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The Philocalia of Origen (1911) Footnotes to the English translation


1.  1 As "oracles."

2.  2 Matt. x. 18; cf. Mark xiii. 9.

3.  3 Matt. vii. 22 f.; cf. Luke xiii. 26.

4.  4 Cf. Gen. xlix. 10.

5.  5 Hos. iii. 4.

6.  6 For the Heb. teraphim the Sept. has delon. Schleusner shows that this word was used for the clear or shining stones, the Urim and Thummim. The teraphim were idolatrous means of divination (Pusey). The Seventy appear to have had in view the use of the Urim and Thummim by the high priest. 

7.  1 Gen. xlix. 10.

8.  2 Deut. xxxii. 21.

9.  1 1 Cor. i. 26 ff.

10.  2 Ps. xlv. (xliv.) 1 f.

11.  3 Ps. lxxii. (lxxi.) 7 f.

12.  4 Cf. Isa. vii. 14; Matt. i. 215.

13.  5 Isa. viii. 11 f.

14.  6 Matt. ii. 6; cf. Mic. v. 2.

15.  1 Dan. ix. 24.

16.  2 Job iii. 8.

17.  3 Luke x. 19.

18.  4 Cf. Heb. ii. 4.

19.  1 Cf. 2 Cor. iii. 16; Heb. x. 1.

20.  2 2 Cor. iv. 7,

21.  3 Or, "being stored up in the books (of the Bible)," etc.

22.  1 1 Cor. ii. 4 f.

23.  2 Heb. vi. 1.

24.  3 1 Cor. ii. 6 f.

25.  4 Rom. xvi. 25 ff.

26.  5 2 Tim. i. 10.

27.  6 Isa. lxi. i.

28.  7 Isa. xlv. 13.

29.  8 Zech. ix. 10.

30.  9 Isa. vii. 15.

31.  1 Isa. xi. 6 f.

32.  2 Jer. xv. 14.

33.  3 Ex. xx. 5.

34.  4 Cf. 1 Sam. xv. 11, 17, 35.

35.  5 Isa. xlv. 7.

36.  6 Amos iii. 6.

37.  7 Mic. i. 12.

38.  8 1 Sam. xvi. 14.

39.  9 World-builder----Creator.

40.  1 Cf. Gen. xix. 30 ff.

41.  2 Cf. Gen. xvi.

42.  3 Cf Gen. xxix. 21 ff.

43.  4 Cf. Ex. xxv. ff.

44.  1 1 Cor. ii. 16, 12 f.

45.  2 The Greek word is used in the Sept. for the Heb. for network, laced work, and so a lattice. In Eccles. xii. 3, a window, as closed by a lattice, and not with glass. In Hos. xiii. 3, a chimney, or hole for the smoke, covered with lattice-work. See Gesenius and Schleusner.

46.  1 Luke xi. 52.

47.  2 Prov. xxii. 20 f.

48.  3 1 Cor. ii. 6 f.

49.  4 Heb. x. 1.

50.  5 Herm. Vis. ii. 4.

51.  1 Widows and orphans----" Those who are not yet united with the Spouse of the Church, though divorced from their old connection, nor yet adopted children of the Father."----Westcott.

52.  2 "By this he evidently means that certain passages taken literally do not instruct us, for no one can deny that they have a meaning."----Westcott.

53.  3 John ii. 6.

54.  4 Rom. ii. 29.

55.  5 That is, a number equal to the sum of its factors or divisors. Thus 6 = 3 + 2 + 1.

56.  1 1 Cor. ix. 9 f.; cf. Deut. xxv. 4.

57.  2 Heb. viii. 5; x. 1.

58.  3 1 Cor. ii. 7 f.

59.  4 1 Cor. x. 11.

60.  5 1 Cor. x. 4.

61.  6 Heb. viii. 5; cf, Ex. xxv. 40.

62.  7 Gal. iv. 21 ff

63.  1 Col. ii. 16 f.

64.  2 Heb. viii. 5.

65.  3 That is, "inspired."

66.  4 Rom. xi. 4 ; cf. 1 Kings xix. 18,

67.  5 Rom. xi. 5.

68.  6 "Divine."

69.  1 See sec. 14, beginning.

70.  1 Gen. i. 5.

71.  2 Gen. ii. 8 f.

72.  3 Gen. iii. 8.

73.  4 Gen. iv. 16.

74.  1 Matt. iv. 8.

75.  2 Cf. Lev. xi. 14.

76.  3 Gen. xvii. 14.

77.  4 Cf. Deut. xiv. 5, 12.

78.  5 Ex. xvi. 29.

79.  1 Jer. xvii. 21.

80.  2 Luke x. 4.

81.  3 Matt. v. 39.

82.  4 Matt. v. 28 f.

83.  5 1 Cor. vii. 18.

84.  1 See above. The Spirit is supposed to invent some of the history for the sake of the spiritual meaning conveyed.

85.  2 Gen. xxv. 9 f.

86.  3 Gen. xlviii. 22; Josh. xxiv. 32.

87.  4 Ex. xx. 12; cf. Eph. vi. 2 f.

88.  5 "The spiritual world in which the interpretation of Scripture is realised, may be regarded as heavenly, or as Christian and earthly; when we contemplate the former, we explain anagogically, and allegories properly are applied only to the latter. Thus the prophecies which describe the character and fate of various nations under the Jewish dispensation may be referred, according to the one system (anagoge), to the inhabitants of the celestial regions correlative to the kingdoms on earth, or by the other (allegoria), to spiritual characters unfolded by Christianity."----Westcott.

89.  1 Ex. xx. 13 ff.

90.  2 Matt. v. 22.

91.  3 Matt. v. 34.

92.  4 1 Thess. v. 14.

93.  5 John v. 39.

94.  1 1 Cor. x. 18.

95.  2 Rom. ix. 8, 6.

