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1.  1 Of the Council of Nicea.

2.  2 1 Cor. ii. 9.

3.  3 Cf . Eph. i. 8-9; Col. i. 26; iv. 3-4, etc.

4.  1 1 Cor. ii. 11-13.

5.  2 Ps. xcviii. 1. (Peshitta has "a marvellous thing.") 

6.  3 2 Cor. v. 1 7.

7.  4 Lit. from.

8.  5 Col. iii. 10-11.

9.  1 Phil. iii. 20.

10.  2 2 Cor. v. 1.

11. 3 Ibid. Cf Heb. ix. 11, 24.

12.  4 Or written.

13.  5 Cf. Gen. iii. 18 etc.

14.  6 Cf. Is. xxxv. 10.

15.  7 John iii. 5.

16.  1 Cf. Rom. viii. 1 7; Gal. iii. 29; iv. 7; Tit. iii. 7.

17.  2 Lit. our first.

18.  3 Or: religion, confession.

19.  1 Or: godliness. Does it possibly render the Greek Θεοσέβεια?  

20.  2 Rom. x. 10.

21.  3 Heb. xi. 1.

22.  4 1 Tim. vi. 16.

23.  5 Heb. xi. 6.

24.  1 Heb. xi. 3.

25.  2 The word that I translate by "religion" literally means "fear of God," and it is possibly the Greek word used by Paul ( θεοσέβεια) which the English Bible renders by "godliness."

26.  3 1 Tim. iii. 15.

27.  4 Lit. " who fully shows His Father in it."

28.  1 Deut. vi. 4; Mark xii. 29, etc.

29.  2 Jer. x. 11

30.  3 Cf also Deut. xxxii. 39.

31.  4 Is. xliv. 6, etc. 

32.  5 Lit. high above creation.

33.  1 Ps. lxxxi. 9.

34.  2 Ibid.

35.  3 Deut. xxxii. 1 7.

36.  1 Matt, xxviii. 19.

37.  2 Deut. vi 4.

38.  1 Gen. iv. 1.

39.  1 i.e.. He is Father par excellence. 

40.  2 Exod. iii. 14-15.

41.  3 See on all this, p. 98.

42.  1 Ps. cxlviii. 1 -3.

43.  1 Ps. cxlviii. 5-6.

44.  2 Is. i. 2.

45.  3 Exod. iv. 22.

46.  4 The words baitayutha and kaributha used in these sentences may also be understood in the sense of the Pauline "adoption of Children" and of the doctrine of the membership of the Household of God spoken of in Eph. ii. 19. See the following chapter.

47.  1 Gen. i. 24.

48.  2 Or: "servants created," if we read `abde for `ebade of the MS.

49.  3 Or "human seed," or "movement" or "lapse of time." (Syr. marditha.)

50.  1 Here again is the Syriac word marditha.

51.  2 Lit. let us call Him.

52.  3 Ps. civ. 24.

53.  1 1 Cor. viii. 6.

54.  2 Lit. fear of God.

55.  3 1 Cor. viii. 6.

56.  4 Ibid.

57.  1 Deut. vi. 4.

58.  2 Matt. i. 21; Luke i. 31

59.  3 Acts x. 38.

60.  4 Philip. ii. 7.

61.  1 1 Tim. iii. 16.

62.  2 John i. 14.

63.  3 1 Cor. viii. 6.

64.  4 John i. 3.

65.  5 Acts x. 38; 1 Tim. iii. 16; Heb. ii. 9-10.

66.  6 In the text: Parsopa = πρόσωπον.

67.  7 Rom. ix. 5.

68.  1 John i. 14.

69.  2 Ibid, 18.

70.  3 Ps. lxxi. 9, 12.

71.  1 Rom. viii. 29.

72.  2 Ibid., 23; Galat. iv. 5; Eph. i. 5.

73.  3 Col. i. 15.

74.  4 2 Cor. v. 17.

75.  5 Phil. ii. 7.

76.  1 Ps. lxxxii. 6

77.  2Is. i. 2.

78.  3 Eph. ii. 19.

79.  4 Or "a servant," if we read `abda, instead of `ebadha.

80.  1 John i. 1.

81.  2 Ibid.

82.  1 Lit. person ( Kenoma).

