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SECTION K

GENESIS

K. 112:2; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

In Greek the sub-division under this alphabetic section is "Genesis" but in Latin it is more correct as "Pentateuch."

578. Karnaeim. Astaroth Karnaeim. Genesis 14:5; K. 112:3; L. 269:98.

The large village in Batanaia is one of the two villages of K. 6:4. The probability is that it is Sheikh Sa’ad about 16 miles northwest of Dera near Tell ‘ashtarah (K. 12:11). The home of Job is noted in K. 142:3 and such a tradition from pilgrim times continued into the 20th century at Sheikh Sa’ad (cf. K. 76:10)

For Batanaia see K. 44:11.

The second Karnaia (I Maccabees 5:27ff.) belonging to Ailia perhaps is Ataroth (K. 26:25). Nine miles marks the turn off from main road northwest toward Bethoron from Jerusalem. All these are to be distinguished from Ataroth of Ephraim (K. 26:19) near Bir Zeit.

579. Kadēs. Genesis 14:7; K. 112:7; L. 269:3.

Simple biblical notation. In Hebrew Questions Jerome says "Cades is a place near Petra called the spring of judgment where God judged the people" (18).

580. Kadēa Barnē. Numbers 32:8; K. 112:8; L. 270:4.

Textual variant city of Palestinē (Greek) instead of Arabia. This reflects again the uncertainty of editorial additions and of the use of Arabia in the Onomasticon (K. 110:27). Latin combines K. 112:7 and K. 112:8. Some confusion in order of this and the next three entries.

A summary of biblical information from Numbers 21:1, 11; Numbers 27:14 and Genesis 14:7. A tomb tradition is here. No location is given other than near Petra (K. 142:7). Procopius repeats the entry in 332D and 1021D. It also is reaffirmed by Jerome in Commentary on Ezekiel 38:23(cf. K. 46:26).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cades, holy or change" (63); "Cades, alteration or holy" (80); "Cadesbarne, selected change or changeableness" (80).

581. Kenaz. Genesis 36:11; K. 112:13; L. 270:9.

Simple biblical notation. In Hebrew Questions (44) Jerome equated Theman (K. 96:18), Cenaz, Amalec (K. 16:5) with Idumaia (K. 46:11).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cenez, jealous or his possession" (63).

582. Kariathaeim. Numbers 32:37; K. 112:14; L. 270:10.

Textual variants: Kariathieim (Greek). For contemporary site Coroiath and Eoraiatat (Latin).

Another wholly Christian town (cf. K. 26:14) is located west of Madaba and probably indicates Kh el Qureiyat which is near the hot springs of Barē (cf. K. 44:22). Mileage indicates turn off from main Roman highway. Must be distinct from Kariathiareim of Jerusalem (K. 14:23).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cariathaim, towns or their city (oppidum)" (80).

583. Kariatharbo. Genesis 23:2; K. 112:18; L. 270:14.

Textual variants: Kariathirbo (Greek) and Ceriath arbeae (Latin).

Etymological information and identification with Chebrōn (K. 6:8 and K. 170:25). It is out of regular order and probably suspect as addition. See all three entries above.

584. Kanath. Numbers 32:42; K. 112:20; L. 270:15.

Vatican manuscript is incomplete here. Textual variants: Cannatha and Chanatha (Latin).

Summary of biblical information and generalized location. The village is probably el Kanawat and along with Damascus and Bostra forms the eastern limit of the Onomasticon. In Tabula Peutinger it is 20 Miles from Bostra.

Onomasticon confused Nabo (Numbers 32:42) and Naboth (Numbers 32:3, 78 and K. 136:6, 9) and perhaps is too far northeast for the biblical site. The Syriac has this "near Petra" which is an attempted correction getting nearer to Kerak.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Canath, striving after or zealous" (80).

585. Kata ta Krusea (Catatachrysea, i.e. to gold). Deuteronomy 1:1; K. 114:1; L. 270:19.

Vatican manuscript adds "Deuteronomy" division marker here.

