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521. Iabōk (Iabōc). Genesis 32:23ff.; K. 102:19; L. 266:78.

The distance is missing from the Vatican manuscript and several other confusions occur (Deuteronomy 3:16). This is a river and not properly a place name as the Onomasticon. Possibly also it is out of order. Just as the first entry under many alphabetic sections it is highly suspect as a late editorial addition.

For Gerasa see K. 64:1.

This tributary to the Jordan is the Zerqa. Syriac and Latin agree on the 4 mile distance. The Vatican manuscript added note that some think this is the territory of Job while others say the land of Job is Arabia (see next entry).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iaboc, sand or wrestling" (68).

522. Idoumaia (Idumaea). Genesis 36:16; K. 102:23; L. 266:82.

Possibly the annotation of the Vatican manuscript as noted in the previous entry is really a marginal gloss on this entry. Edom is frequently mentioned in the Onomasticon; Idoumaia, less frequently. Petra (K. 142:7) is used as a referent often. The Gebalēnē (K.8:10) approximates the area.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Idumaea, red or earthy" (139).

523. Iather. Genesis 36:40; K. 104:1; L. 266:87.

Textual variant Ietheth (Latin).

Simple biblical notation. For Gabalenē see K. 8:10 as editor suggests.


524. Iatabatha. Numbers 33:33; K. 104:4; L. 267:90.

Textual variant Iegabath (Latin).

Simple listing of station. This one is out of order suggesting an editor may have added the list of stations (cf. K. 104:23 also).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Etebatha, of goodness or he turned aside to come" (82).

525. Ianna. Numbers 21:20; K. 104:6; L. 267:91.

Textual variant has Phasga (Greek) as also the Latin Fasga.

Summary of biblical verse to give location.

526. Iessa (Iassa). Numbers 21:23; K. 104:9; L. 267:94.

Textual variant Medaban (Latin).

Summary of biblical notations from Isaia 15:1 and Jeremiah 48:21, 34 with a very generalized location perhaps on border of the two regions. Vulgate has Iasa, Iassa and Iaser. Perhaps Khel Lirr for the Onomasticon's site and nearby Kh Iskander or ‘Aleiyan for Iron Age.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iassa, halved or make a charge" (82).

527. Iazēr. Numbers 21:32; K. 104:13; L. 267:98.

Detailed location and summary of biblical information from Joshua 13:25, Isaiah 16:8, Jeremiah 48:32, and Joshua 21:37. Usually Perea (K. 12:28) is used for Transjordan not for the specific province. In K. 12:3 a Iazer is 8 rather than 10 miles from Philadelphia. The Latin omits the "of Palistinē." Did some editor, in his time, know that Perea should not be called Palestinē? Perhaps Onomasticon's location is at Kh sar, but Kh jazzir is biblical site. Others see Tell ‘areme as Eusebius’ site. All are near present Nau ‘r.

528. Iordanēs. Numbers 22:1; K. 104:20; L. 267:6.

The rivers as noted before are all suspect in the Onomasticon but this one is in the proper order. The Jordan valley is the Aulon (K.14:22).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iordania, their descent or their possession or seeing judgment" (140).

529. Ietabatha. Deuteronomy 10:7; K. 104:23; L. 267:9.

Simple biblical notation (see K. 104:4).

530. ‘Ierichō. Deuteronomy 32:49; K. 104:25; L. 267:10.

Summary of biblical events including New Testament times (I Kings 16:34 and Matthew 20:29) with incidental archaeological concern. No locations are given. The New Testament data may be an original contribution of Eusebius or may be a still later editor.

Procopius 905C says 52 miles to Neapolis. But in 1016A he quotes this entry exactly. The Madaba map follows Eusebius’ spelling and location. In Tabula Peutinger it is 12 miles from Archaelaud (K. 45:1) and 32 miles to Neapolis (K. 4:28). A bishop was present at the Council of Nicea.