83.  1 The word "creature" may be translated in all this section by "work," "a created being," a sense which in reality fits some sentences better.

84.  1 John i. 1.

85.  2 Lit. high.

86.  3 Ps. lxxxii. 6.

87.  1 Lit. "one is consubstantial with the other," or "this is consubstantial with that."

88.  2 John i. 1.

89.  3 John x. 30.

90.  4 Ibid, 27-28.

91.  5 Ibid, 29.

92.  1 John xiv. 9.

93.  2 Ibid., 11.

94.  3 Matt. xi. 2 7.

95.  4 Acts xvii. 28.

96.  5 Tit. i. 12.

97.  1 John i. 1.

98.  2 Ibid, 3.

99.  3 Heb. i. 2.

100.  1 Cf. Rom. viii. 3; Phil. ii. 7, etc.

101.  1 Phil. ii. 7.

102.  2 Cf. Matt, xviii. 11. 

103.  3 John i. 10-11.

104.  4 Ps. xviii. 9.

105.  1 Cf Phil. ii. 7.

106.  2 Lit. "from there."

107.  3 Ps. viii. 4.

108.  4 Cf Ps. xvi. 10; Acts ii. 27; xiii. 35.

109.  5 John ii. 19.

110.  6 Lit. "until with help he loosed."

111.  7 Acts ii. 24.

112.  8 This passage is quoted in the Acts of the Fifth Council (Mansi, ix., p. 218). It is stated in this Council that it is culled from Theodore's book ad baptizandos. See the "Prefatory Note."

113.  1 Ephes. i. 21.

114.  2 John x. 33.

115.  3 Phil. ii. 7-8.

116.  4 Rom. viii. 3.

117.  5 1 Tim. iii. 16.

118.  1 I.e. to the soul.

119.  2 Lit. "a man like a man."

120.  1 Rom. v. 12, 15 and 1 7.

121.  2 1 Cor. xv. 22.

122.  3 Cf. 1 Cor. xv. 56.

123.  1 1 Tim. iii. 6.

124.  2 Rom. i. 28-31.

125.  1 Rom. viii. 1-2 where "me" for "thee."

126.  2 Cf. 2 Cor. i. 9.

127.  3  I.e., personality, existence. I prefer here also to use the word "person" (in Syr. Kenoma) which is probably a translation of the Greek u9po/stasij in order to preserve the nature and the character of the theological terms used in the fourth century.

128.  4  I.e., as long as the animal qua animal is alive.

129.  5 The ancients believed the soul of the animal to reside in the blood. See Barsalibi's treatise against the Armenians, vol. iv., p. 33 of my Woodbrooke Studies, and `Ali Tabari's Book of Religion and Empire, p. 82 of my edition. Cf. Aristotle, De anima, i. 2, and Levit. xvii. 18.

130.  1 Lit. Receiving anything.

131.  2 Matt. x. 28.

132.  3 Lit. person of the soul.

133.  4 Possibly: because he resembles.

134.  5 John xiv. 30

135.  1 Rom. v. 21.

136.  2 Note the use of the word ethhayyal.

137.  3 Cf. Rom. vi. 17, etc.

138.  4 Lit. received.

139.  5 John xii. 31 -32.

140.  6 Lit. "that He had a kind of judgment with the Rebel."

141.  1 1 Tim. iii. 16.

142.  2 Heb. ix. 14.

143.  3 This passage is also quoted in the Acts of the Fifth Council (Mansi, ix. 218). It is again stated in this Council that it is culled from Theodore's work ad baptizandos. See the "Prefatory Note."

144.  4 Rom. viii. 23.

145.  5 2 Cor. i. 21-22

146.  6 1 Cor. xv. 53-56.

147.  7 Ibid, 57.

148.  1 This passage is also quoted in the Acts of the Fifth Council (Mansi, ix. 218). It is again stated in this Council that it is excerpted from Theodore's work ad baptizandos. See the "Prefatory Note."

149.  2 Phil. iii. 21.

150.  3 Gal. iv. 4, etc.

151.  1 1 Cor. i. 18.

152.  2 Lit. in all versions: "that perish."

153.  3 Lit. "alive," as in the Peshitta.

154.  4 2 Cor. xiii. 4.

155.  1 I.e. natures.

156.  2 Rom. ix. 5.