96.  3 Rom. ii. 28 f.

97.  1 Matt. xv. 24.

98.  1 Rom. ix. 8.

99.  2 Gal. iv. 26 f.

100.  3 Heb. xii. 22 f.

101.  4 Rufinus, "If we listen to the words of Paul as the words of Christ speaking in him."

102.  5 Or, "refers us."

103.  6 That is, "Egyptians," etc., literally.

104.  1 Isa. xiv. 12.

105.  2 Ezek. xxix. 11 f.

106.  3 Matt. xv. 24 ; cf. John xi. 52.

107.  4 Matt. xiii. 44.

108.  1 Col. ii. 3 ; Isa. xlv. 2f.

109.  2 Heb. xi. 12 ; cf. Gen. xxii. 17.

110.  3 Matt. v. 14.

111.  4 Rom. ix. 6.

112.  1 Eccles. v. 1.

113.  2 Ex. xxxiv. 20.

114.  3 Cf. Isa. i. 16.

115.  4 Rom. ix. 33; 1 Pet. ii. 7; cf. Isa. viii. 14.

116.  5 Rom. ix. 33; cf. Isa. xxviii. 16.

117.  6 Or, "reconciling the nmrder of the man with his evident kindliness."

118.  1 Wisd. xvii. 1.

119.  2 1 Cor. ii. 7 f.

120.  3 Rom. xvi. 25 f.

121.  4 2 Tim. i. 10; John i. 1 f.

122.  5 Rom. ii. 28 f.

123.  1 Rom. i. 20.

124.  2 That is, which come within the province of the reason, as opposed to things simply visible.

125.  3 Heb. viii. 5.

126.  4 Ex. xxviii. 32.

127.  5 Rev. iii. 7 f.

128.  1 Rev. v. 1 ff.

129.  2 Isa. xxix. 11 f.

130.  3 Luke xi. 51; cf. Matt. xxiii. 14.

131.  1 1 Cor. ii. 13.

132.  2 See Chap. viii.

133.  3 Ps. xii. (xi.) 7.

134.  4 Cf. Luke i. 2.

135.  5 Matt. v. 18.

136.  1 Or, "providence." 

137.  1 This total was made by taking Ruth with Judges, and Lamentations with Jeremiah. See Sanday, Inspiration, pp. 56 ff., 111 ff., on "the Symbolism of. Numbers." "Origen was the first who pointed out this number was also that of the letters in the Hebrew alphabet (Euseb. H.E. vi. 25, and the coincidence is emphatically repeated by Athanasius, Gregory of Nazianzus, Hilary of Poitiers, and Epiphanius, as well as by Jerome. The coincidence, it was thought, could hardly be accidental. The 'twenty-two' books of the Greek Bible must, it was supposed, represent 'twenty-two' books of the Hebrew Bible; hence, it was concluded, the number of the books in the Hebrew Canon was providentially ordained to agree with the number of the Hebrew letters."----Ryle, Canon of the Old Testament, p. 221.

138.  2 "It is noteworthy that the supposed agreement in the number of the Hebrew letters with the number of the Hebrew sacred books seems to be of Greek origin, and does not appear in Hebrew tradition,"----Ryle, p. 222.

139.  1 Or, "inaccurate."

140.  2 I Cor. ii. 4.

141.  3 2 Cor. xi. 6.

142.  4 2 Cor. iv. 7.

143.  5 Col. ii. 3.

144.  6 1 Cor. i. 26 f.

145.  1 Rom. i. 14.

146.  2 2 Cor. iii. 6.

147.  3 1 Cor. ii. 4 f.

148.  4 "Not content with the labour of lecturing and collating MSS., Origen composed numerous books. These were all written to the order of his patron Ambrose, who had at one time been attracted by Gnosticism, but was won over to orthodoxy by Origen. Ambrose made use of his wealth to give the poor but independent scholar the only aid he was likely to accept. He supplied him with quarters and a staff of shorthand writers and copyists. Ambrose not only provided the means, he also prescribed the subjects." ---- Origen the Teacher, S.P.C.K., p. 9.

149.  5 Eccles. xii. 12.

150.  1 " Nisi primum, plane secundum; si vero secundum, non primum omnino."

151.  1 Eccles. xii. 12.

152.  2 Prov. x. 19.

153.  3 1 Kings iv. 32 f.

154.  4 Prov. i. 24.

155.  5 Acts xx. 7 f.

156.  6 John i. 1.

157.  7 Lit., "consisting of many theorems."

158.  1 John v. 39.

159.  2 Ps. xl. (xxxix.) 7.

160.  1 Rev. v. 1 ff.

161.  2 Rev. iii. 7.

162.  3 Ps. lxix. (lxviii.) 29.

163.  4 Dan. vii. 10.

164.  5 Ex. xxxii. 32.

165.  6 Isa. xxii. 22; cf. Rev. iii. 7.

166.  1 Ezek. ii. 10.

167.  2 Cf. Rev. x. 10.

168.  3 Rom. ii. 16.

169.  1 2 Cor. iii. 6.

170.  2 Lit., "dictation." According to others, "too boldly give advice."

171.  3 Matt. v. 9.

172.  4 Prov. viii. 8.

173.  5 Ps. lxxii. (lxxi.) 7.

174.  1 R.V., "The words of the wise are as goads, and as nails well fastened are the words of the masters of assemblies, which are given from one shepherd." The margin has for "masters of assemblies " the alternative "collectors of sentences."

175.  2 Eccles. xii. 11.

176.  3 Cf. Luke viii. 8.

177.  1 1 Sam. xvi. 14.

178.  2 That is, "treatment."

179.  3 "Inconsequence in the connections, abruptness in the transitions."

180.  4 A Homily was a popular exposition. Origen's writings were of three kinds----tomes, properly sections ( volumina, Jerome), commentaries, homilies.

