.e., the term lepta seems to be preferred when speaking of cubic fingers, but the author is not consistent in his usage.

486.  500 Only in linear measure; has the author forgotten he is dealing with cubic measure? But it is a fact that the 96 is half of his solid cubit.

487.  501 A result far from accurate. Since 18 fingers are a cubit, 324 square fingers are a square cubit, and the area of a cross-section of this piece of timber would be, according to a previous calculation, 412/324 square cubits. This fraction multiplied by 10 gives as a result 12 2/3 solid cubits.

488.  502 Margin: σπιθαμε.

489.  503 More exactly, "handbreadths." Margin: παλεστη.

490.  504 As described below it is a "handlength," and the "palm" is sometimes used in this sense. Margin of both mss. is ὀρθιαιος.

491.  505 The Syriac term is an altogether unusual form, clearly a transliteration of some such Greek word. The margin of B is γρονθαιος, but the margin of A is μυγμη. The latter copyist evidently took it for a noun rather than an adjective. The fact that the marginal readings are exactly reversed in the case of the preceding "fist" points in the same direction.

492.  506 1 Cor. 9:26.

493.  507 Title repeated in margin of A.

494.  508 Bk. Jub. 5:28; 7:1; 10:15, in R. H. Charles, The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the O. T., Vol. II (Oxford, 1913).

495.  509 Gen. 8:4.

496.  510 This term is found in the Peshitta, Gen. 8:4, and the corresponding gentilic in Isa. 37:38. The word Κορδυαίων, quoted by Josephus (Antiquities I iii 6), indicates that the word "Qardu" goes back at least as far as Berosus. Cf. Eusebius, Onomasticon, ed. Klostermann (Leipzig, 1904) pp. 2 f.

497.  511 This term is found in LXX of Isa. 37:38. The fact was noted by Eusebius, op. cit. p. 38, line 11.

498.  512 Atad in MT and LXX, Gen. 50:10 f.

499.  513 I.e., σημεῖα. B margin adds: "i.e., the pillars or posts set up along the roads."

500.  514 Josh. 15:6. According to the Encyclopaedia Biblica I (London, 1899) 557 Eusebius mistakenly identifies this place with Atad; cf. his Onomasticon, ed. Klostermann, p. 8.

501.  515 I.e., @@@ , "thorn bush," is equated with @@@.

502.  516 Deut. 32:49. A comparison with Eusebius, op. cit. p. 16, indicates clearly the source of the statements about Abarim; this is also the source of many of the statements that follow.

503.  517  Margin of A: απολι βιαλος; margin of B: απο λιβιαδος.

504.  518 Cf. map at end of the Onomasticon in Klostermann's edition.

505.  519 Lagarde cites his Armenische Studien, § 1038, which I have been unable to consult; he also thinks G. Hoffmann in ZDMG XXXII 743 m may be pertinent. 

506.  520 cf. Eusebius, op. cit. p. 168, on Num. 23:28

507.  521 LXX in Num. 21:19 and 23:14; Deut. 3:27

508.  522 The nearest approach to this reading is Deut. 3:27 in LXX.

509.  523 Josh. 10:10 f.; Eusebius, op. cit. p. 18.

510.  524 Josh. 15:35 and Eusebius say Judah.

511.  525 Margin: "Jerusalem was called Elia of yore."

512.  526 Cf. I Sam. 17:1; i.e., Goliath is said to have died at Azekah.

513.  527 Cf. LXX of I Chron. 8:13; J. Payne Smith, op. cit. col. 152: @@@.

514.  528 I.e., the Aijalon of Josh. 10:12; cf. Eusebius, op. cit. p. 18.

515.  529 I.e., "milia (passuum)," Roman miles.

516.  530 Eusebius has the plural, "cities."

517.  531 Cf. Eusebius, op. cit. p. 26.

518.  532 The biblical Ophrah, Josh. 18:23. Cf. Eusebius, op. cit. p. 28.

519.  533 Margin: " σημεια, the pillars or posts set up along the roads."

520.  534 Eusebius, op. cit. p. 14, line 10.           

521.  535 Ibid. pp. 14, 16.

522.  536 John 6:15.

523.  537 John 11:54.

524.  5381 judge this to be a confusion with the name Abiezer (Josh. 17:2) and have vocalized according to R. Payne Smith, but the reference is clearly to the Ebenezer of I Sam. 7:12.