157.  1 This sentence is quoted in the Acts of the Fifth Council. See "Prefatory Note."

158.  2 Phil. ii. 6-7.

159.  3 Lit. was found to be a man.

160.  1 Phil. ii. 8-11.

161.  2 Col. iii. 1, etc.

162.  1 Luke ii. 7.

163.  2 Text: All these together with.

164.  3 Luke ii. 51-52.

165.  4 Lit. of men.

166.  5 Gal. iv. 4.

167.  6 Gal. iv. 4-5.

168.  1 Gal. v. 1.

169.  2 2 Tim. ii. 8, etc.

170.  3 Heb. ii. 5-6.

171.  4 Ibid., 16.

172.  1 I.e. Christ; cf. 1 Cor. xv. 23

173.  2 Col. i. 18.

174.  3 Lit. was perfected.

175.  4 Lit. head.

176.  5 In His baptism.

177.  1 Lit. with those.

178.  2 Lit. that world.

179.  3 Rom. vi. 17.

180.  4 Ibid., 3-4.

181.  1 Rom. vii. 4, where no "Jesus."

182.  2 Acts. ii. 24.

183.  3 Col. iii. 1, etc.

184.  4 Heb. vii. 22.

185.  5 2 Tim. i. 9, etc.

186.  6 Tit. iii. 6.

187.  7 2 Cor. v. 5; Eph. i. 14.

188.  8 Acts ii. 33.

189.  1 1 Cor. xv. 44.

190.  2 Lit. faith like this.

191.  3 Lit. here.

192.  4 Eph. i. 13.

193.  1 2 Cor. viii. 9.

194.  2 I translate "He was" literally.

195.  1 1 Cor. xv. 3-4.

196.  2 Ibid., 4.

197.  1 1 Cor. xv. 14, 16-17.

198.  1 1 Cor. xv. 17.

199.  2 Luke xxiv. 51.

200.  3 Acts i. 9-10.

201.  1 1 Cor. xv. 23.

202.  2 1 Thess. iv. 16-17.

203.  3 Phil. iii. 20-21.

204.  4 2 Cor. v. 1.

205.  5  Ibid., 6-8, where "with the Lord" for" with Christ."

206.  6 Lit. those future things.

207.  1 Gal. iv. 26.

208.  2 1 Cor. xv. 23.

209.  3 Eph. ii. 1.

210.  4 Ibid., 5.

211.  5 Ibid, 7.

212.  6 Phil. iii. 21.

213.  1 1 Cor. xv. 51-52.

214.  2 1 Thess. iv. 15-17.

215.  1 John ii. 21.

216.  2 John x. 18.

217.  1 Acts. i. 1 1.

218.  2 Lit. did.

219.  3 Tit. ii. 13

220.  1 2 Tim. iv. 1.

221.  2 Phil. ii. 6-7.

222.  1 Matt. xxii. 42.

223.  2 Matt. i. 1 (not literal quotation).

224.  3 Matt. xxii. 43-45.

225.  4 John viii. 19.

226.  5 John xiv. 9.

227.  1 John xvi. 25.

228.  2 Ibid., 24.

229.  3 Ibid., 12-13.

230.  4 John ii. 19.

231.  5 Ibid, 21.

232.  1 Cf. Ps. xvi. 10.

233.  2 Or: do to it.

234.  1 Heb. ii. 10.

235.  2 Phil. ii. 7.

236.  3 Heb. ii. 5-8.

237.  4 Ibid., 16.

238.  5 Ibid, 9.

239.  6 Ibid. The Pauline sentence ὅπως χάριτι Θεοῦ ὑπερ παντὸς γεύσηται θανάτου is rendered in the English Bible as follows: "That He by the grace of God should taste death for every man." In this translation Jesus tastes death by the grace of God. In the West Syrian or Monophysite Versions of the Bible we generally read: "Because He, God, by His grace tasted death for every man." ([Syriac]) In this translation it is God who tastes death. Against such an idea the East Syrian or Diophysite versions of the Bible read as above: " Apart from God He (Jesus) tasted death." In this rendering death is removed from God. The sentence played a great part in the Christological controveries of the fourth, fifth and sixth centuries. The Vulgate reads: "Ut gratia Dei pro omnibus gustaret mortem." For a full discussion of this passage and the different readings of the ancient Greek MSS. concerning it see Moffatt in International Critical Commentary (Hebrews), pp. 25-28.

