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CHAPTER XXI

'WHATEVER answer the god may give in regard to the property and the man who removed it, that let the city execute in obedience to the oracles of the god. And if the informer be a free man, let him have the reputation of goodness; but if he fail to inform, of baseness. But if he be a slave, the informer may rightly be made free by the city, on payment of his value to his master; but if he fail to give information, let him be punished by death.'

Here again the punishment of death is enacted not against the man who has purloined some forbidden property, but against him who failed to inform against another who had done wrong: and in another case too he declares a master free from guilt if he kill his own slave in anger. He says in fact: 255

'If he have killed a slave of his own, let him undergo purification; but if he have killed another man's slave in anger, let him pay the owner twofold for the loss.'

Listen also to this passage of the laws which he enacted in regard to murderers: 256

'If therefore any one with his own hand slay a free man, and the deed have been done in a passion without premeditation, let him suffer all other penalties that were deemed right for one who slew another without anger to suffer, but let him undergo compulsory exile for two years to correct his passion.'

And then he appends to this another law of the following kind: 257

'But let the man who has slain another in anger, yet with premeditation, suffer all other the same penalties as the former offender; but just as the other was banished for two years, let him be banished for three, being punished for a longer term because of the violence of his passion.'

Then next he enacts such laws as the following in regard to one who has committed homicide a second time: 258

'But if ever after returning from exile either of them be overcome by anger and commit this same offence again, let him be banished and never return.'

And again afterwards he says: 259

'But if, as occurs sometimes, though not often, a father or mother from anger kill a son or a daughter by blows or any manner of violence, let them undergo the same purifications as the others, and spend three years in exile. But when the homicides have returned from exile, let the wife be separated from her husband and the husband from the wife, and not beget children together any more.'

To this also he adds: 260

'But if any man in anger slay his wedded wife, or a wife do the same in like manner to her own husband, let them undergo the same purifications, but continue three years in banishment. And when the author of such a deed has returned, let him have no communion in sacred rites with his children, nor ever sit at the same table with them.

261 'And if a brother or sister slay brother or sister in anger, be it enacted that the same purifications and banishments as have been appointed for parents and children be undergone by them; and let them never have the same home with those whom they have deprived of brothers, or of children, nor share in their sacred rites.

'But if brother slay brother in a faction fight, or in other like manner, while defending himself against an assault, let him be guiltless, as if he had slain an enemy in war. And in like manner if a citizen slay a fellow citizen, or a foreigner a foreigner. But if a foreigner slay a citizen, or a citizen a foreigner in self-defence, let him be in the same position as to being guiltless: and in like manner if a slave kill a slave. But if on the other hand a slave kill a free man in self-defence, let him be subject to the same laws as the slayer of a father.

262 'Whosoever designedly and wrongfully slays with his own hand any one of his kinsmen, in the first place let him be excluded from legal rights, polluting neither agora, nor temples, nor harbours, nor any other public assembly, whether any one interdict the doer of these deeds or not: for the law interdicts him. . . . And let the man who fails to prosecute him, when he ought, or fails to proclaim him be excluded from kinship: . . . and in the second place let him be liable to prosecution by any one who wishes to exact retribution for the deceased. 263 And if a woman has wounded her husband, or a man his wife, with design to kill, let either suffer perpetual banishment.'

Such are the laws of the philosopher: and if we are to bring those of Moses into comparison with them, hear what sort of ordinances he makes concerning cases of homicide. 264 'If one smite a man and he die, let him surely be put to death. And if he did it not purposely, but God delivered him 'into his hands, I will give thee a place whither the slayer shall flee. But if a man set upon his neighbour to slay him with guile, and flee for refuge, thou shalt take him from Mine altar to put him to death. He that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death. . . . And if two men revile one another, and one smite his neighbour with a stone or with his fist, and he die not, but be laid upon his bed, if the man rise again, and walk abroad upon his staff, then shall he that smote him be quit: only he shall pay for his loss of time, and the fees of his physician. And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a staff, and he die under his hands, he shall surely be punished. But if he live a day or two he shall not be punished; for he is his money. . . . 265 And if a man smite the eye of his servant, or the eye of his handmaiden, and blind him utterly, he shall send them forth free for their eyes' sake.'