The LXX and Vulgate translate the biblical Dizahab. The area is located by the Onomasticon as near Phainon (K. 81:16 and K. 168:8) in the Arabah (K.12:25) somewhere near Aqabah (cf. Deuteronomy 1:5 and Numbers 33:42). Perhaps Umm el Dahab which retains the sound and etymology. The mines were worked in Roman-Byzantine times as well as earlier. Smelters also in later era.

586. Kadēmōth. Deuteronomy 2:26; K. 114:5; L. 270:23.

Simple biblical summary (cf. K. 114:10 below).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cademoth, beginning of death" (86).

587. Kariath. Joshua 9:17; K. 114:7; L. 270:25.

Simple biblical summary (cf. K. 114:23, K. 48:9, K. 48:24, and K.172:15). And for Gabaon see K. 66:11.

588. Kades. Joshua 12:22; K. 114:8; L. 270:26.

Simple biblical notation (cf. Joshua 15:3).

589. Kademoth. Joshua 13:18; K. 114:10; L. 270:28.

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 114:5). Here "another" is in the proper order. One of six only in the Onomasticon. All others are out of order.

590. Kedsōn. Joshua 21:37; K. 114:11; L. 270:29.

Part of this entry missing in Vatican manuscript possibly by scribal homoioteleuton after Roubin. Gloss.

JOSUE

591. Kapseēl. Joshua 15:21; K. 114:13; L. 270:31.

Note "Iesoue" division here but four previous entries were from that book.

Simple tribal listing. Possibly the same as K. 118:10.

592. Kina. Joshua 15:22; K. 114:14; L. 270:32.

Simple tribal listing (cf. Tina (K. 164:14)).

593. Keeila. Joshua 15:44; K. 114:15; L. 270:33.

Textual variant in Vatican manuscript 17 miles.

Probably at Kh Qila today about 7 miles east of Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) but 7 miles more properly a turn off. The tomb is also indicated as elsewhere (K. 70:24 and K. 88:27). This is also called Enkēla (K. 88:26).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cena, throw a slingstone or arousing him or bearing oneself" (92).

594. Kariathbaal. Joshua 15:60; K. 114:19; L. 270:37.

A simple biblical notation (cf. K. 106:8, K. 114:23 and K. 48:24).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cariathbaal, he possessed cities or had possessed cities" (92).

595. Kana. Joshua 16:8; K. 114:20; L. 270:38.

Simple tribal listing. A river (cf. K. 114:22).

596. Kabsaeim (Capsaim). Joshua 21:22; K. 114:21; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Not in Vatican manuscript and out of order. Textual variant Camsaim (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

597. Kane. Joshua 17:9; K. 114:22; L. 270:39.

Simple tribal listing. A river (cf. K. 114:20).

598. Kariathiareim (Kariathbaal). Joshua 18:14; K. 114:23; L. 271:40.

Summary of biblical items which are divided into two sections by a location indication. The additions after are perhaps from a later hand (Joshua 26:22, I Chronicles 2:50, Joshua 15:60, and Judges 10:4). Same as K. 114:19 above.

Procopius 1024A agrees with the location and distance. In K. 48:24 however it is 12 miles not 9 as here (cf. K. 106:8 and K. 128:1). This location generally points to Qaryat al ‘Inab area for the Byzantine site; possibly Deir el Azhar (cf. K. 116:20).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cariathiarim, city or village of the woods" (91).

599. Kisōn (Kision). Joshua 19:20; K. 114:28; L. 271:46.

Simple biblical notation (Joshua 21:28).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cison, they drive against or their hardness or joy" (99).

600. Kartha. Joshua 21:34; K. 116:1; L. 271:47.

Simple biblical notation, possibly out of order.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cartham, complete a summons" (92).

601. Katta. Joshua 19:15; K. 116:2; L. 271:48.

Textual variants: Kouta (Greek) and Cotta (Latin).