The three cities are not clearly located or identified. The New Testament one was at Tell abu Aliyiq and spread out to the flats nearby and has been partially excavated. The later Byzantine was in the general location of present er-riha extending westward toward Aliyiq. Usually Tell es-sultan is called Old Testament Ierichō. But it has its archaeological problems in spite of being twice thoroughly excavated. Tell es-sultan is for Josephus and the Onomasticon not Jericho but Gilgal (K. 64:24). What the Onomasticon pointed out as Old Testament Iericho is uncertain but perhaps no ruins. Paula however reports as did Josephus that after Joshua destroyed it, up to her time "nothing is to be seen of it except the place where the Ark of the Covenant stood and the 12 stones which the children of Israel brought out of the Jordan" ( PPT I, 25). Obviously this refers to Gilgal as the near obliterated Ierichō. Only the site of Gilgal was seen. In the Onomasticon many sites are located in reference to the Roman-Byzantine Jericho region.


531. ‘Ierousalēm. Joshua 10:1; K. 106:2; L. 267:18.

Adonibezek is LXX form for Adonsedek.

A summary of biblical information from Josua 15:63, Judges 1:21, 19:10, II Samuel 5:6, Genesis 14:18 and Joshua 18:28. Identification is made with Iebous (K. 106:7) and Salēm (K. 153: 4). It is also called ‘Alōn Orna (K. 34:17). The Greek text on the later entry about Salēm is corrupt. Onomasticon mentions Ailia more frequently than any other name (see Appendices VII and VIII). It is not listed in this entry because it was still a contemporary name. In 135 A.D. Hadrian began the use of Ailia Kapitōlia. Paula writes "entered Jerusalem, the city of three names - Jebus, Salem, Jerusalem - which by Aelius, afterwards Hadrianus, was raised from its ruins and ashes into Ailia" (Jerome's Epistle 108:9 and PPT I, 5).

The Madaba map has a recognizable vignette and the "Holy City Ierousalēm." No mention is made to Church (cf. Note on K. 7:13 and Appendix I) in this entry although Eusebius knows of them ( Vita Const. III, 31ff.) as did Paula ( PPT I, 6). Some think Eusebius’ praise of Constantine sermon was delivered in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Jerusalem or Ailia is often used as a referent in Eusebius and some details are given of its surroundings.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iērusalem, vision of peace" (121).

532. Iebous. Joshua 18:28; K. 106:7; L. 267:23.

Simple biblical quote to identify it with the above (K. 106:2). It is out of order and probably a gloss on the previous entry later incorporated by a scribe.

533. Iareim (Iarim). Joshua 9:17; K. 106:8; L. 267:24.

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 114:19 and K. 114:23).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iarim, salt or of the woods" (94).

534. Ierimouth (Iarimuth). Joshua 12:11; K. 106:9; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

The first part of this entry and the end of the previous entry are missing in the Vatican manuscript. The distance is also corrupted with 7 appearing in the Vatican and 4 in the Latin. Some emend to 14 on the basis of Procopius 1020C [cf. K. 106:24 which locates an Iermochōs 10 miles away from Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12)]. If near Esthaol (K. 88:12) it is on the way to Nikopolis (K. 30:27) rather than Jerusalem and must be at least 7 miles since Eathaol is 10 miles from Eleutheropolis. The turn off from the main road may be indicated. Probably Kh Marmita, south of Ishwa is intended by the Onomasticon but it is not the Old Testament site which is probably Kh Yarmuk (cf. Joshua 15:35).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ieritnoth, fearing death or to the heights of death" (94).

535. Isimōth. Joshua 12:3; K. 106:11; L. 268:26.

Biblical information with Hexaplaric data (cf. K. 48:6 and I Samuel 23:19).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Isimoth, he brought death" (82).

536. Iedna. Joshua 15:23; K. 106:15; L. 268:30.

This may be out of order. About halfway between the two major referents is Idna, the site which the Onomasticon has in mind.