181.  1 Ps. cix. (cviii.) 1, 8.

182.  2 Acts i. 16.

183.  3 Ex persona Dei. On the prosopopoeia of Scripture, see Schleusner. The verb signifies personas fictos induco, personas fingo, or confingo. Cf. "The heavens declare the glory of God"; "The sea saw that and fled," etc.

184.  4 That is, "inaccurate expressions."

185.  5 Hos. xii. 4.

186.  1 Gen. ii. 16 f.

187.  2 One "thing." Cf. S. John x. 30, and see below.

188.  1 1 Cor. x. 17.

189.  2 Cf. Eph. iv. 5 f.

190.  3 Cf. Rom. xii. 5 ; Gal. iii. 28.

191.  4 2 Cor. xi. 2.

192.  5 The neuter.

193.  6 Cf. John xvii. 11, 21.

194.  7 Rom. xii. 5. ; Eph. iv. 25.

195.  8 Herm. Vis. xi. 

196.  9 Rom, vii. 7.

197.  1 Gal. iii. 10; cf. Deut. xxvii. 26.

198.  2 Gal. iii. 19.

199.  3 Gal. iii. 24 ff.

200.  4 Gal. iv. 21 ff.

201.  5 John xv. 25; cf. Ps. xxxv. (xxxiv.) 19.

202.  1 1 Cor. xiv. 21; cf. Isa. xxxviii. 11 f.

203.  2 Rom. vii. 14.

204.  3 Rom. ii. 14f.

205.  4 The governing part, or reason. The Stoics taught that the soul had eight parts, the hegemonicon or governing part, the five senses, the faculty of speech, and the generative force. The word occurs also in xx. 12 (rational and irrational), xx. 22, xxi. 3, xxvii. 2, xxvii. 13.

206.  5 Rom. v. 13.

207.  6 Rom. vii. 7.

208.  1 Jolm iv. 35.

209.  2 That is, "literal." See above.

210.  3 John ix. 39.

211.  4 Cf. Rom. iii. 21.

212.  5 John i. 18.

213.  1 Rom. ix. 33; 1 Pet. ii. 7; cf. Isa. viii. 14.

214.  2 Rom. ix. 33; cf. Isa. xxviii. 16.

215.  3 Matt. xii. 36.

216.  1 Cf. Matt. v. 18.

217.  1 Ezek. xxxiv. 17 ff.

218.  1 Ezek. xxxiv. 19.

219.  1 Ps. ciii. (cii.) 1.

220.  2 1 Cor. xiv. 14.

221.  1 Cf. Matt. ix. 29.

222.  2 Cf. 2 Tim. iii. 16.

223.  1 Gregory Thaumaturgus, so called from his miracles, converted by Origen about 234 A.D., afterwards Bishop of his native place, Neocaesarea in Cappadocia.

224.  2 Ex. xi. 2; xii. 35 f.

225.  3 Lit., "things received," viz. "in the Mount," Ex. xxv. 40, etc.

226.  1 Ex. xxvii. 16.

227.  2 1 Kings xi. 14 ff. In the text, Ader (accurately, Eder, 1 Chron. viii. 15).

228.  1 1 Kings xii. 28 f., Jeroboam.

229.  2 John x. 3.

230.  3 Matt. vii. 7; Luke xi. 9.

231.  1 Heb. iii. 14.

232.  2 Gen. i. 16 ff.

233.  3 " In principatum."

234.  4 " Ut proeessent." In Greek the Infinitive.

235.  5 " In potestatem."

236.  6 " Ut potestatem habeant."

237.  1 John v. 19.

238.  2 John i. 29.

239.  1 2 Cor. v. 19.

240.  2 Lit., "distinction of points, or stops."

241.  1 I take this to be Origen's meaning. Cf. Westcott, Introduction to the Gospel of St. John, p. 50.

242.  1 1 Cor. ii. 4 f.

243.  2 Cf. 1 Cor. ii. 4.

244.  3 "Sermonis gratia allicere ad obsequium: sicut veteres in ore Herculis aureas catenas finxerunt, quae vulgus hominum auribus traherent."----Calvin on Ps. xlv. 3.

245.  4 Ps. lxviii. (lxvii.) 12.

246.  1 Plat. Ep. vii. 341 C, D.

247.  2 Rom. i. 19.

248.  3 Cf. Rom. i. .18 ff.

249.  4 Plat. Ep., ibid.

250.  1 Cf. Plat. Rep. i. 327, A.

251.  2 Cf. Plat. Phaedo, 118, A.

252.  3 "Noumena" as opposed to "phoenomena."

253.  4 Rom. i. 25.

254.  5 1 Cor. i. 27 ff.

255.  1 Or, "Word = Scripture."

256.  2 Cf. Plat. Ep. vii. 341 C, D.

257.  3 Hos. x. 12.

258.  4 John i. 4, 9.

259.  5 Cf. Matt. v. 14.

260.  6 2 Cor. iv. 6.

261.  7 Ps. xxvii. (xxvi.) 1.

262.  8 Ps. cxix. (cxviii.) 105.

263.  9 Ps. iv. 7.

264.  10 Ps. xxxvi. (xxxv.) 10.

265.  11 Isa. lx. 1,

266.  12 Matt. iv. 16,

267.  1 Cf. Isa. ix. 2.

268.  2 Cf. Matt, xxv. 4.

269.  3 Plato, Crito, 49 B.

270.  1 1 Cor. ii. 5; cf. i. 26; 2 Cor. i. 12.

271.  1 Luke vi. 29.

272.  2 Matt. v. 40.

273.  3 Isa. liii. 1 ff.

274.  1 Sept. paidi/on . Heb. Sugens = tenera planta.----Schleusner.

275.  2 Ps. xlv. (xliv.) 4 f.

276.  3 Cf. Matt. xvii. 1 f.

277.  4 Luke ix. 30 f.