525.  539 The equivalent of the LXX ἀλλόφυλοι, Philistines.

526.  540 Cf. Eusebius, op. cit. p. 54, under Βηθσαμές : καὶ ἔστιν εἰς νῦν ἀπέχουσα Ἐλευθεροπόλεως σημείοις ί πρὸς ἀνατολάς μετξὺ Νικοπόλεως . May we venture to correct his text on the basis of the above reading?

527.  541 II Sam. 24:16; II Chron. 3:1.

528.  542 The margins of both A and B read, "correctly."

529.  543 B: "temple."

530.  544 1 Kings 19:16.

531.  545 Eusebius, op. cit. p. 34, reads "Solomon," as in I Kings 4:12.

532.  546 So found in the Peshitta of II Mac. 12:29; the modern Beisan, biblical Bethshean.

533.  547 Lagarde cites IV Kings 14:7, but MT has @@@ and LXX πετρα. Is it possible that @@ is an error for @@? Cf. Num. 31:8, where we find Rekem or Rokom as the name of one of the kings of Midian, from whom the city of Rekem was named according to Josephus (Antiquities IV vii 1). Cf. Eusebius, op. cit. p. 144.

534.  548 B makes no distinction in the two spellings of Rekem, but A has a point beneath in the first instance and a point above in the second. This may be intended to indicate the vocalization Rekem in the first place, and Rekom or Rokom in the second, following Eusebius, op. cit. p. 144, lines 7 f. It is a curious fact that the Lee edition of the Peshitta has this point beneath only in three places where it stands for MT Kadesh (Gen. 14:7; 16:14; 20:1), while there is no hint as to the vocalization elsewhere; the Urmia and Mosul editions uniformly point R ekem.

535.  549 The name Rekem per se does not occur in Isaiah in MT or LXX; so Josh. 13:21 may be meant. Joshua makes Rekem one of the chiefs of Midian, the same mentioned in Num. 31:8. Josh. 18:27 refers to a city of Benjamin which could hardly be confused with Petra. Dalman (Neue Petra-Forschungen [Leipzig, 1912] p. 14) suggests that the identification of Sela c with Rekem may have arisen through the use of a compound name Sela c-Rekem to designate the most conspicuous outpost of the ancient Edomite capital. MT has the name Rekem also in I Chron. 2:43-44 and 7:16; but it occurs in LXX in I Chron. 2:43 and 7:16 only. Cf. also Eusebius, op. cit. p. 142.

536.  550 Ps. 60:8 f.; 108:9 f.; cf. Syro-Hexaplaric version.

537.  551 Isa. 16:1 in LXX; but LXX has μη instead of the "and," while Syro-Hex. has @@@.

538.  552 Cf. Eusebius, op. cit. p. 150; Josephus, Antiquities I xx 3.

539.  553 Not a mere transliteration of the Greek, but the form occurring in the Peshitta of John 3:23. B might be read cIn-Nun, nearer the Greek.

540.  554 Gen. 28:19. Cf. Eusebius, op. cit. p. 40.

541.  555 A LXX misreading of the Hebrew @@@ of Gen. 28:19.

542.  556 The Beth-aven of MT in Josh. 7:2 and 18:12; the name Bethel has dropped out of LXX in the former passage. Cf. Eusebius, op. cit. pp. 50 and 66.

543.  557 Judg. 1:5; cf. Eusebius, op. cit. p. 106. 

544.  558 1 Chron. 11:4-5.

545.  559 Gen. 14:18; Josephus, Antiquities I x 2.

546.  560 The order of the two words "portion" and "tribe" is unusual; it has been transposed from that found in Eusebius.

547.  561 Lagarde is more literal in using the word τοπικα, but this is the work referred to. The margin reads, then: "τοπικα, that is, because of the happenings in the places."

548.  562 Eusebius, op. cit. p. 152, has here two Greek names for the place, in the first instance Σικίμων , in the second Συχέμ .

549.  563 Josephus, loc. cit.

550.  564 Gen. 14:15.

551.  565 Cf. Eusebius, op. cit. p. 110.

552.  566 Jonah 1:3.

553.  567 Josephus identifies the two places; see Eusebius, op. cit. p. 100. But Epiphanius has not previously mentioned Tarsus.

554.  568 The modern Acre; Eusebius, op. cit. p. 30.

555.  569 B: @@@; B margin: θιμουνα. There is a modern ed-Damun southeast of Acre.