240.  1 This passage is quoted in the Acts of the Fifth Council (Mansi, ix., 21 7). See the "Prefatory Note."

241.  2 Lit. "the head" designating Christ.

242.  3 I.e. the man Jesus.

243.  4 I.e. God's glory.

244.  5 I.e. God.

245.  6 I.e. Christ.

246.  7 or: did.

247.  8 I.e. human nature of Christ.

248.  1 Rom. ix. 5.

249.  2 John vi. 62.

250.  3 Ibid. 51.

251.  4 I.e. Christ. 

252.  5 Between the two natures, the human and the Divine. 

253.  6 John iii. 13.

254.  1 I.e. one person, individual.

255.  2 I.e. man—Jesus.

256.  1 This sentence is quoted by Facundus and Marius Mercator. See the "Prefatory Note."

257.  2 John x. 30.

258.  3 Matt. xix. 6.

259.  4 Dan. vii. 4 sqq.

260.  5 John viii. 1 7.

261.  6 Matt. vi. 24.

262.  7 I.e. in the case of Christ.

263.  8 Text: [Syriac] = πρόσωπον.

264.  9 Lit. this.

265.  1 Lit. this, or that.

266.  2 Rom. i. 3.

267.  3 This sentence is quoted in the Acts of the Fifth Council ( Mansi, ix., 21 7) as from Theodore's work ad baptizandos. See the "Prefatory note."

268.  4 Lit. nakedly.

269.  5 All this long passage is quoted by Marius Mercator in his book. See the "Prefatory Note."

270.  6 Matt, xxviii. 19.

271.  7 There is no mention of the Spirit proceeding also from the Son.

272.  1 John xiv. 10.

273.  2 Matt. iii. 16 where "lighting upon Him."

274.  3 John xvii. 21.

275.  4 1 Cor. ii. 11.

276.  5 John xiv. 21.

277.  6 John xiv. 23.

278.  7 Lit. Divine nature.

279.  1 Theodore is referring here either to the "tome of Damasus" against the Macedonians, which in 378 received at Antioch the subscriptions of 146 Bishops (see Hefele's History of the Councils, ii., 291 and 360-363) or to the Council of Constantinople in 381, or even possibly to the Synod held at Alexandria in 363 under the guidance of Athanasius, in which the Deity of the Spirit was affirmed. See Migne, Pat. Gr., xxvi., 820. On an earlier Synod held at Alexandria on the same subject in 362, see Socrates, H.E., iii., 7 and Rufinus, H.E., i., 28.

280.  1 Lit. to be fearer of God.

281.  2 Matt. xxviii. 19.

282.  1 Acts iii. 6.

283.  2 or: He (Christ).

284.  3 Isa. xxvii. 13 (Septuagint).

285.  4 Ps. xliv. 5.

286.  5 Ps. lxxxix. 24 (where his horn).

287.  6 Ps. cxvi. 17.

288.  1 Lit. oneness.

289.  2 Ps. civ. 4.

290.  3 Ps. cxlvi. 4 (Septuagint and Peshitta).

291.  4 Ps. cxlvii. 18 (Septuagint and Peshitta).

292.  5 Lit. Divine nature.

293.  1 John iv. 24.

294.  2 Lit. "of name," i.e. the name of the true God.

295.  3  I.e. who exist.

296.  4 Ex. iii. 14-15.

297.  5 In all this passage I have (for the sake of convenience) followed in the translation of the Divine name the English Version which renders the Hebrew words [Hebrew] by I am that I am and I have preserved throughout the first pron. sing. which is not always the case in the text.

298.  1 Luke ix. 26, cf. Matt. xxv. 31.

299.  1 Ps. xlvi. 4 (Septuagint and Peshitta).

300.  2 Ps. cxi. 9 (with changes).

301.  3 Isa. vi. 3.

302.  4 Allusion to the Fathers of the Council of Constantinople in 381.

303.  5 Allusion to the Fathers of the Council of Nicea.

304.  1 The text repeats "of their Fathers."

305.  2 In a more literal sense: fear.