278.  5 Isa. liii. 2.

279.  1 Or, " the prophecy," viz. in Ps. xlv. above referred to.

280.  2 "Demiurge."

281.  3 Cf. Matt. xvii. 6.

282.  1 Or, forms."

283.  2 "The Divine Word," introducing a quotation from St. Paul, is found in Theophilus of Antioch as a name for Holy Scripture. ---- Sanday, Inspiration, p. 28.

284.  3 Cf. Matt. xvii. 1.

285.  4 See Cont. Cels. vi. 68, "Caused us to ascend to the lofty mountain of His Word," etc.

286.  5 Isa. liii. 2 f.

287.  6 1 Cor. i. 21.

288.  7 Matt, xvi. 18. 

289.  8 Ps. ix. (viii.), 14.

290.  9 Cf. Mark iii. 1.

291.  1 Matt. i. 1.

292.  2 John xxi. 25.

293.  3 Cf. 2 Cor. xii. 2 ff.

294.  4 John i. 1.

295.  5 Phil. ii. 7.

296.  6 In the Apocalypse (xix. 13) the "Word of God" is a title of the Son of God.

297.  7 John i. 14.

298.  1 Cf. John xiii. 25; Matt. xvii. 1

299.  2 Cf. John i. 14.

300.  3 1 Cor. ii. 7.

301.  1 The Dogmatici, Empirici, Methodici, Pneumatici, Eclectici, etc.

302.  1 1 Cor. xi. 19.

303.  2 Cf. Rom. iii. 29.

304.  3 2 Tim. i. 3.

305.  1 Tertullian called those who rejected the Montanist view Psychici, that is, animal or carnal: while the followers of Montanus were called Spiritales, spiritual. See Snicer. The Gnostics also reproached Catholic Christians as being ignorant, animal, and worldly, but called themselves spiritual, perfect.

306.  2 Cor. iv. 12f.

307.  3 Tit. iii. 10 f.

308.  4 Matt. v. 9.

309.  5 Matt. v. 5.

310.  1 De Interp. Bk. i. part 1, chap. 2. See also Plato, Cratylus. Hermogenes, one of the speakers, maintained that all the words of a language were formed by an agreement of men among themselves, or were conventional. "Do you prefer the notion of Hermogenes and of many others who say that names are conventional, and have a meaning to those who have agreed about them, and who have previous knowledge of the things intended by them, and that convention is the only principle?"----(Jowett's translation.)

311.  2 According to Epicurus words, were formed originally, not by an arbitrary, but by a natural process, in correspondence with our sensations and ideas. ----Ueberweg. Hist. Phil. I. p. 206. "Democritus, and after him, Epicurus, say that speech consists of elementary parts (in Physics, atoms), and, to use their own expression, call it a stream of words."----A. Gellius, Bk. v. c. 15, quoted by Selwyn.

312.  1 The Brahmans were the hereditary priests of the Indian Theosophists. The Samaneans were picked men, recruited from those who wished to be Theosophists. They were also found among the Bactrians of Persia.

313.  2 "Demiurge."

314.  3 Lit., "after ": the names being given after the demons. See L. and Sc.

315.  1 "Demiurge."

316.  2 Plat. Phileb. 12 B, C.

317.  3 That is, "Zeus."

318.  1 Lit., "If we translate into Greek him that was originally called (or invoked)," etc.

319.  2 The point of the passage appears to be the difference between translation and transliteration. These translations correspond to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

320.  1 Cf. Plat. Phileb. 12 B, C.

321.  1 See Clem. Aleu., Exhortation to the Heathen, chap. 2. "The token of the Sabazian mysteries to the initiated is the deity gliding over the breast, the deity being this serpent crawling over the breast of the initiated." Zeus was said to have intercourse with his daughter Core (Persephone) in the shape of a dragon or serpent (see p. 83).

322.  2 "From her being an infernal divinity, she came to be regarded as a spectral being, who sent at night all kinds of demons and terrible phantoms from the lower world."

323.  1 Or, "since probability is the guide of human life."

324.  1 1 Cor. iii. 18 f.

325.  2 Others translate, "and that it was only in certain circumstances that the latter course was desired by Christianity, in order not to leave men altogether without help." The meaning perhaps is that bare faith is better than leaving men altogether unprofitable, or hurtful.

326.  1 1 Cor. i. 21.

327.  2 Lit., "Arrangement of the offer (of the Gospel"), as opposed to the matter."

328.  3 1 Cor. ii. 4 f.

329.  1 Matt. iv. 19.

330.  2 1 Cor. ii. 4.

331.  3 Ps. lxviii. (lxvii.) 12 f.

332.  4 Jerome----"Dominus dabit verbum Evangelizantibus virtute multa, Rex virtutum Dilecti."

333.  5 Ps. cxlvii. 15.

334.  6 Cf. Ps. xix. (xviii.) 5.

335.  1 Matt. ix. 37 f.

336.  2 Ep. Barn. v. 9.

337.  3 Luke v. 8.

338.  4 1 Tim. i. 15.

339.  1 Tit. iii. 3 ff.

340.  2 Ps. cvii. (cvi.) 20.

341.  1 Matt. x. 23.

342.  2 John xiv. 6.

343.  3 John viii. 40.

344.  4 Others, "Be led by human guidance to keep out of the way of dangers."

345.  1 Cf. Gen. xix. 11.

346.  2 " Proprie."----Bp. Bull.

347.  3 1 Cor. i. 24.

348.  1 Matt. v. 28.

349.  2 Or, "the 'word' of Christians." See below.

350.  3 PS. li. (l.)8.

351.  4 Cf. 2 Chron. i. 10.

352.  5 1 Kings x. 1 ff.

353.  1 1 Kings iv. 29 ff.

354.  2 "Problems."

355.  3 Hos. xiv. 9.

356.  4 Dan. i. 20.

