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SECTION S

[What we have said in the book on Interpretation of Hebrew Names, even now in the heading of the letter S we see that among the Hebrews there are three S’s: Samech, Sade and Sin. Yet these are pronounced as one sound among the Greek and Latin which in the Hebrew language are differentiated. So it is that each name appears to us to sound differently, and further each has another letter. Not only from one but from three letters places and cities and villages are described.]

804. K. 148.4

The Latin again inserts remarks about the difference in the alphabets. The three S’s in Hebrew are all under one section in Greek and Latin.

GENESIS

805. Sidōn. Genesis 10:15; K. 148:6; L. 281:43.

Summary of biblical information Judges 1:31. This city is not located but occasionally is used as a referent. Jerome here translated "foreigners" of the Greek text into "enemy."

806. Sennaar. Genesis 11:2f.; K. 148:11; L.

This entry is out of the Holy Land proper (Genesis 10:11). It includes a quotation from Josephus Antiquities I, 4, 3 after a simple biblical summary. Procopius 312B has the same information but calls it a "city" as well as a "plain."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sennaar, knocking out teeth, or their stink" (71).

807. Suchem (Sikima) (Salēm). Genesis 12:6; K. 150:1; L. 282:55.

This is a much worked over entry. A simple biblical summary (Genesis 33:18) and traditional location is followed by additions from scripture including an additional town (Judges 9:45; I Kings 12:25; I Chronicles 7:28; Genesis 33:19 and Joshua 20:7). Procopius 320A practically quotes the original two items: "Suchem and Sikima and Sēlon in the suburbs of Neapolis." Madaba map also follows Eusebius and separates "Suchem and Sikima and Salēm" from "Neapolis." Sychar (K. 164:1) seems to be to the left and Jacob’s well to the right on the map. An entry on Salēm is incomplete in the Greek text at K. 152:4. The church at Jacob’s well is seen on the Madaba map and affirmed by Jerome (K. 165:3). That entry does not say, however, that the well is at Sychar but around Neapolis. Paula "passed through Sichem, not as most travellers spell it, Sichar, which now is named Neapolis and entered the church built upon the side of Mt. Gerizim round about Jacob’s well" ( Epistle 108: 13 and PPT I, 13).

In the time of Eusebius and Jerome the traditional site of Shechem was "a deserted place." It seems correct to point this to the well-excavated site of Tell Balata in the pass between Ebal and Garizim east-southeast of Nablus. The pilgrims followed Eusebius and locate the tomb of Joseph in Shechem (not in Neapolis) and about a mile from it they locate Sechar ( Itin. Bourd. and PPT I, 18).

The oak of Sikimon and the tomb of Joseph are located in the suburbs of Neapolis in K. 54:23 also. Not until much later does the Christian tradition identify Neapolis with Shechem. The terebinth of Sikimon (K. 164:11) is located near Neapolis.

In Genesis 33:18 Shalem is not identified with Shechem itself but is "a city of Shechem." Eusebius seems to make this identification. The present village of Salim has many Roman-Byzantine remains with some earlier artifacts as well. A late 4th century church has been discovered near the well of Jacob.

For the other Suchem see the confusion in K. 158:1 below.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sichem, of the shoulder or labor" (71).

808. Sennaar. Genesis 14:1; K. 150:8; L. 282:63.

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 148:11).

809. Sodoma. Genesis 14:2; K. 150:10; L. 282:65.

The chief city of the Pentopolis with only biblical location.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sodoma, silent beast or blindness or their likeness" 71).

810. Sebōeim. Genesis 14:2; K. 150:12; L. 282:67.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Seboim, of the roes or of damages or his place on the sea or place of the sea" (71).

811. Sōpheira. Genesis 10:30; K. 150:14; L. 282:69.

This entry is outside the proper limits of the Holy Land and out of order. Josephus Antiquities I, 6, 4 plus summary of the biblical information (I Kings 10:11 and cf. K. 160:20 below). This same quotation from Josephus appears in K. 82:2 and K. 176:14. Josephus' Antiquities VII, 6, 4 had, "These (ships) Solomon ordered to sail along with his own stewards to the land anciently called Sopheir but not the land of gold; it belongs to India."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sefar, story or book" (71).