306.  3 Theodore refers here to the word "one" added to the creed by the Council of Constantinople in 381, or possibly to the "tome of Damasus" as accepted by 146 Bishops assembled at Antioch in 378.

307.  1 1 Cor. xii. 13.

308.  2 Eph. iv. 4-6.

309.  3 1 Cor. xii. 4-6.

310.  4 Eph. iv. 3.

311.  5 Lit. "from your mother." I.e. the Spirit. That the Spirit is our mother is found in John iii. 5. The word ruha, "spirit," is feminine in Syriac and corresponds linguistically with the neuter pneu=ma.

312.  1 Eph. iv. 4.

313.  2 Ibid. 15.

314.  3 Phil. iii. 21.

315.  4 Rom. viii. 23.

316.  5 Eph., ibid, (where in you all).  

317.  6 Spiritual birth through baptism.

318.  1 Lit. "to have their whole look at."

319.  2 In the text talmidhutha. Evidently the author refers sometimes by this word to the "catechumenate" or the state of the "Catachumens" who were taught the principles of the Christian faith before their baptism. I have rendered it a few times by "initiation," "teaching," "discipleship."

320.  1 Lit. whose all look is towards insolence.

321.  2 John xiv. 15-16.

322.  3 Ibid.. 1 7.

323.  1 Ps. cxvi. 11.

324.  2 Ps. lxxxv. 10 (Septuagint and Peshitta).

325.  3 Ps. xxxi. 5.

326.  1 John xiv. 17.

327.  2 Ibid.

328.  3 John. xv. 26.

329.  1 1 Cor. ii. 1 1 (where τοῦ Θεοῦ).

330.  2 John vii. 38.

331.  3 Ibid., 39.

332.  1 Text: kenoma.

333.  2 Text: He.

334.  3 I use in this section the verb "to proceed" in order better to follow the author's argumentation.

335.  4 Gen. ii. 10.

336.  5 1 Cor. xii. 4.

337.  6 Ibid., 7.

338.  1 It is said that the expression "Giver of life" was added by the Council of Constantinople in 381.

339.  2 Text only, "those."

340.  3 John iv. 14.

341.  4 John vii. 38.

342.  5 2 Cor. iii. 6.

343.  6 1 Cor. xv. 45.

344.  7 Rom. i. 4 (Peshitta and partly also the Greek text).

345.  8 Rom. viii. 11.

346.  9 John vi. 63.

347.  10 I.e. to give immortal life.

348.  1 Deut. xxxii. 39.

349.  2 See Matt, xxviii. 19. As stated above Theodore seems to refer by the word talmidhutha to the state of the "Catechumens" who were taught the principles of the Christian faith before their baptism.

350.  1 The text repeats "names."

351.  2 Eph. iv. 4.

352.  3 Matt, xxviii. 19-20.

353.  4 Matt. xvi. 18.

354.  1 Eph. iii. 10-11.

355.  2 Phil. iii. 21.

356.  3 Col. i. 24.

357.  4 1 Cor. xii. 27.

358.  5 John xvii. 20-21.

359.  6 Rom. vi. 4.

360.  1 Heb. xii. 23 (not literal).

361.  2 Gal. iv. 5; cf. Eph. i. 5.

362.  3 It is to be noted that Theodore does not mention the article of the Council of Constantinople in 381: "We acknowledge one baptism." This article was evidently lacking in the Nicene Creed. Below he refers to baptism but only in connection with the words pronounced by the baptizandus. There is, however, a reference above to the fact that after the "profession of faith in baptism they added the profession of faith in one Catholic Church." This sentence may possibly refer to the addition inserted by the Council of Constantinople.

363.  4 Matt. xxvi. 26, etc. (not literal but in a liturgical sense; cf. 1 Cor. xi. 24).

364.  1 John i. 29.

365.  2 1 Cor. xv. 16-17.

366.  3 Ibid, 54-56.

367.  1 Matt, xxviii. 19.

368.  2 The catechumens.

369.  3 Maimra more often means "discourse," "homily," and this sense seems to be more fitting for these catechetical lectures of Theodore. I have used the word "Chapter" throughout in order to maintain more clearly the book character given to the work either by the author or by his disciples.


This text was transcribed by Roger Pearse, Ipswich, UK, 2008.

Greek text is rendered using unicode.


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