556.  570 Josephus ( Vita, § 188) mentions a Jamnia in northern Galilee.

557.  571 Can there be any connection with the σιγοφ or σιγω of Josephus, Jewish War II 573? B margin: βιτοσηγων.

558.  572 This is not the reading of MT in Jonah 3:4.

559.  573 The margin of the Syro-Hexaplaric version reads: "The rest say, forty." Cf. also Field, Origenis Hexaplorum quae supersunt, on Jonah 3:4.

560.  574 Jonah 4:10.

561.  575 LXX of Jonah 3:4; also the Syro-Hexaplaric version.

562.  576 1 Sam. xxv.

563.  577 Cf. Eusebius, op. cit. pp. 118-19.

564.  578 Cf. Eusebius, loc. cit. Cf. LXX of IV Kings 1:9, where the exact word of Eusebius does not occur, but an excellent synonym. George Adam Smith thinks Mount Carmel is the scene of the story here related (Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible I 355 b).

565.  579 Cf. Eusebius, loc. cit.

566.  580 B has two Greek readings in the margin: ζιβακανος and βιζκανοι. Named from the Roman province Byzacium in North Africa.

567.  582 Isa. 23:10 in LXX.

568.  583 Isa. 23:1, 6, 10; Ezek. 27:12, 25; 38:13.

569.  584 Cf. Matt. 8:11 f. and Luke 13:29; not an exact quotation.

570.  585 Rather free translation justified by the context.

571.  586 Job 1:3 in LXX.

572.  587 The very same word just translated "rising."

573.  588 The word seems to be pointed as a participle, meaning "friends"; but it can equally well mean "by the womb" or "by birth," and this fits better what immediately follows. The later reference to the "friend of God" may, however, hark back to the meaning "friends."

574.  589 Gen. 36:13 and 10.

575.  590 For the idea of Abraham versus the entire human race, cf. B ereshith Rabbah 42:13.

576.  591 James 2:23; Isa. 41:8; II Chron. 20: 7. Cf. Philonis Alexandrini Opera quae supersunt, ed. L. et P. Wendland, II (Berlin, 1897) 226 (Mangey ed. [London, 1742] I 401).

577.  592 R. Payne Smith, op. cit. col. 3879, cites III Esd. 8:11, 13, 26 as authority for the statement that the seven nobles nearest to the king of the Persians were called "friends."

578.  593 Other instances of this phrase applied to Abraham, but as an epithet rather than a name, are: Zadokite Fragments 4:2; Jub. 19:9; I Clem. 10:1 and 17:2; Jerusalem Targum on Gen. 18:17; Prayer of Azariah 12 ("beloved of God"); Avoth d eRabbi Nathan, version 2, chap. 43 @@ and @@), ed. Schechter, p. 61; B emidhbar Rabba 16:3 (@@).

579.  594 Greek for "widely" is εὐρέως .

580.  595 An attempt to derive euros from @@, "head." 

581.  596 Lit., "vehement," "typhonic"; Acts 27:14.

582.  597 A reads d for r, a plain error.

583.  598 I.e., the east.

584.  599 In LXX of Exod. 27:11; Judith 7:18; Jer. 32:12 (25:26 MT); Ezek. 20:47 (21:3 MT); 21:4 (9 MT); I Macc. 12:37; Aquila, Ezek. 17:10; ' Αλλος, Exod. 14:21 and Judg. 1:9.

585.  600 Margin: "Notos is the wind in the middle between south and east."

586.  601  From ἀπο& + ἀFέλιος (old form of ἥλιος).

587.  602 I.e., the author says euronotos is called apeliotes in the Scriptures. The word euronotos does not occur in LXX; ἀπηλιώτης occurs as the equivalent of the MT @@ in Exod. 27:11; Jer. 32:12 LXX (25:26 MT); of @@ in Ezek. 20:47 (21:3 MT); 21:4 (9 MT); of @@ in Ezek. 17:10 (Aquila); Exod. 14:21 ( ' Αλλος).

588.  603 Notos occurs often in LXX. It is the equivalent of @@ in Exod. 10:13 (twice) and 14:21; of @@ in Exod. 26:20; of @@ in Exod. 26:35, etc. A special study of the translation of these terms might be valuable.