537. Iekkomam (Ieconam). Joshua 12:22; K. 106:17; L. 268:32.

Simple biblical information (perhaps see K. 116:21).

538. Iaeir. Joshua 13:30; K. 106:19; L. 268:34.

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 18:4).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iair, making clear" (94).

539. Iamneia (Iamnel). Joshua 15:11; K. 106:20; L. 268:35.

Called a "polichne" and "oppidum" both relatively infrequent terms in the Onomasticon (K. 22:11, K. 10:25 and Appendix I and II). It was made into a municipality by Vespasian. Tabula Peutinger has it 10 miles from Azotus (K. 20:18) and 12 miles from Ioppē (K. 110:24). Its former name was Iabnēl and this name appears with Iamnia on the Madaba map at the generally agreed on location. There was a maritime Iamnia also but that is not the one intended here. A bishop was present at the Council of Nicea.

It is used as a referent in the Onomasticon (K. 22:10, K. 50:16 and K. 72:4). It is the present Iebna.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iabnehel, building of God" (94).

540. Iabeir (Iabir). Joshua 15:15; K. 106:22; L. 268:37.

Confused entry probably for Dabeir (K. 78:12). A similar confusion is in K. 78:2 Dayid.

541. Iagour (Iagur). Joshua 15:21; K. 106:23; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is missing in Vatican manuscript.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iagur, colony or stranger" (94).

542. Iermous (Iermus). Joshua 15:35; K. 106:24; L. 268:38.

Just north of Beit Nettif is Kh Jarmuk which preserves part of the name and is about 10 miles from Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) to the turn off from main road. It is probably to be distinguished from Ierimouth (K. 106:9) nearer to Nikopolis (K. 30:27).

543. Iechthaēl. Joshua 15:38; K. 106:26; L. 268:40.

Textual variants: Iechthael and Iethael (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iecthahel, honor of God" (94).

544. Iephthan (Iecthan). Joshua 15:43; K. 106:27; L. 268:41.

Simple tribal listing

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iepte, opening or uncovered" (94).

545. Iether. Joshua 15:48; K. 108:1; L. 268:42.

Textual variant Malatham (Latin).

Eusebius erroneously identifies this with Ether (K. 88:3) of Symeon (Joshua 21:14). Here the information is added that it is entirely Christian, one of two such in the south (K. 26:13). Kh ‘Attir is probably this Christian town. Not on the main road (cf. K. 110:18), represented on the Madaba map as a small tower south of Gerara.

For Malathen see K. 14:3 and Appendix II.

546. Ianoun (Ianum). Joshua 15:53; K. 108:5; L. 268:46.

Textual variant Ianun (Latin). The strange addendum may be an editor’s questioning the source.

The biblical site is not clearly identifiable but near Kh Gile ‘adi with Iron and Persian evidence. But Ianoua is perhaps el Yamun south of Taanach (K. 100:7) about 5 miles instead of 3 from Legeōn (K. 14:21) or Kh Niba with some Roman sherds. The 3 miles may be where one left the main road via Taanach.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ianum, sleeping" (94).

547. Iettan. Joshua 15:55; K. 108:8; L. 268:49.

Textual variant Iethan (Latin).

Another of the all Jewish towns of the fourth century (cf. Note on 22:9 and Appendix II). The localization points to the present Yatta 6 miles south of Chebrōn (K. 180:25). It is southeast of Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) but within the Eastern quadrant (cf. Joshua 21:16).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ietta, they will stretch out" (94).

548. Iezrael. Joshua 15:56; K. 108:11; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is missing in the Greek Vatican manuscript. Jerome’s notation is obscure. What entry "above" is intended? Possibly 34:11? A marginal gloss?

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iezrahel, seed of God" (95).

549. Iezrael. Joshua 17:16; K. 108:12; L. 268:52.

Textual variant Efratae (Latin).