Such then are the laws of Moses. Now hear again in what way, and for what kind of offences, Plato orders that the slave shall be punished with scourging without hope of pardon: 266

'"When a man wishes to gather the vintage of what are now called fine grapes, or the so-called fine figs, if he be taking them from his own property, let him gather the fruit however and whenever he will: but if from the property of others without having gained permission, let that man always be punished, in accordance with the principle of not taking up what one laid not down. But if a slave touch any of such things without having gained permission of the owner of the farms, for every berry of the grapes and every fig of the fig-tree let him be scourged with an equal number of stripes.'

Such are the enactments against these offences, unworthy of the magnanimity of Plato. But how noble and humane those of Moses are you may learn by listening to him while he speaks as follows: 267 'When thou art come into thy neighbour's vineyard, thou shalt eat grapes until thy soul be satisfied, but shalt not put any into thy vessel.' And again: 'If thou come into thy neighbour's standing corn, and pluck the ears with thy hands, then thou shalt not put a sickle to thy neighbour's standing corn.' And again: 268 'If thou reapest thy harvest in thy field, and hast forgotten a sheaf in thy field, thou shalt not turn back again to take it: it shall be for the poor, for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow, that the LORD thy God may bless thee in every work of thine hands. And if thou gather thine olives, thou shalt not turn back to glean what is left behind thee: it shall be for the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow. And if thou gather the grapes of thy vineyard, thou shalt not glean over again what is left behind thee: this shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless and for the widow.'

These then are the enactments found in Moses. And Plato's are well known, in which you may find thousands irreproachable, whereof we most gladly welcome all that is noble and excellent in him, and bid a long leave to what is not of such a character. But since we have travelled so far through these matters, and have shown cause why we have not chosen to follow Plato in philosophy, it is time to bring the rest of our promise to completion, and to review the other sects of Greek philosophy.


[Footnotes moved to the end and numbered]

1.639 d 1 Plato, Timaeus, p. 40 D, quoted also p. 75 d 5, and p. 692 c 1

2.640 c 5 Ps.-Plato, Epinomis, 980 C

3.641 a 1 Plato, Republic, 377 C, quoted again p. 692 d 9

4.642 c 1 From the translation of Davies and Vaughan.

5.643 b 3 Hom. Il. xxiv. 527 (Lord Derby)

6.b 6 ibid.

7.530 c 1 ibid.532

8.c 3 Cf. Hom. Il. iv. 84; xix. 224

9.c 4 ibid. iii. 275

10.c 6 ibid. xx. 4

11.c 9 Aeschylus, Niobe, Fr. 160

12.645 b 6 Homer, Odyssey, xvii. 485

13.c 2 Aeschylus, Xantriae, a Fragment known only from Plato's quotation

14.646 d 14 Homer, Il. ii. 5 ff .

15.647 a 2 Aeschylus, Fragment, 266 (281)

16.c 4 Gen. i. 10

17.c 6 ibid i. 31

18.c 9 Wisd. i. 13

19.d 1 Wisdom ii. 24

20. d 4 Jer. ii. 21

21.648 a 10 Heb. xii. 6; Prov. iii. 12

22.b 2 Cf. 643 d 6

23.b 12 Mal. iii. 6

24. c 2 Ps. cii. 26, 27

25.d 2 Cf. 646 b 5

26.649 b 1 Cf. 646 d a

27.649 c 3 Cf. 647 a 12

28.d 1 Plato, Euthyphron, 5 E

29.650 d 1 Numenius, a Fragment preserved by Eusebius

30.651 b 1 Plato, Crito, 46 B

31.653 b 12 Joh. v. 44

32.c 6 Cf. 651 c 11

33.d 1 Plato, Crito, 49 A

34.654 d 11 Rom. xii. 17

35.d 12 Matt. v. 44, 45

36.655 a 3 1 Cor. iv. 12

37. b 3 Ps. vii. 4

38.b 4 Ps. cxx. 7

39.c 1 Plato, Crito, p. 52 C

40.658 b 1 Crito, 53 C. The Laws still speak.