812. Soora. Genesis 14:2; K. 150:19; L. 282:74.

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 42:4; K. 94:2 and K. 152:8.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names we find "Segor, which is called Zoara in the Syrian language" (17). This is repeated in Procopius 373B.

813. Sauē. Genesis 14:5; K. 150:21; L. 282:76.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sau or Saube, worthy or high" (72).

814. Sēeir. Genesis 14:6; K. 150:23; L. 282:78.

Procopius 332C quotes the entry entirely which in part depends on Josephus' Antiquities 1, 20, 3. Jerome in Commentary on Obadiah 1 repeats the etymology and the location. This is a summary of biblical information (Genesis 32:1, 14:6, 25:25, 27:11 and Isaiah 21:11) and no specific location.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Seir, covered with hair or hairy" (72).

815. Salēm. Genesis 14:18; K. 152:4; L. 282:84.

The beginning of this entry is only a revision of K. 150:1. The use of Salēm as identical to Shechem seems to be the result of the LXX text for Joshua 24:1, 25. There the LXX has Sēlō. Procopius 333A has the Greek of Eusebius word for word and then continues following Jerome.

Another village west of Ailia is unidentifiable, perhaps Kh Selma preserves the name, but perhaps represents the Josephus’ tradition that Jebus, Salem and Jerousalem are all one place. In Hebrew Questions Jerome says "Salem is the name of the king of Jerusalem which was formerly called Salem" (19).

Salumias is located 8 miles south (direction not given in the text) of Scythopolis (K. 16:2) at Umm el ‘umdan or on the Jordan at Tell Rijba where there is a Sheik Salim nearby. This could be the tradition of Salem-Aenon (K. 40:1). In Jerome’s Epistle 73:7 he attaches the tradition of Melchizedek to this site called an "oppidum" (see Appendix I), where the ruins were shown ( Migne PL 22, 680). The archaeological remains are not decisive.

The Salim which belongs to Shechem is perhaps in the plain about 4 miles east of Shechem at present Salim. But Eusebius does not make a distinction here (cp. Judith 4:4). This is probably because LXX and Syriac identify Salem and Shechem as above in K. 150:1 and the first part of this entry.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Salem, peace or returning" (72).

816. Sour. Genesis 16:7; K. 152:6; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

The Greek text is lost.

The Greek of Procopius 352D says, "The desert of Sour extends opposite Egypt where the Hebrews came when about to cross the Red Sea, as Exodus says." In Hebrew Questions (20) Jerome notes the Way of Sur "leads through the desert to Egypt."

For Kades see K. 112:7, 8. Jerome seems to be correcting Eusebius on the basis of scripture.

817. Sēgōr. Genesis 19:22; K. 152:8; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

The first part of the Greek is lost (Isaiah 15:5). No real place is pointed here.

In Hebrew Questions (23) Jerome writes, "Segor which is frequently earth and more frequently destroyed, was first called Bale and later Salissa" (cf. K. 150:19; K. 42:4 and K. 94:2).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Segor, poor. It is the same as Seor above" (72).

818. Skēnai (Scenae). Genesis 33:17; K. 152:13; L. 283:87.

Simple biblical notation.

EXODUS

819. Sokchōth. Exodus 12:37; K. 152:16; L. 283:90.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Socchoth, tabernacle" (77).

820. Sin. Exodus 16:1; K. 152:18; L. 283:93.

Summary of biblical information (Exodus 17:1, 19:1 and Numbers 33:36). LXX and MT texts disagree as noted in the Onomasticon. Probably this extends from Red Sea to Sinai. On the Madaba map the desert of Sin is also: "the place of Manna and quails."

NUMBERS AND DEUTERONOMY

821. Selmona. Numbers 33:41; K. 154:5; L. 283:00.

Last part of this entry is missing in Greek Vatican manuscript.

A Simple listing of station.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Salmona, shade of the part or he reckoned the shade or his image" (85).

822. Saphar. Numbers 33:23; K. 154:7; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

First part of this entry is missing in Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple listing of station.