Simple biblical notation, also possibly out of order.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Catath or Caath, bite or society" (92).

602. Kana. Joshua 19:28; K. 116:4; L. 271:50.

Summary of biblical information including New Testament (John 21:1,2 and John1:48). Only a general location is given. The Latin text calls the contemporary town an "oppidum" (cp. K. 10:25 and Appendix I). The Onomasticon equates Kanah with Cana. Kanah of Asher should be near Aidōn and possibly is at Qanah 6-7 miles southeast of Tyre (K. 162:15). The New Testament site is quite older, being in Galilee. It is close to Nazareth (K. 138:24) and Kapharnaum (K. 120:2), according to Jerome's Epistle 108 ( Migne PL 22, 889 and PPT I, 15). In Epistle 46 ( Migne PL 22, 91) it is very near Nazareth. It is probably to be located at Kh Qana but could possibly be Kefr Kenna closer to Nazareth. A late 4th century church is there.

Some scholars think Jerome’s note on greater and lesser refer to Kana rather than to Sidōn. If so, the greater is the New Testament site and the lesser the Old Testament site. However, the text hardly supports this opinion.

603. Kades (Cades). Joshua 19:37; K. 116:8; L. 271:53.

Summary of biblical information (Joshua 21:32, Joshua 20:7 and II Kings 15:29). Procopius 1049A has the first part of the entry only.

Kydissos probably also known as Cadasa is located southeast of Tyre (K. 162:15) and is still known as Qades in Upper Galilee, north of Safed.

604. Kartham. Joshua 21:32; K. 116:12; L. 271:57.

Simple biblical notation.

JUDGES

605. Ketrōn. Judges 1:30; K. 116:15; L. 271:60.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cetron, their darkness or incense" (99).

606. Karka (Carcar). Judges 8:10; K. 116:17; L. 271:62.

Biblical summary plus location. No direction is given. If north, it is near Shobek but it could just as well refer to south or southeast area (cf. Kerak sound).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Carcar, investigation" (99).

607. Kamōn. Judges 10:5; K. 116:20; L. 271:65.

The identification by the Onomasticon is probably erroneous for the biblical site which should be in Transjordan. Kammona is near present Qamun which retains the sound of the name and is approximately 8 miles northwest of Legeōn (K. 14:21) and may be the Jokneam of the Old Testament for Iaeip (see K. 48:24 and K. 114:23).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Camon, unprofitable reappearance" (99).

The next four entries are all out of order and are not really names of places so are suspect as later editorial or scribal additions.

608. Kisōn. Judges 4:7; K. 116:23; L. 271:69.

Simple biblical summary for the Wadi (cf. K. 114:28).

609. Kadēmim (Cademi). Judges 5:21; K. 116:25; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Procopius 1061B puts these two places together and notes the possible confusion of Kisōn and Kadēmim in the Sisara and Debbōra story.

610. Koilas of the Titans (i.e. valley of giants). Judges 1:19; K. 116:26; L. 271:71.

Procopius 1125C suggests "valley of the giants who are called Titans" (cf. II Samuel 5:18ff.). A gloss.

611. Klauthmōn. Judges 2:1; K. 118:1; L. 271:72.

Etymological information not customary in the Onomasticon. This and the previous three entries are suspect on various grounds.

KINGS

612. Keni. I Samuel 27:10; K. 118:4; L. 271:75.

The order of entries in this entire section on "Kingdoms" is confused. Here the Latin identifies the "foreigners" as Pylistii.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ceni, my copper or my bereaved or passion" (80).

613. Karmēlos. I Samuel 25:2; K. 118:5; L. 271:76.

In the Vatican manuscript this and the following item have been conflated.