41.659 d 1 Plato, Apology of Socrates, 28 B

42.660 a 7 Hom. Il. xviii. 96

43.b 1 ibid. 98

44.b 4 ibid. 104

45.661 c 5 Plato, Apology of Socrates, 40 C

46.662 c 7 Acts v. 29

47.c 8 Matt. x. 28

48.c 9 2 Cor. v. 1

49.d 1 ibid. 8

50. 663 a 1 Plato, Republic, 468 E

51.663 d 2 Aristobulus, cf. p. 411 A

52.664 d 1 Orphic Fragment, ii (Hermann)

53.666 b 3 Aratus, Phaenomena, 1

54.667 a 4 Aristobulus

55.b5 Prov. viii. 23, 27

56.d 7 Hesiod, Works and Days, 770. The verses that follow are all spurious

57.668 d 1 Clement of Alexandria, Miscellany, v. 14, p. 699 Potter

58. 669 a 1 Wisdom vii. 24

59.b 4 Plato, Timaeus, 48 C

60.b 9 Gen. i. 2

61.c 4 Eccles. i. 2

62.c 6 Ps. (xxxv) xxxvi. 5

63.d 3 Plato, Republic, 615E

64.d 9 Ps. (ciii) civ. 4

65.670 a 9 Matt, xviii. 10

66.b 3 Plato, Republic, 620 D

67.b 1 Plato, Timaeus, 28 B

68.c 2 ibid. 28 C

69.d 1 Plato, Laws, 896 D

70.d 7 Plato, Phaedrus, 240 A

71.d 10 Eph. vi. 12

72.671 a 1 Plato, Laws, 906 A

73.b 3 Gen. i. 1

74.b 4 ibid. 3

75.c 7 Cf. Gen. i. 26

76.d 3 Deut. xiii. 4

77.672 a 1 Plato, Phaedrus, 255 B

78.a 4 Plato, Lysis, 214 C

79.a 6 Laws, 716 C

80.b 4 Plato, Timaeus, 90 D

81.b 10 Clement of Alexandria, Miscellany, v. 14, p. 706 Potter

82.b 12 Plato, Republic, 415 A

83.d 7 Theaetetus, 173 C

84.673 a 8 Pindar, Fr. (226), 123

85.b 2 Matt. v. 37

86. b 3 Theaetetus, 151 D

87.b 6 Laws, 917 C

88.c 2 Ps. (xxxii) xxxiii. 9

89.c 8 Hom. Il. vii. 99

90.c 9 Isa. x. 6

91.673 d 2 Callimachus, Fr. 87

92.d 6 ibid. 133

93.d 9 Hesiod, Works and Days, 60

94.674 a 1 Diog. Laertius, vii. 156

95.a 7 Hom. Il. xiv. 206

96.b 1 Epicharmus, Fr. 297 (Mullach, i. p. 146)

97.b 4 Pindar, Fr. 106 (3)

98.c 1 Aratus, Phaenomena, 1

99.675 a 1 Hom. Il. xviii. 483 (Lord Derby's translation)

100.a 6 Cf. Clem. Al. Protrept. c. vi. p. 59 Potter

101.b 2 Pindar, Nem. vi. 1

102.b 6 Paean. Fr. vi

103.b 12 Pseudo-Plato, Epistle, vi. 323 C

104.675 c 5 Timaeus, 41 A

105.c 6 Pseudo-Plato, Epistle, ii. 312 E

106.d 4 Plato, Republic, 614 B

107.676 b 8 Heracleitus, Fr. 27 (Mullach)

108.c 2 Heracleitus, Fr. 28 (Mullach)

109.c 7 ibid. Fr. 29

110.d 8 Plato, Republic, 521 C; Eph. vi. 12

111.d 10 Plato, Phaedo, 95 D

112.d 12 Ps. iii. 5

113.677 a 8 Plato, Republic, 616 B

114.677 d See p. 667 d

115.678 a 6 Solon Fr. xiv. (Hermann, Poet. Min. Gr. iii. 139)

116.b 1 Wisdom ii. 12

117.b 4 Plato, Republic, 361 E; see notes on p. 583 d

118.b 8 Isa. xl. 25

119.c 2 Xenophon, Memorabilia, iv. iii. 13, 14

120.c 8 Sibylline Oracles, Fr. i. 10-13

121.d 5 Xenophanes, Fr. i. i (Mullach)

122.d 8 ibid. Fr. v

123.679 a 3 ibid. Fr. vi

124.b 4 Bacchylides, Fr. 60.(Kenyon)

125. 679 b 8 Cleanthes, Fr. 1. 45 (Mullach, i. p. 152)

126. d 3 ibid. 1. 54

127. d 8 Euripides, Antiope, Fr. 6

128. 680 a 2 Sophocles, Fr. 708

129. b 1 ibid.