823. Sattein (Sattim). Numbers 25:1; K. 154:9; L. 283:01.

Summary of biblical information and geography (Numbers 25:3 and Joshua 2:1)

On Phogōr see K. 18:1 and K. 168:25.

This and the next entry seem to be late editorial additions.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Settim, thorns" (84).

824. Sabama. Numbers 32:3, 38; K. 154:12; L. 283:04.

Textual variant Saba (Greek).

Summary of biblical information (Joshua 13:19 and Isaiah 16:8.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sabama, turning around of someone, or lift on him or lifted high" (85).

825. Selcha. Deuteronomy 3:10; K. 154:15; L. 283:07.

Simple biblical notation.

826. Senna. Numbers 34:4; K. 154:16; L. 283:08.

A border listing (Joshua 15:3).

The mileage in the two texts is different. This could be the result of the older Jewish text locating from Roman Jericho (K. 104:25) and Jerome’s from er-riha.

The Magdalsenna is hardly in Ioudaia with this location. On the Madaba map east of Archelais is a small unlabeled town which could be Magdalsenna but cannot be the Zin of Numbers (cf. K. 84:14) but could be identified with Sennaah of Ezra. This is possibly located now at Kh el Beiyudat.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Senna, wished or his teeth" (85).

827. Sephama. Numbers 34:10; K. 154:18; L. 283:10.

Textual variant Sephema (Greek).

Simple biblical listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Safan, life or hair on the upper lip which the Greeks call a moustache" (85).

828. Sadada. Numbers 34:8; K. 154:19; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Not in the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "from his tile" (85).

JOSUE

829. Somerōn. Joshua 12:20; K. 154:21; L. 283:12.

A biblical note and identification followed by additional biblical information probably added by a later hand (I Kings 16:24). Onomasticon recognizes a region of Sebastē called polichnē (cf. K. 22:11; Appendix II), Samaria was called Sebastē in honor of Augustus ( Epistle 108:13, Migne PL 22, 889; PPT I, 13 and cf. K. 162:13). Herod had much to do with its redevelopment. Jerome notes the graves of Obadiah, Elisha, and St. John the Baptist are traditionally located here ( Epistle 46; Migne PL 22, 491 and Commentary on Obadia Migne PL 25, 1099 etc.). In this entry only the Latin text notes the relics of John. Also called an "oppidum" (cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I). A bishop was present from here at the Council of Nicea.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Semronmaron, custodian of the bitter walls" (97).

830. Sēeira. Joshua 11:17; K. 156:1; L. 283:17.

Simple biblical notation.

831. Selcha. Joshua 13:11; K. 156:2; L. 283:18.

Simple biblical notation.

832. Siōr. Joshua 15:54; K. 154:21; L. 283:19.

Two sites are involved in this entry. Sior is from the Onomasticon perhaps located at Siler north-northeast of Chebrōn (K. 6:8) on the border of Eleutheropolis and Aelia regions.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sior, very small or disturbed" (97).

833. Saorth. Joshua 13:19; K. 156:5; L. 283:21.

Textual variants: Saor (Greek) and Saorh (Latin).

Simple tribal listing and biblical location.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sarth, chains or his narrowness" (97).

834. Sachoth. Joshua 13:27; K. 156:6; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is not in the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple tribal listing and biblical location.

835. Saphōn. Joshua 13:27; K. 156:7; L. 283:22.

Simple tribal listing and biblical location.

836. Sachōron. Joshua 15:11; K. 156:8; L. 284:23.

Textual variant Sachorona (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sechrona, intoxicated or tabernacle" (97).

837. Sama (Samen). Joshua 15:26; K. 156:9; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is not in the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Seme, hearing" (97).

838. Soual. Joshua 15:28; K. 156:10; L. 284:24.

Double tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sualim, foxes" (97).

839. Sikelag (Secelec). Joshua 15:31; K. 156:11; L. 284:25.

Textual variant Sicelec (Latin).

Summary of biblical information (I Samuel 27:6; Joshua 19:5 and cp. Thalcha 98:26).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sicileq, clearing a tight voice or pouring forth the sixth part" (97).