357.  5 Ezek. xxviii. 3.

358.  6 Mark iv. 11, 34.

359.  7 Matt. xxiii. 34.

360.  1 1 Cor. xii. 8 ff.

361.  2 Acts vii. 11.

362.  3 Ex. vii. 22.

363.  4 Cf. 1 Cor. ii. 6.

364.  1 Rom. i. 21.

365.  2 Rom. i. 19 ff.

366.  3 Or, "spiritual."

367.  4 1 Cor. i. 26 ff.

368.  5 Cf. Tit. i. 9.

369.  1 Cf. 1 Tim. iii. 2.

370.  2 1 Tim. iv. 10.

371.  3 1 John ii. 2.

372.  1 Others see an allusion to the jugglers in the market-places, and render, "performing their disgraceful tricks," etc.

373.  1 For the Catechumens (instructed privately without the Church), the Hearers (so called from their being admitted to hear sermons and the Scriptures read in the Church), the Kneelers, the Competentes (petitioners for baptism), and Electi (candidates approved), the Registers, etc., see Bingham, Book x. chap. II.

374.  1 The Catechumens were treated with more moderation than others, because "their sins were committed whilst they were unregenerate in the old man, and therefore were more easily pardoned than crimes committed by believers after baptism."----See Bingham, Book x. chap. II. sec. xvii.

375.  2 1 Cor. iii. 2 f.

376.  3 Heb. v. 12ff.

377.  1 Cf. Rom. i. 14.

378.  2 Prov. viii. 5.

379.  3 Prov. ix. 4ff., 16.

380.  1 Or, "Ye Greeks, it seems, may invite, etc. . . . and yet, if we do so, there is no motive of humanity in what we do, though we wish," etc.

381.  2 The Athenian legislator, born about 638 B.C.

382.  3 The Spartan legislator, probably about 800 B.C.

383.  4 The Locrian legislator, the date of his legislation is assigned to 660 B.C. His code is said to have been the first collection of written laws that the Greeks possessed.

384.  5 1 Cor. i. 27.

385.  6 Rom. i. 22 f.

386.  1 Antinous was the favourite of the Emperor Hadrian. He was drowned in the Nile, 122 A.D. Hadrian enrolled him among the gods, etc. See Cont. Cels. iii. 36, 37.

387.  2 This is explained below, "Men are more or less fortunate in their beliefs."

388.  1 Lit., "Faith having first taken possession of us produces such an assent, or submission, to Jesus." 

389.  2 Or, "piety."

390.  1 Waterland says, "It is difficult to express the full force of this passage in English."

391.  1 Lat., secundae.

392.  2 Grasses, or any plants that bear leaves and seeds from the root.

393.  1 Or, "roots."

394.  2 Ps. civ. (ciii.) 14 f.

395.  3 Ecclus. xxxix. 21 17.

396.  4 Cf. Hom. Od. ix. 109.

397.  1 Others, "that it was only the things on earth which underwent deluges and conflagrations, and that all these things did not happen at the same time."

398.  2 See Plato, Legg. 677 B.

399.  3 Hesiod.

400.  4 Or, "assemblies."

401.  1 Or, "destroy their useful doctrines, and at the same time the agreement of Christianity and philosophy in these respects."

402.  1 Admit them among rational creatures?

403.  1 Ecclus. xvi. 27, "He garnished his works for ever." Wisd. xi. 20, "Thou hast ordered all things in measure and number and weight." Origen's word is the same as that in the former, but equivalent to the word used in the latter.

404.  1 Cf. Gen. i. 26.

405.  1 "Logos, or Word."

406.  2 Prov. xxx. 24 ff. (xxiv. 59 ff.).

407.  3 John xvi. 25.

408.  1 Or, "have certain sacred modes of converse with one another." 

409.  2 Circ. 544 B.C. Generally regarded as the teacher of Pythagoras.

410.  1 Ps. xlix. (xlviii.) 12, 20.

411.  1 The conjectural reading.

412.  2 Iliad, ii. 308 ff. (Lord Derby's translation).

413.  1 Hom. Il. xii. 200 ff.

414.  2 Hom. Il. ii. 309.

415.  3 Cf. Hom. Od. xv. 526.

416.  1 Cf. Lev. xi.

417.  2 John xii. 31; 2 Cor. iv. 4.

418.  1 Cf. Hom. Od. iv. 685, xx. 116, 119.

419.  2 Hom. Od. xx. 120.

420.  3 Cf. Hom. Od. xvii. 541 ff. 

421.  4 Lev. xix. 26.

422.  1 Deut, xviii. 14; cf. 12.

423.  2 Deut, xviii. 15.

424.  3 Num. xxiii. 23.

425.  4 Prov. iv. 23.

426.  5 Cf. 2 Cor. iv. 6.

427.  6 Cf. Rom. viii. 14.

428.  1 Ex. xxiv. 2.

429.  1 Or, "complete and perfect in all respects."  

430.  1 See Chap. xxi. 2, "promptings to the contemplation of virtue and vice."

431.  1 Or, "is included in."

432.  2 Inanimate nature.

433.  3 Animate nature. Lit., "by nature and a soul." Cf. Arist. Nic. Eth. Bk. III. c. 1, "The man acts voluntarily, because the originating of the motion of his limbs in such actions rests with himself; and where the origination rests in himself, it rests with himself to do or not to do" (Chase's translation).

434.  1 Lit., "out of."

435.  2 So Rufinus explains "phantasy," voluntas vel sensus. 

436.  3 Or, "speaking generally." Others translate, "the greater part of the nature assigned to all things is a varying quantity among animals."

437.  1 Rufinus----" naturalem corporis intemperiem."

438.  1 See Ellicott on 1 Tim. ii. 2, "Decency and propriety of deportment."

439.  2 Mic. vi. 8.

440.  3 Deut. xxx. 19.