130. b 5 Heracleitus, Fr. ii; Aristotle, Rhetoric, iii. 5, 6

131. b 9 Melanippides, Fr. 8 (Bergk), Parnell's Greek Lyric Poetry, p. 275

132. c 1 Plato, Sophist, 237 A

133. c 3 Parmenides, Fr. i. 59 (Mullach)

134. c 7 Hesiod, Fr. 53 (Gaisf.), 152 (Göttling)

135. d 5 Pseudo-Sophocles, Fr. 18, in Müller, Fr. Hist. Gr., tom. ii

136. 681 a 3 Euripides, Fragment quoted by Lucian, Jupiter Trag., c. 41

137. a 8 Euripides, Pirithous, Fr. ii.

138. 681 b 9 Aeschylus, Fr. Incert. 295

139. c 3 Heracleitus, Fr. 12 (Mullach)

140. c 4 ibid. Fr. 56 (Mullach)

141. c 6 Luke viii. 8

142. c 7 Heracleitus, Fr. 4 (Mullach)

143. d 2 Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 245 D

144. d 6 Deut. vi. 4, 13

145. d 8 Sibylline Oracle's, Fr. i (Rzach, p. 234)

146. d 10 Xenocrates, Fr. 2 (Mullach, iii. p. 114) Cf. Comus, l. 20.

147. 682 a 5 Hom. Il. xxii. 8 (Lord Derby's translation)

148. b 1 Is. xl. 18

149. b 7 Epicharmus, Republic

150.c 3 Cf. Plato, Republic, vii. 522: the following fragments of Epicharmus seem to be otherwise unknown

151. d 4 Is. 1. 11

152. d 7 ibid. 16

153. d 10 Pseudo-Menander (Meineke, p. 306)

154. 683 b 3 Jer. xxiii. 23, 24

155. 683 b 5 Ps. iv. 5

156. b 8 Pseudo-Menander (Meineke, p. 308)

157. d 1 Is. Iviii. 9

158. d 5 Pseudo-Philemon (Meineke, p. 865)

159. 684 a 7 Euripides, Phrixus, Fr. viii; cf. Valckenär, Aristobulus, c. i.

160. b 3 Cf. Valckenär, ibid.

161. b 8 Pseudo-Justin, De Monarchia, c. iii.

162. d 3 Orph. Fr. 123 (Abel), vi (Hermann); Stob. Ecl. I. ii. 23

163. 685 a 5 Orph. Fr. ii. 6; cf. 664 d 6

164. b 6 ibid. 23

165. c 4 Is. lxvi. i

166. c 6 Orph. Fr. ii. 29

167. 686 a 5 Is. lxiv. 1

168. b 1 ibid. xl. 12

169. b 4 Orphic Fr. iii. 1

170. d 5 ibid. iii. 14

171. 687 a 5 Amos iv. 13

172. a 7 Deut. xxxii. 39 Cf. Hos. xiii. 4

173. b 1 Orphic Fr. i. 11

174. b 5 Archilochus, Fr. xvii

175. b 9 Orphic Fr. i 19

176. c 2 Is. x, 14

177. c 4 Jer. x. 12

178. d 3 Phocylides, Fr. i. 19 (cf. ii. 31)

179. d 8 Philemon, Fr. xlviii

180. 688 a 1 Fragment otherwise unknown

181. 688 a 4 Orph. Fr. vi. 16 (Hermann)

182. b 3 Pindar, Fr. 104 (Boeckh)

183. b 5 ibid Fr. 105

184. b 8 ibid. Fr. 33

185. b 14 Is. xl. 13

186. c 3 Hesiod, Fr. iii (Gaisford)