This entry is out of order unless confused with the previous one from Iouda. The Greek Vatican manuscript perhaps conflated the two. In the Commentary on Hosea 1:5. Jerome identifies Jezraelem as near Maximianopolis which is Legeōn (K. 14:21). The plain or valley was named after this town. The Itin. Bourd. 1, 19 ( PPT I, 17) locates it 10 miles from Maximianopolis and 12 miles from Skythopolis (K. 16:2). This points directly to Zir ‘in (cf. Joshua 19:18 and I Chronicles 4:3).

550. Iekdaan. Joshua 15:56; K. 108:17; L. 268:57.

Textual variant Iekdaad (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iecdom, the people dwelled in" (95).

551. Iephlithi (Ierflethi). Joshua 16:3; K. 108:18; L. 268:58.

Textual variant Iefleti (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

552. Iano. Joshua 16:6; K. 108:19; L. 268:59.

Summary of biblical information (cf. II Kings 15:29). Very close to Akrabbein (K. 14:7) is modern Yanum which fits the location and retains the sound of the Onomasticon's place name. Just north is Kh Yanum with Roman-Byzantine remains.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ianua, rest" (95).

553. Iamein (Iamin). Joshua 17:7; K. 108:22; L. 268:62.

Hexaplaric information. In LXX this is a place name.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iamin, right hand" (96).

554. Iasēb. Joshua 17:16; K. 108:23; L. 268:63.

Hexaplaric information. Out of order and doubly suspect as a gloss.

555. Ieblaam. Joshua 17:11; K. 108:24; L. 268:64.

Textual variant Iebalam (Greek).

Simple biblical notation (cp. K. 72:24).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ieblaam, foolish people" (95).

556. Ierphēl. Joshua 18:27; K. 108:26; L. 268:66.

Textual variant Ierdēl (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ierfel, God sent forth" (95).

557. Ieknal. Joshua 19:11; K. 108:27; L. 269:67.

Simple biblical notation (Joshua 21:34).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iecnaam, possession of the people" (95).

558. Iapheth (Iafthie). Joshua 19:12; K. 108:29; L. 269:69.

Iapheth is said to be the coastal port of Ioppē. Apparently it was sometimes confused with ‘ēpha or Sykaminos around Mt.Karmēl. Neither ‘ēpha nor Sykaminos are important to the Onomasticon but Ioppē is (cf. 110:24).

In Joshua 19 an Iaphia in v.12 and an Iapho in v.46. The former is in Zebulōn and the latter in Dan. The Onomasticon conflates the two in this entry unless they switched loyalty in biblical times. Iaphia-Iapheth is falsely equated with Ioppēe. The identity of Iaphia and ‘Epha are not made clear.

Four sites are involved. Iaphia of Zabulōn is not really localized in the Onomasticon. It is probably Yafe near Nazareth. Ioppē was a well known port and referent for the Onomasticon and needed no localization. Sykaminos is located near Mt.Karmēl identified with ‘ēpha but Sykaminos is probably south of Mt.Karmēl, Tell es Samak and Epha is north and is ancient area of present day Haifa. Sykaminos is an "oppidum" in Latin (cp. K. 10:25 and Appendix I). Iapho which is probably Ioppē is not mentioned here or in the entry at K. 110:24. But Vespasian made Ioppē a municipality.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iafie, open or exposed or surface" (95).

559. Iephthaēl. Joshua 19:14; K. 110:1; L. 269:72.

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 10:6).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iafthehel, God reveals" (95).

560. Iadela. Joshua 19:15; K. 110:2; L. 269:73.

Textual variant Ioudēla (Greek)

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iedala, abuse of the hand" (95).

561. Iermoth. Joshua 19:21; K. 110:3; L. 269:74.

Summary of biblical information from Joshua 21:29 and Hosea 5:8 (cf. K. 106:9).

562. Iamnēl (Iabnel). Joshua 19:33; K. 110:5; L. 269:76.

Textual variant Iamel (Latin).