589.  604 Acts 27:12. The term is used in LXX as loosely as notos; it stands for @@ in Deut. 33:23; r@@ in II Chron. 32:30 and 33:14; 3:3 in Gen. 13:14; 20:1; 24:62; @@ in Deut. 3:27; Num. 10:6.

590.  605 Gen. 1:5, 8, 13, 19, 23, 31; Acts 4:3 and 28:23; and many other places. 

591.  606 Where?

592.  607 Acts 27:12.

593.  608 Margin: ετησιοι.

594.  609 The word is the Greek αρκτος transliterated. Margin: "arktos, i.e., the wagon," sometimes called Charles's Wain.

595.  610 Liddell and Scott treat this as the normal spelling rather than aparkias.

596.  611 Properly θρασκίας. Liddell and Scott say this wind was probably named from Thrace, and they cite a form Θρᾳκίας . On the ancient names of the winds cf. Theophrastus of Eresus, On Winds and on Weather Signs, trans. J. G. Wood (London, 1894).

597.  612 Skopelos, otherwise Peparethos, was an island off the coast of Magnesia.

598.  613 Patrae, the modern Patras, was an ancient city of Achaia, on the promontory of Rhium.

599.  614 Properly καικίας , Greek term for the northeast wind.

600.  615 Could this term by any possibility be derived from Smyrna?

601.  616 Luke 1:39 f.

602.  617 Lit., "separated."

603.  618 Lagarde correctly regards these two Syriac words as the translation of ὀροθεσία.

604.  619 Singular in Syriac; Abilene and the Decapolis are thought of as a geographical unit and so are referred to by singular pronouns below where we use a plural.

605.  620 I.e., on the Pella side of the Jordan; cf. Eusebius, Onomasticon, ed. Klostermann, p. 80.

606.  621 Eusebius, loc. cit. 

607.  622 These three countries or regions are indicated by feminine adjectives.

608.  623 "Of the east" seems altogether superfluous and is relegated to a footnote in Lagarde's edition. It can only mean something like "to the west of its eastern part."

609.  624 Philistines, the ἀλλόφυλοι of LXX.

610.  625 Jerome says, "the tower of Strato, afterward called Caesarea." Cf. Eusebius, op. cit. pp. 22, 23.

611.  626 The Roman provincia; our "province" is not sufficiently exact.

612.  627 Doubtless a translation of the Greek ἀστροθεσία.

613.  628 Job 9:9, in the main following LXX; but I find Orion in Peshitta and MT only. The Peshitta, however, has only one term, @@, in place of "the evening star and the North Star."

614.  629 Does this represent the Greek βότρυς ?

615.  630 A transliteration of the Greek κορήτης.

616.  631 Cf. Job 38:34a and 326 in LXX.

617.  632 I.e., Ursa Minor; Charles's Wain usually means Ursa Major.

618.  633 Transliteration of the LXX term, here found on the margin.

619.  634 The marginal "Hosea" is an error; see Ps. 134:7 in LXX.

620.  635 Amos 5:8 in LXX; the full title for Deity is found only in the margin of the Syro-Hexaplaric version.

621.  636 Lit., "which."

622.  637 Or "dust." It is interesting to observe that the modern "tells," the word here translated "hills," are artificial and composed mainly of dust.

623.  638 Exactly what particular kind of ridges is meant is not clear; certainly not all ridges are of sand, even in Palestine.

624.  639 The only meaning given by the lexicons is "rivulets." The marginal Greek readings seem to be confused, and θινασι, "sand heaps" or "dunes," seems to belong to this word rather than to shevalte. B does not definitely attach θινασι to a particular word of the text.

625.  640 The primary meaning of this word in the singular is "spike (of grain)," but it seems also to mean "flood" (Ps. 69:3,16 MT; Isa. 27:12 MT and P). The marginal δινασι, "whirlpools" or "eddies," seems to belong to this word.

626.  6411 am venturing thus to vocalize in accordance with the same consonants in R. Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus, col. 2615.

627.  642 Cf. ibid. col. 1264.

628.  643 Perhaps an adjective built on the city name Heftun; cf. R. Payne Smith, op. cit. col. 1349.

629.  644 For the entire colophon cf. W. Wright, Catalogue of Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum II (London, 1871) 718a. Wright makes out some letters hardly legible in our photograph. B has no corresponding colophon.

This text was transcribed by Roger Pearse, Ipswich, UK, 2005.

Greek text is rendered using the unicode Palatino linotype font, plus a few others.

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