187. c 7 Solon, Fr. x

188. d 4 Hesiod, Works and Days, 174-176

189. d 8 Homer, Il. viii. 689

190. 680 a 1 Menander, Fr. 18

191. b 1 Ps.-Aeschylus, Fr. in Ps.-Justin, De Monarchia, c. ii

192. c 6 Ps. cxiv. 7

193. c 11 Herodotus, vii. 141; cf. 218 d 5

194. 690 a 2 Thearidas, On Nature, a work otherwise unknown

195. a 5 Orph. Fr. i. 13

196. a 8 Diphilus, Fr. 52

197. b 1 Plato, Republic, 519 C

198. b 4 ibid. 521C

199. b 8 ibid. 415 A

200. b 10 The Greek text is defective here

201. 691 c 6 Ps. xli. 6

202. 692 c 1 Plato, Timaeus, 40 D; cf. 75 d, 639 d

203. d 10 Plato, Republic, 377 C

204. 693 a 8 ibid. 386 C

205. a 10 Hom. Od. xi. 488

206. b 2 Plato, Republic, 388 A

207. b 4 Hom. Il. xxiv. 10

208. b 7 Plato, ibid. 390 B

209. 693 c 5 Hom. Il. xiv. 291

210. c 10 Plato, Timaeus, 40 D

211.d 11 ibid. Republic, 377 D

212. 694 a 3 ibid. 377 E

213. a 5 Hesiod, Theogony, 154, 178

214. 696 b 9 Plato, Timaeus, 34 C

215. 697 a 1 Plato, Phaedo, 81 D

216. c 6 Plato, Phaedrus, 248 E

217. 698 a 1 ibid. Republic, 620 A

218. 699 a 10 Plato, Phaedo, 113 D

219. c 4 ibid. 114 C

220. c 10 ibid. Gorgias, 523 A

221. d 3 ibid. 535 C

222. 700 c 1 Severus, On the Soul, a Fragment preserved by Eusebius

223. 702 b 9 Ps.-Plato, Epinomis, 977 A

224. c 5 ibid. 984 D

225. d 5 Plato, Timaeus, 32 B

226. 703 a 2 Plato, Timaeus, 34 B

227. a 7 ibid. 38C

228. b 3 ibid. 38 E

229. b 8 ibid. Laws, 904 C

230. 703 d 5 Plato, Timaeus, 41 A

231. 704 b 3 Deut. iv. 19

232. b 8 Philo Iud. De Monarchia, i. c. i. p. 213

233. d 5 Deut. iv. 19

234. 705 b 1 Philo Iud. De Monarchia, i. c. i. p. 214

235. 706 a 1 Plato, Republic, 452 A

236. b 1 ibid. 457 B

237. b 2 Pindar, Fr. 227

238. b 6 Plato, Laws, 813 B

239. b 11 ibid. 796 B

240. c 6 ibid. 804 C

241. d 7 ibid. 813 D

242. 707 b 5 Ps. cxxvii. 1

243. b 10 Plato, Laws, 833 C

244. c 9 ibid. 833 E

245. d 1 ibid. 834 A

246. d 9 Plato, Laws, 834 D

247. 708 a 3 ibid. 924 E

248. a 12 ibid. 771 E

249. b 8 Plato, Republic, 457 G

250. c 4 ibid. 458 C

251. 709 a 2 Plato, Republic, 460 E

252. a 8 ibid. 461 B

253. b 1 ibid. 461 C

254. 711 b 1 Plato, Laws, 914 A

255. c 11 ibid. 868 A

256. 711 d 4 Plato, Laws, 867 C

257. d 11 ibid. 867 D

258. 712 a 1 ibid. 868 A

259. a 5 ibid. 868 C

260. a 13 ibid. 868 D

261. b 6 Plato, Laws, 869 B

262. d 1 ibid. 871 A

263. d 10 ibid. 877 C

264. 713 a 4 Ex. xxi. 12

265. 713 b 9 Ex. xxi. 26

266. c 6 Plato, Laws, 844 E

267. d 6 Deut. xxiii. 24, 25

268. d 11 Deut. xxiv. 19


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