The village still retains its old name at Kermela 10 miles south (not east) of Chebrōn (K. 6:8). This direction in the Onomasticon is obviously an error since even the East quadrant which is sometimes intended in directions in the Onomasticon would not cover the road to Malatha. The "South" is in the entry for Chermel (K. 172:20 and cf. K. 92:21). Near Zeif is the home of Nabal at Chermela. Chermala probably had been fortified by Herod along with Zelph. The garrison is reaffirmed by Notitia Dignitatum (72:6 and 73:20)(cp. Procopius 1020C). Chebrōn is an "oppidum" in Latin (cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I).

614. Karmēlos. Mountain. I Kings 18:42; K. 118:8; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

The confusion with the above is possible because most mountains are suspect entries in the Onomasticon. The Greek manuscript lacks the first two words. The Latin does not have this entry. Jerome in Commentary on Amos 1:2 sees two mountains: one the home of Nabal, the other near Ptolemais. He repeats this distinction in Commentary on Isaiah 29:17. The home of Nabal near Chebrōn (K. 6:8) is in the previous entry as well as K. 172:20. This item is one of the few entries in the Onomasticon giving borders of the Roman-Byzantine period. The northern boundary of the Province of Palestinē is marked by the mountain.

615. Kabseēl II Samuel 15:23; K. 118:10; L. 272:81.

Simple biblical notation not in the Latin text. Perhaps same as K. 116:13.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cabseel, assembly of God" (107).

616. Kedrōn. I Samuel 15:23; K. 118:11; L. 272:82.

Not originally a place name entry. The Latin adds New Testament John 18:1 note.

Simple biblical location (cf. K. 174:26 and K. 70:2).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cedron, sadness or sorrow" (126).

617. Kurinē (Cyrene). II Kings 16:9; K. 118:13; L. 272:84.

Probably outside the Onomasticon's limits for Holy Land.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cyrene, heir" (144).

618. Kōa. I Kings 10:28; K. 118:15; L. 272:87.

Textual variant Kōd (Greek). Not in MT, an LXX word.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Caue, endurance or sound of trumpet" (110).

619. Karchēdon (i.e. Carthage). Isaiah 23:1; K. 118:16; L. 272:88.

Probably outside of the Onomasticon's limits for Holy Land (Ezekiel 27:12 and cp. K. 100:25). The reference to Hebrew Tharseis is repeated by Jerome in Commentary on Isaiah 33:1 and Commentary on Ezekiel 37:12. The Latin makes the clear identification with Carthago.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Carthaginis, investigation" (120).

620. Kollas Iōsaphat. Joel 13:2; K. 118:18; L. 272:89.

Another detail of Jerusalem. The location given is the same as that for the Chebrōn (cf. K. 70:2, K. 118:11, and K. 174:26).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome adds nothing new. This is possibly only a marginal gloss in the Latin text.

621. Kedam. Ezekiel 25:4; K. 118:20; L. 272:91.

Hexaplaric information.

622. Kēdar. Ezekiel 27:21; K. 118:21; L. 272:92.

Summary of biblical information (Jeremiah 49:28, Isaiah 21:16 and Genesis 25:13) and a generalized location. The desert of Sarakēnē (K. 60:13) is related to the area of the Ishmaelites by Jerome in his Commentary on Jeremiah 2:10.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cedar, sad or dark" (130).

623. Kariōth. Jeremiah 48:24, 41; K. 120:1; L. 272:95.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Carioth, meeting of signs" (126).

624. Kapharnaoum. Matthew 4:13; K. 120:2; L. 272:96.

No special section in this listing for New Testament text. This is an "oppidum" in Jerome (see Appendix I). Localization is general because in Eusebius’ time this city at Tell Hum was flourishing. It was two miles from Chōrazein (K. 174:25). There is debate as to whether the New Testament site was here. Paula and the pilgrims visited this site ( Epistle 108; PPT I, 16; Epistle 46 and Migne PL 22, 491).

Here ends our reading for the letter C i.e. the Greek Kappa the rest are under the letter Chi, which has aspiration in itself and of which there is very little use in Latin. At the end of this alphabetic section Jerome adds another of his linguistic notes differentiating Greek and Hebrew letters and pronunciation.

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