840. Sansana. Joshua 15:31; K. 156:31; L. 284:27.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Senesanna, bearing a bramble or holding" (97).

841. Saleei. Joshua 15:32; K. 156:14; L. 284:28.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Saloim, comings forth or emissions" (97).

842. Saraa. Joshua 15:33; K. 156:15; L. 284:29.

Textual variant Sarda (Greek).

Tribal listing of Joshua 19:41 (cf. K. 160:4).

Esthaol (K. 88:2) is also 10 miles north of Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12). The distance is somewhat short for both Eathaol and Saraa unless it marks turn off from the main road to lesser road. They are near each other about 14-15 miles north. Today at sar’a southeast of Nicopolis (K. 30:27).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Saraa, hornets or shortness of evil" (97).

843. Sokchō. Joshua 15:35; K. 156:18; L. 284:32.

Twin villages. The Madaba Map has only one Sōchō on the edge of the valley. They are a few miles west-southwest of Bait Nettif at Kh Abbad and Kh Shuweikeh. The sound of the name may survive in the second, where there are late remains.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Socha, little tabernacle or shady arbor" (97).

844. Saraein. Joshua 15:36; K. 156:21; L. 284:35.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Saarim, doors" (97).

845. Sennaan (Senam). Joshua 15:37; K. 156:22; L. 284:36.

Textual variant Senna (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sanam, abundant or their departure" (97).

846. Sapheir. Joshua 15:48; K. 156:23; L. 284:37.

This is not located along any main road and does not seem to be the Sapharea of the Madaba map. It is best located at Sawafir 10 miles northeast of Ascalōn (K. 22:15) on the road to Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12). Perhaps on the border.

847. Sokchō. Joshua 15:48; K. 156:25; L. 284:39.

Textual variant Socho (Latin).

Cf. II Kings 17:30 and cp. K. 156:18 above.

848. Skacha. Joshua 15:61; K. 156:27; L. 284:41.

Textual variants: Sakcho (Greek) and Scaca and Scatha (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

849. Selo. Joshua 16:6; K. 156:28; L. 284:42.

Two biblical items (Genesis 38:5) separated by a location. The distance varies by two miles between Latin and Greek. In the Madaba map "Silo where the ark was" following Eusebius. The present Kh Seilun is over 12 miles from Neapolis (K. 4:28). But turn off from the main road is at 12 th milestone. Paula saw a destroyed altar there ( Epistle 108:13, PPT I, 13). Perhaps the 10 miles of Jerome locates Akkrabein.

850. Suchem (Sechem). Joshua 17:7; K. 158:1; L. 284:46.

Manssseh and Ephraim both hold biblical Shechem. K. 150:7 seems to distinguish Joshua 20:7, Joshua 21:21 from the area around Neapolis. Yet this entry has been corrected and the same site is the Ephraim city of refuge and the Manasseh city with the tomb of Joseph. No location is given here other than reference back to K. 150:1 which is probably a marginal gloss.

851. Sama. Joshua 18:17; K. 158:4; L. 284:49.

Textual variant "spring of Sam" (Greek).

Biblical and Hexaplaric information.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sames, sun" (97).

852. Semreim. Joshua 18:22; K. 158:5; L. 284:50.

Textual variants: Sereim (Greek) and Semeri (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

853. Sela. Joshua 18:28; K. 158:6; L. 284:51.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sela, bear from, to bear, not from breadth" (97).

854. Sabe (Sabēe). Joshua 19:2; K. 158:7; L. 284:52.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sabe, seven or seven times" (97).

855. Sarith (Sarid). Joshua 19:10; K. 158:8; L. 284:53.

Textual variant Sarith (Latin).

Simple tribal border.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sarith, remains" (97).

856. Sams. Joshua 19:12; K. 158:9; L. 284:54.

Textual variants: Sam (Greek) and Samis, Samus (Latin).

Hexaplaric information.

857. Semerōn. Joshua 19:15; K. 158:10; L. 284:55.

Simple tribal listing.

858. Sounēm (Sunem). Joshua 19:18; K. 158:11; L. 284:56.

Textual variant Soubēn (Greek).

Perhaps the tradition confuses this with the Shulamite of Canticles.