441.  4 Isa. i. 19

442.  5 Ps. lxxxi. (lxxx.) 13 f.

443.  6 Matt. v. 39.

444.  1 Matt. v. 22.

445.  2 Matt. v. 28.

446.  3 Matt. vii. 24, 26.

447.  4 Matt. xxv. 34 f.

448.  5 Matt. xxv. 41. .

449.  6 Rom. ii. 4 ff.

450.  1 Ex. iv. 21, vii. 3.

451.  2 Ex. xi. 19 f.

452.  3 Mark iv. 20 ; cf. Luke viii. 10.

453.  4 Rom. ix. 16.

454.  5 Cf. Phil. ii. 13.

455.  1 Rom. ix. 18 f.

456.  2 R.V. "This persuasion came not of him that calleth you."

457.  3 Cf. Gal. v. 8.

458.  4 Rom. ix. 20 f.

459.  5 Rom. ix. 18.

460.  1 Cf. Ex. iv. 23, ix. 17.

461.  2 Cf. Ex. xii. 12.

462.  1 According to others, "If any one should stand, declaring with uncovered head that the Creator of the world was inclined to wickedness," etc. 

463.  2 Heb. vi. 7 f.

464.  1 The word denotes the deliberate selection of a course of conduct.

465.  2 Others, "as regards the point in question."

466.  3 Cf. Ex. viii. 28.

467.  4 Rom. ii. 4 f.

468.  1 Isa. lxiii. 17 f.

469.  2 Jer. xx. 7.

470.  3 Isa. lxiii. 17.

471.  4 Sus. 42.

472.  1 Cf. Luke xiv. 11.

473.  2 Cf. Matt. xi. 25; 1 Cor. i. 29.

474.  3 Others, "he that is abandoned is abandoned to the Divine judgment."

475.  1 Matt. xiii. 5 f.

476.  2 Or, "applied"; lit. "cast upon."

477.  3 That is, "check the growth."

478.  1 Or, "to us," that is, "in our opinion."

479.  2 Wisd. vii. 16.

480.  3 Cf. Ex. vii. 14 ; Rom. ix. 18.

481.  4 Ezek. xi. 19, 20.

482.  1 Mark iv. 11 f.

483.  1 "Demiurge."

484.  1 Sus. 42.

485.  2 Lit., "helping them does not help."

486.  3 Cf. Mark iv. 11.

487.  1 Cf. Matt. xi. 21.

488.  2 Lit., "the things of those without."

489.  3 Or, "in addition to our inquiring."

490.  1 Rom. ix. 16.

491.  2 Or, "the 'furniture' which God gave them for life." Cf. Eur. Supp. 214.

492.  3 Or, "deliberate purpose."

493.  4 The same phrase as in Chap. xviii. 26.

494.  1 Rom. ix. 15.

495.  2 Or, "Degrees."

496.  3 Ps. cxxvii. (cxxvi.) 1 f.

497.  4 Cf. Phil. iii. 14.

498.  5 Rom. ix. 16.

499.  6 1 Cor. iii. 6f.

500.  1 Or, "our own free will." 

501.  2 Cf. Phil. ii. 13.

502.  1 Rom. ix. 18 ff.

503.  1 2 Cor. xii. 21.

504.  2 2 Tim. i. 16 ff.

505.  3 2 Cor. v. 10.

506.  4 2 Tim. ii. 20 f.

507.  1 Either ( a) God's foreknowledge of man's efforts, or ( b) the soul's conduct in a prior state of existence, or ( c) both.

508.  2 Rom. ix. 20.

509.  3 Ex. xix. 19.

510.  1 Rom. ix. 19.

511.  2 Rom. ix. 20.

512.  3 That is, "soul natures, perishing or being saved." Rufinus---- "Diversas animarum naturas."

513.  4 2 Tim. ii. 21.

514.  1 Rom. ix. 21.

515.  1 The Greek word occurs in 2 Macc. iii. 39, vii. 35, 3 Macc. ii. 21. Schleusner gives inspector as the equivalent. L. and Sc. "overseer, watcher, esp. of a god." "Intendant," an officer who superintends, is perhaps the least cumbrous and the least ambiguous for our purpose. For the different Greek word in Dan. iv. 13, translated watcher (not a guardian, but a wakeful one), see Driver's Daniel, page 49.

516.  2 The ruling spirits.

517.  1 The same word as above. See Huetii Origeniana, lib. ii. c. ii. quaest. v. 26, "De angelis tutelaribus. Assignatos esse angelos ut curam earum pastorum instar gererent, et primitias ex iis Deo offerrent, homines nimirum qui meritis praecellerent et virtute, eorumque pias cogitationes." Origen thought that both bad and good angels might have "provinces." "Neque enim, inquit, fas est credere malos angelos suis proeesse provinciis et bonos non easdem provincias habere permissas."---- Cont. Cels. lib. viii. 34, Hom. 12 in Luc.

518.  1 Explained above.

519.  1 Sophrosune, "Perfected self-mastery."

520.  1 Deut. xxxii. 8 f.

521.  2 Gen. xi. 1 ff.

522.  3 Wisd. x. 5.

523.  4 Tob. xii. 7.

524.  1 Cf. Matt. vii. 6.

525.  2 Wisd. i. 4.

526.  3 See Chap. i. (heading) for "invented history."

527.  4 Gen. xi. 3.

528.  5 Cf. Gen. xi. 4.

529.  1 Cf. Deut. xxxii. 9.

530.  1 Cf. Rom. i. 28, 26, 24.

531.  2 Cf. Gal. i. 4.

532.  3 Cf. 1 Cor. ii. 6.

533.  1 Ps. ii. 8.

534.  2 Gen. xlix. 10.

535.  3 See the De Princip. Bk. i. c. 7, s. 3. It was Origen's belief that the stars were living beings, capable of receiving commandments from God.