Simple tribal listing (cp. K. 106:20).

563. Ierōn. Joshua 19:38; K. 110:6; L. 269:77.

Textual variant Ierron (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ieraon, they will fear" (95).

564. Iethlan (Iethlam). Joshua 19:42; K. 110:7; L. 269:78.

Jethela (Vulgate) Seilatha (LXX).

Simple tribal listing.

565. Iēlōn. Joshua 19:43; K. 110:8; L. 269:79.

Simple tribal listing.

566. Ioud (Iud). Joshua 19:45; K. 110:9; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry missing in Greek Vatican Manuscript

Simple tribal listing.

567. ‘Ierakō (Ieracon). Joshua 19:46; K. 110:10; L. 269:80.

Some take "waters" me ( mai) as the first syllable of a proper name.

Simple tribal listing. This may be the same as K. 96:3, but the Greek may have conflated or confused two Hebrew place names. LXX has "sea of Ierakōn with border near Ioppē." The words border and mountain are quite similar in Greek and Hebrew for mountain is har which could be found in MT harakkon.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ieracon, yellowish which Greeks call jaundiced" (95).

568. Iabeis Galaad. Judges 21:8; K. 110:11; L. 269:81.

In K. 32:6 Iabis is a large city, but a village of Iabeis here. Procopius 1049A has the distance 20 from Pella (K. 14:19) and 60 from Gerasa (K. 64:2) which are obviously wrong unless the milestones were taken from other referents than those now in our text.

The name continues in the Wadi Yabis. Onomasticon seems to point to Kir Isna or nearby Deir el Halaweh, with the former a Roman-Byzantine site to be preferred. This is not necessarily the identification of the biblical site, which may be Tell Maqlub.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iabes, dry or dryness" (100).


569. Iaar. I Samuel 14:25; K. 110:15; L. 269:86.

The etymology is in the LXX. This is not a proper name in the MT.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iaare, salt" (108).

570. ‘Ieramēlei. I Samuel 30:29; K. 110:16; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is missing in Greek Vatican manuscript and out of order in Latin. Jerome transliterates rather than translates the "foreigners."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ierameheli, God have mercy on me" (104).

571. Iether. I Samuel 30:26; K. 110:17; L. 269:87.

Textual variants: Iethoeira (Greek) and Ieththira (Latin).

Onomasticon identifies this with K. 88:3 and K. 108:2.

572. Iekmaan. I Kings 4:12; K. 110:19; L. 269:89.

Simple biblical notation.

573. Itaburion. Joshua 5:1; K. 110:20; L. 269:90.

Cf. K. 98:23. Thabor, perhaps out of order and suspect.

574. Iekthoēl. II Kings 14:7; K. 110:22; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Interpretative biblical comment (cf. K. 142:7).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ieethel, meeting God or help of God" (116).

575. Ietaba. II Kings 21:19; K. 110:23; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iothaba, sinning in him" (116).

576. Ioppē. Jonah 1:3; K. 110:24; L. 269:92.

Madaba map notes this was the home of Jonah. So also does Paula ( PTT I, 4) (cf. K. 108:30 and Joshua 19:46. No details regarded as necessary for a flourishing "oppidum" (cf. K. 10:25; K. 163:6 and Appendix I).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ioppe, beauty" (124).


577. Itouraia, Also Trachonitis. Luke 3:1; K. 110:27; L. 269:93.

This is the extreme northeast of the Onomasticon. On Trachonitis see K. 166:1. It is related to Basan (K. 44:9) and Batanaia (cf. K. 12:11). Arabia (K. 10:17) is the most frequently used of these geographical names but they are not clearly delineated in the Onomasticon, probably because the lists developed over several centuries of Jewish compilers, Eusebius and later editors and glossators. In the early fourth century there was an important town Maximianopolis not to be confused with the similarly named town in Jesreel.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ituraeae, mountainous; this in Syria" (140).

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