It is at Sulem about 3 miles south of Naim (K. 140:3) and correctly located 5 miles from Thabor.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sonim, scarlet colored" (97).

859. Sion (Seon or Soen). Joshua 19:19; K. 158:13; L. 284:58.

Vague location may point to ‘ajun esh sha’en, but it could be the same as the previous location. Jerome alone gives an alternate. A’ has Seian.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Seon, his seeds" (97).

860. Sasima. Joshua 19:22; K. 158:15; L. 284:60.

Simple border listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sassim, going out he stayed" (97).

861. Sior. Joshua 19:26; K. 158:16; L. 284:61.

Simple tribal listing.

862. Sennanein. Joshua 19:33; K. 158:17; L. 284:62.

Textual variant Sennanim (Latin).

Biblical notation and tribal listing. A corrupt LXX test wherein two Hebrew names in the MT become coalesced into one.

863. Sorek (Sorec). Joshua 19:41; K. 158:18; L. 285:63.

Summary of biblical information and geography (Judges 13:25 and cf. K. 88:12).

This form is from the MT not from the LXX (cf. K. 160:2).

864. Sames. Joshua 19:41; K. 158:20; L. 285:65.

Textual variant Samer (Greek).

Cf. K. 54:11 and K. 32:26.

865. Salabein (Salabeim). Joshua 19:41; K. 158:21; L. 285:66.

Salaba is only vaguely located, perhaps Onomasticon points to site (not the Old Testament site) at Kh Selhab north of Tubas (cf. K. 100:11).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Salabin, growing intelligence" (91).

866. Sepheth. Judges 1:17; K. 158:23; L. 285:68.

Textual variants: Sephet, Seth and Sapeth (Latin).

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Safeth, watchtower" (101).

JUDGES

867. Seirōtha. Judges 3:26; K. 158:25; L. 285:70.

Textual variants: Ahod, Aioth and Ahud (Latin).

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 156:1 related to Mt. Se’ir)

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sairath, she goat" (101).

868. Sour Oreb. Judges 7:25; K. 158:27; L. 285:72.

Textual variant. A’ is lacking in Vatican Greek manuscript.

Hexaplaric information.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Suroreb, rock of the raven" (101).

869. Selmon. Judges 9:48; K. 158:28; L. 285:73.

Simple biblical notation. This is not Shechem but Sikima near Haifa (K. 108: 30). It is probably located at Tell es Samak.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Salmana, preventing shade or shade of movements" (101) and "Salma, feeling or perfect or peace making" (101).

870. Sephina. Judges 12:1; K. 160:1; L. 285:75.

Hexaplaric information.

871. Sōrēch. Judges 16:4; K. 160:2; L. 285:76.

Identified with Cafarsorech northwest of Saraa (K. 56:15) possibly Eusebius points to Kh Surik (not the Old Testament site) Judges 13:2, 25. It is not on a Roman road.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sorec, best choice" (101).

KINGS

872. Sōpheim. I Samuel 1:1; K. 160:6; L. 285:80.

Textual variants: Armathe and Armathaim (Latin).

Simple biblical location.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sofim, watchtower or crag." (105).

873. Salisa. I Samuel 9:4; K. 160:7; L. 285:81.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Salisa, third" (105).

874. Senna. I Samuel 14:4; K. 160:8; L. 285:82.

Textual variant Sanna (Latin).

This entry and part of the next are missing in the Greek Vatican manuscript. As a rock it does not belong to the place names. It is also out of proper order and doubly suspect (cf. K. 94:5).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sena, borne or narrowness or good" (105).

875. Saaleim. I Samuel 9:4; K. 160:11; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

The first part of this entry and the previous one are missing in the Greek Vatican manuscript (cp. K. 156:14). Probably Kh Shaikha 7 miles due west of Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12). Some scholars see it on the road at Araq el Manshiya but Eusebius’ location seems to be off the road (cf. K. 68:4).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Salim, foxes but better written Sualim" (105).

876. Seiph (Sthif). I Samuel 9:5; K. 160:11; L. 285:84.

Textual variant Seim (Greek).

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Suf, watchtower or pouring forth" (105).