536.  1 Eumque rerum istarum fontem esse ac principium esse negabunt.----Viger.

537.  2 "Demiurge." But Waterland (i. p. 383, Ox. 1843) says "the three words texni/thj, dhmiourgo_j , and poihth&j , especially the two last, seem to have been used by the ancients promiscuously; and to have been applied indifferently to Father or Son, as they had occasion to mention either." See also, note 71.

538.  1 Gen. i. 14.

539.  1 Sus. 42 f.

540.  2 1 Kings xii. 32.

541.  3 1 Kings xiii. 1 ff.

542.  4 1 Kings xiii. 5.

543.  5 Reading u(pakou~sai . See Schleusner.

544.  6 Lit. "strength."

545.  1 Isa. xlv. ff.

546.  2 Cf. Dan. ii. 37 ff.

547.  3 R.V. "the river." "The Eulaeus was a large artificial canal some 900 feet broad, of which traces remain, though it is now dry."----Prof. Driver.

548.  1 Dan. viii. 5 ff.

549.  2 Luke xxi. 20.

550.  1 Ps. cix. (cviii.) 12, 16 f.

551.  1 Or, "giving an oracular response."

552.  2 Or, "common moral notions." 

553.  3 Jer. xxvi. (xxxiii.) 3.

554.  1 Ex. iv. 11. R.V. "Dumb, or deaf, or seeing, or blind."

555.  1 Ps. cix. (cviii.) ff.

556.  2 Ps. cix. (cviii.) 16.

557.  3 Eur. Phoen. 18 ff.

558.  1 Cf. John ii. 25.

559.  1 Matt. xxvi. 23.

560.  2 Viger---- singularem horam. Of birth?

561.  1 Or, "productive." How we are to tell when the stars are causative, and when they are merely indicative.

562.  2 Cf. Test. Aser, 7.

563.  3 Isa. xxxiv. 4.

564.  1 Gen. i. 14.

565.  2 Jer. x. 2.

566.  1 Following ABC; Viger, "vel leviter haerere."

567.  2 Eusebius, "shooting stars."

568.  1 "Twelfth part."

569.  2 "Thinkable, intelligible." Viger----" quod mente percipitur."

570.  3 " Contemperatio."

571.  1 "A mathematician ( i.e. astrologer) can indeed indicate the desire which a malignant power produces; but whether the acting or the issue of this desire shall be fulfilled or not, no one can know before the accomplishment of the thing, because it depends upon freedom of will."---- Recognitions of Clement, Bk. x. c. xii.

572.  2 Isa. xlvii. 13.

573.  3 Cf. Test. Aser., 7. 

574.  4 2 Cor. xii. 4.

575.  1 Wisd. viii. 18.

576.  2 "The fire of God." See 2 Esd. iv. 1, 36, v. 20, x. 28 In the second of these passages he is called "the Archangel."

577.  1 Rom. ix. 17.

578.  2 Cf. Ex. ix. 16.

579.  3 Cf. Heb. i. 14.

580.  4 Lit., "take."

581.  1 For the story of Clement being appointed S. Peter's attendant, for the doings at Laodicea, and how Clement discovered his father in the poor old workman, and the discussions between father and son, see the Clementine Recognitions, vii. 25, viii. 1, etc.

582.  2 That is, the travels of S. Peter.

583.  3 In popular language mathematici was the exclusive name for astrologers, who were so called from employing diagrams used by geometricians.

584.  4 Had returned at the end of its cycle.

585.  1 From the point of opposition.

586.  2 From the centre (mid-heaven).

587.  3 Through the kindness of the Rev. P. H. Kempthorne I am favoured by E. Walter Maunder, Esq., F.E.A.S., with some notes on this difficult passage. As regards the phrase rendered "retrograding," Mr. Maunders writes: "In a modern horoscope no planet could be left outside it. I think it just possible that it (the phrase) may mean 'contrary to its proper course,' that is to say, ' retrograding,' but I am not sure of this. If it does not mean this, I think it must mean 'not operative,' 'negligible.' "

588.  4 Lit., "unconnected with."

589.  5 In an (ill-omened) "house." 

590.  6 Lit. "not conjoined."

591.  7 Perhaps, the Zodiac. Others translate, "the circle is equally complete in every part." Possibly, "co-extensive with," wide as, the heavens.

592.  1 See Plat. Gorg. 506 E. Another rendering is "in things unordered."

593.  1 Viger---- "Si ex rerum genitarum ortu atque natura in eam te mentem adductum esse diceres, id ortu carere materiam putares."

594.  1 "Are spontaneous" does not quite convey the meaning, because the architect is supposed to create the skill.

595.  1 "Demiurge."

596.  1 The word denotes the mixing of two things, so that they are blended and form a compound, as in wine and water.

597.  2 The word denotes mixing, as of two sorts of grain----mechanical mixture.

598.  1 See Robinson, p. xli. et seq

599.  2 Rom. i. 1.

600.  3 Gal. i. 15 f.

601.  1 Ps. Iviii. (Ivii.) 3.

602.  2 Rom. viii. 28 ff.

603.  3 Or, predestination, and so throughout.

604.  4 For salvation or perdition.

605.  1 Rom. viii. 29.

606.  2 Cf. Col. i. 15.

607.  3 According to Origen, God created a finite number of souls to begin with; they were all equal, not in fixed classes; gifted with free will, and capable of growing better or worse. The soul of Christ, like all souls, pre-existed from the beginning of the world. By its decision for the good, and by its virtue, it was fitted for unflinchingly carrying out all the will and all the saving revelations of the Word and Wisdom. The Logos dwelt in an unique manner in this soul. At the commencement of creation, it is true, He was united with all souls; but this one alone clung to Him so closely, faithfully, and unchangeably, that it became one spirit with Him.----See Dorner, Doctrine of the Person of Christ, div. I. vol. ii., p. 138. 