877. Sabeim. I Samuel 13:18; K. 160:12; L. 285:85.

Simple biblical notation.

878. Sōnam. I Samuel 28:4; K. 160:13; L. 285:86.

Cf. K. 158:11 and K. 158:13. Perhaps also Salim east of Nablus is intended, in the Akrabattinē (I Kings 1:3 and Song of Solomon 6:12). It could be sanur north of Samaria as well. Neither site is the Old Testament location.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sonaim, scarlet colored or his standing."

879. Saphamōth. I Samuel 30:28; K. 160:15; L. 285:89.

Textual variant Sophamoth (Latin).

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Safathmoth, lip of death." (105).

880. Seeira. II Samuel 3:26; K. 160:16; L. 285:90.

Simple biblical notation.

881. Souba. II Samuel 8:3; K. 160:17; L. 285:91.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Soba, divided from cutting, not from following" (105).

882. Sarthan. I Kings 4:12; K. 160:18; L. 285:92.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sarthan, their tribulation or demolition or limitation " (112).

883. Sōpheira (Soupheir). I Kings 9:28 and I Kings 10:11; K. 160:19; L. 285:93.

Textual variant Sophira (Latin). This variant name is a LXX error.

Out of the Holy Land proper (cf. K. 150:14 and K. 176:13).

884. Serōra. I Kings 11:26; K. 160:21; L. 285:95.

Textual variant Serora (Latin).

Simple biblical notation.

885. Saba. I Kings 10:1; K. 160:22; L. 285:96.

This entry is out of the Limits of the Holy Land and out of order as well, so is quite suspect. In Josephus Antiquities II, 10, 2 we have "Saba, the capital of the Ethiopian realm which Cambyses later called Meroe after the name of his sister."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Saba, captured" (112).

886. Sela. II Kings 12:21; K. 160:25; L. 285:99.

Simple biblical notation.

LXX has Gaalad or Gaalla for the MT "to Silla."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sela, always" (117).

887. Sephpharouem (Saffaruaim). II Kings 17:24; K. 160:26; L. 285:00.

Simple biblical notation (Isaiah 36:19).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Safaruahim, books or letters" (118).

888. Sademoth. II Kings 23:4; K. 160:28; L. 286:03.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sademoth, ploughed land or region" (118).

889. Sarepta. I Kings 17:9; K. 162:1; L. 286:04.

This item is perhaps out of order.

This is the only site between Tyre (K. 162:15) and Sidon (K. 148:6) mentioned in the Onomasticon. Jerome adds it is on the main highway. Tabula Peutinger locates it 9 miles from Sidon and 12 from Tyre. The Pilgrims note it is on the coast also 9 miles from Sidon (Paula PPT I, 4 and Itin. Bourd.18:22). It is the present Sarafand (MT, cf. Luke 4:26 not noted in our text). In Latin "oppidulum" used only here, the diminutive is "oppidum" (cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I).

890. Sarōn. Isaiah 33:9; K. 162:3; L. 286:06.

Part of this entry is missing in the Vatican manuscript.

Ioppa is an "oppidum" in Jerome here (cf. K. 111:25; cp. K. 10:25 and Appendix I). In Jerome’s Commentary on Isaiah 33:7 and elsewhere he describes the plain of Sharon as near Ioppa and Lidda. This may describe the limits of the plain. The added notation is more precise for biblical Sharon.

The first Saronas is connected with Aphek and Endor (K. 34:11) of the Esdraelon plain, northeast of Tabor toward the Sea of Galilee, perhaps named after a town Saruna but not the biblical site.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Saron, first wall or gloomy singing" (122).

891. Sephela. Isaiah 32:19; K. 162:7; L. 286:09.

"Another" as the above plain. In Jerome's Commentary on Obadiah 19 he describes this area of Diospolis (K. 8:14) to Nicopolis (K. 30:27) but notes, as in Onomasticon that others see it as near Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12). The Onomasticon locates it between Eleutheropolis and Ioppa (K. 110:24 and cp. I Maccabees 12:38).

892. Sennaar. Micah 1:11; K. 162:10; L. 286:12.

Textual variants: Sennaan (Greek) and Sennam (Latin).

Hexaplatic information and references (cp. K. 156:22).

893. Sedrach. Zechariah 9:1; K. 162:11; L. 286:13.

Simple biblical notation. LXX has confused the Hebrew of MT here.

894. Siōn. Zechariah 9:9; K. 162:12; L. 286:14.

Mountain and simple biblical location. One of the details of Jerusalem but no real location given. In Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah1:21 he says, "Sion is the mountain on which the city of Jerusalem was founded."

895. Samareia (Samaria). Ezekiel 16:46; K. 162:13; L. 286:15.

Samaria is Sebaste and gives its name to the territory (cf. K. 154:21).

896. Sor (Tyre). Ezekiel 26:2; K. 162:15; L. 286:17.

Simple biblical summary (Joshua 19:35). The Onomasticon uses "metropolis" only rarely for Tyre and Jerusalem. Difficult to know if this is in reference to biblical or contemporary times. Tyre was the capital of the Roman province of Phoenicia north of Karmel and Palaistinē. It was 73 miles between Caesarea and Tyre according to Itin. Bourd. ( PPT I, 17). Tabula Peutinger has 12 miles from Sarepta, 24 from Sidon and 32 from Ptolmais. It is presently called Sur (perhaps cf. K. 164:17).

897. Soēne. Ezekiel 29:11; K. 162:16; L. 286:19.

This is outside the proper limits of the Holy Land. This is one of the most distant Egyptian cities mentioned (cp. K. 126: 1). Hebrew has migdol. Eusebius follows the LXX here.

For other sites in Egypt see note on K. 58: 1.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Soene, his circle or expected" (130).

898. Sais. Ezekiel 30:15; K. 162:17; L. 286:20.

This is outside the proper limits of the Holy Land. Greek text is corrupt.

The Madaba map has "Sais."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sais, proof" (132).

899. Sadala. Ezekiel 47:15; K. 162:18; L. 286:21.

Simple biblical notation of border. Name follows Qere vocalization.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sadada, has the same meaning as Sela" (132, cf. 97 also cf. K. 158: 6).

900. Sabareim. Ezekiel 47:16; K. 162:19; L. 286:23.

Simple biblical notation and geography.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sabarim, to go around the mountains" (132).

901. Salisa. Jeremiah 48:34; K. 162:21; L. 286:25.

Hexaplaric information.

902. Suchar. John 4:5; K. 164:1; L. 286:26.

This is not related to Shechem (K. 150:1) by this text. Yet it is east of Neapolis (K. 4:28) near the field of Jacob and the well where the Samaritan came. In this entry the well seems to be near or to belong to the village from which the woman came. Jerome notes a church is now built at the well (cf. Note on K. 7:13). Paula sees Sychar as near the well but one mile from Shechem ( Epistle 108:13 and PTT I, 18).The Madaba map is unclear, "Sychar now Sychchōra" is usually separated from "Where the well of Jacob is" as well as from "the tomb of Joseph." None of these is equated with Shechem. The oak of Sikimon and the tomb of Joseph however are connected in K. 54:23.

The well and church tradition has remained constant since the 4th century (Latin text). Shechem is clearly Balata although later pilgrims identified it with Neapolis. Sychar is the small village of Samaritans which clustered around the well a bit south of Balata. The name Sychar has been preserved perhaps in present ‘Askar at the foot of Mt.Ebal.

The reality of a Sychar was already questioned by Jerome. He notes that Sicima was called Sychem in Hebrew but the Gospel of John through an error wrote Sychar ( Migne PL 23, 1055). In Epistle 108:13 he also remarks on this error and equates Sychem with Neapolis ( Migne PL 22, 888). Many scholars favor this argument: Sychar is a copyist’s error or alternate form for Sychem in the New Testament. This would mean between the well and Balata were located the Samaritan inhabitants of Sychem. The fact that no Roman remains are found on Tell Balata does not preclude the existence of a small village around the well and under the present village of Balata.

After the 4 th century the village north of Sychem was pointed out as Sychar. It is a Byzantine settlement.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sichar, conclusion or twig. However in error for Sichem, which means shoulder, Schar was written." (142).

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