608.  4 Cf. Sus. 42.

609.  1 Rom. viii. 28 f.

610.  1 Matt. xxv. 21, 23.

611.  2 Matt. xxv. 26 f.

612.  3 Matt. xxv. 34 f.

613.  4 Matt. xxv. 41 f.

614.  5 Rom. i. 1.

615.  6 Gal. i. 15.

616.  1 1 Cor. ix. 27.

617.  2 1 Cor. ix. 16.

618.  3 2 Cor. xi. 2:3 ff.

619.  4 Cf. Rom. v. 3 f.

620.  1 Or, on "purpose," "choice," or "deliberate preference," which is a part of the voluntary, but not co-extensive with it. For Aristotle's description of the Chief Good as "that which all things aim at," and for the discussion of various theories concerning the Chief Good and Happiness, see Arist. Eth. Nic. bk. 1 (Chase's translation).

621.  2 Ps. iv. 6.

622.  3 "Does happiness come from self? Is it a thing that can be learned, or acquired by habituation or discipline of some other kind? Does it come in the way of Divine dispensation, or even in the way of chance?"----Arist. Eth. Nic. bk. i. 7.

623.  4 Making happiness a mere external thing.

624.  5 Making happiness = internal good, "living well and doing well."

625.  1 Matt. xxv. 21, 23.

626.  2 Luke vi. 45.

627.  1 Ex. xv. 20.

628.  2 Deut. xxviii. 58 ff .

629.  3 Lev. xxvi. 16.

630.  4 Cf. Deut. xxxii. 24.

631.  5 " Opisthonia, tetanic recurvation; Pliny's dolor ( cervicum) inflexibilis."

632.  1 Lev. xxvi. 3 ff.

633.  2 Deut. xxviii. 1 ff.

634.  3 Sept., "remainders," from misunderstanding the Heb. root.

635.  4 Deut. xxviii. 16 ff.

636.  5 Cf. Matt. iv. 23, ix. 35.

637.  1 Cf. Matt. iv. 24.

638.  2 "Demiurge."

639.  3 Cf. 1 Kings xvii. 8 f.

640.  4 Cf. 2 Kings iv. 8 ff., xiii. 14.

641.  5 Cf. Isa. xx. 3.

642.  6 Cf. Jer. xxxviii. (xlv.) 6, ix. 2.

643.  7 Cf. Matt. iii. 4.

644.  1 Cf. Rom. v. 3.

645.  2 Cf. 2 Cor. iv. 8 f., iv. 9 f.

646.  3 Ps. xxxiv. (lxxxiii.) 19.

647.  4 Job xl. 3.

648.  1 Cf. Rom. viii. 28.

649.  2 Cf. Deut. xv. 6.

650.  3 Some MSS. omit "the righteous man."

651.  4 Ps. xv. (xiv.) 5.

652.  5 Cf. Exek. xviii. 8.

653.  6 Prov. xiii. 8.

654.  7 Isa. i. 6.

655.  1 "Happiness," according to Aristotle, "combines the good, the noble, the pleasurable; and though external prosperity is not of its essence, yet it is necessary to its full development" (Chase---- Analysis of Arist. Eth. Nic. c. 6).

656.  2 Ps. cxxvii. (cxxvi.) 1.

657.  1 Cf. Ezek. xxviii. 15.

658.  2 Cf. Isa. xiv. 12.

659.  3 Cf. Rom. ix. 16.

660.  4 Ps. iv. 6.

661.  5 Job ii. 10.

662.  1 Mic. i. 12 ; cf. Jer. xvii. 27.

663.  2 Ex. x. 27.

664.  3 Ex. vii. 3.

665.  1 "Demiurge."

666.  2 Rom. ix. 18.

667.  3 Sound.

668.  1 Ex. x. 27.

669.  2 Cf. Ex. iv. 23.

670.  1 Rom. ix. 18.

671.  1 Ex. x. 27.

672.  2 Hos. iv. 14.

673.  1 Ex. vii. 3.

674.  2 Cf. Matt. vii. 8.

675.  3 Ex. xii. 38.

676.  1 Ps. xxxii. (xxxi.) 10.

677.  2 Prov. iii. 12.

678.  3 Ps. lxxxix. (lxxxviii.) 30 ff.

679.  4 Cf. Hos. iv. 14.

680.  5 Cf. Ezek. xxiv. 13.

681.  6 Ezek. vii. 27, et passim.

682.  1 Ex. vii. 5.

683.  2 2 Macc. vi. 12 ff.

684.  3 3 Kings ii. 6.

685.  4 The Jew----probably a Rabbi, whom Origen employed to teach him Hebrew. Cf. De Princip. i. 3, 4 (Hebraeus magister), iv. 26 (Hebraeus doctor). I am indebted to Dr. Sanday for the references. See also Chap, ii. 3 of this book.

686.  1 Ps. vi. 1, xxxviii. (xxxvii.) 1.

687.  2 Luke xii. 40.

688.  3 Cf. Acts v. 4.

689.  4 Acts xiii. 10 f.

690.  1 Cf. 1 Tim. i. 20.

691.  2 1 Cor. v. 5.

692.  3 Ex. x. 27.

693.  4 Deut. viii. 2 f.

694.  1 Job xl. 8.

695.  2 Rom. ii. 4 ff.

696.  3 Rom. ix. 22.

697.  1 John ix. 39.

698.  2 Luke ii. 34.

699.  3 Luke x. 13 ff.

700.  1 Ex. iv. 22 f.

701.  2 "Demiurge."

702.  3 Ex. x. 27.

703.  4 Ex. iv. 23.

704.  5 Ex. x. 3.

705.  1 Ex. ix. 29 f.

706.  2 Cant. i. 5, 6.

707.  3 Ex. i. 14.

708.  4 Lit., "make muddy."

709.  5 Cf. Ex. ii. 23 f.


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