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1. Ararat, Armenia. Genesis 8:4; Klostermann. Das Onomasticon der biblischen Ortsnamen(1904) (hereafter K.) 2:23 (page#:line#), cf. 38:11; Legarde. Onomastica Sacra (1966) (hereafter L.) 232:25 (page#:line#).

Ararat is suspect as an entry in the original manuscript since it is a mountain and is out of the region of Palestine as well. The inclusion of the long quotation from Josephus’ Antiquities, (I, iii, p. 5ff.) is repeated in the text of Procopius 285A & B. Eusebius refers to Ararat also in his Preparatio Evangelica, (viii, p. 10f.) and Jerome, in his Commentary on Isaiah 37:36ff.). In Interpretation of Hebrew Names (60) Jerome translates "mountain of taunting."

The referents in Josephus are largely third century B.C., e.g. Berosus, Musseas. However, Nicolas was a contemporary of Josephus and a biographer of Herod the Great. The location has persisted in tradition as in the present Kurdistan areas, between Armenia and Parthia in ancient times.

Leaetai is used by Eusebius fairly consistently for written sources, most frequently the Bible. Cp. Genesis 8:4, II Kings 19:37, Jeremia 51:27. On the other hand, phasin ( dicuntur) reflects an anonymous oral tradition.

The text of Eusebius and Jerome vary only slightly in the quotation of Josephus. The translation of the quotation is that of Thackeray from the Loeb Classic Library (used with permission). The textual variants are all minor.

2. Achad. Genesis 10:10; K. 4:26; L. 233:54.

Textual variants: Achab (Greek); and Archath, Achar, and Acath (Latin).

Achad as the above Ararat also is not in the region of Palestine. Its size is recognized by the use of polis (Greek) and both urbs and civitas (Latin). Jerome in Hebrew Questions notes "it is now called Nisibis." In another entry he notes it is in Edessa. The date referred to by Latin was 363 A.D.

3. Aggai (Ai). Genesis 12:8; K. 4:27; L. 233:55.

The location of Ai is still a complex archaeological puzzle. Judith Krause-Marquet and Pere Abel felt that Eusebius must have had et-Tell in mind because of the words topos eremos used also for Ainan (K. 8:13) and Galgala (K. 66:4). Procopius 320A records Eusebius: "Aggai now is a deserted place not far west of Bethel" (cp. Joshua 7:2, 8:1). This would be on the road to Bethel which leaves the main road at the 12th milestone (cf. K. 40:20). Bethel is often used as a referent in the Bible and is so used in the text (see Appendices).

Jerome also notes a church had been built at Bethel ( Commentary on Genesis 28:19) probably by Constantine ( Epistle 108:12). For other churches added in Jerome’s account see Mambre (K. 7:20), Bethany (K. 59:18), Gethsemane (K. 75:19), and Sychar (K. 165:3-4).

Ailia (Aelia) is Jerusalem. Neapolis is 36 miles from Jerusalem according to the Deut. Table but other texts have 30 miles ( Itin. Ant. 200:1). On the Madaba Map it is a large walled city with a basilica. In Eusebius it is a point of reference and according to K. 150:2 distinct from Shechem. Shechem was destroyed in pre-Christian times and Neapolis built there by Vespasian. This Neapolis is present day Nablus near Mt. Garizin. A bishop was present at the Council of Nicea. A basilica was erected there by Justinian according to Procopius ( Buildings, V, viii, 1) after time of our text.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names (61) Jerome translates "inquiry or gaiety."

4. Astarōth Karnaein. Genesis 14:5; K. 6:4; L. 233:61.

Textual variant: Asarōth (Greek).

There are many attarah in the region of Palestine. The names and spelling in both the Masoretic Text (hereafter MT) and Onomasticon are confusing. In this entry no positive location is given. Only a general area. Procopius 332C wrote, "It is now the city of the blessed Job in the Batanaia. Two villages between Adaron and the city Bibles, nine miles distant from each other, are so-called" (cf. K. 112:3 and K. 142:3 for "home of Job").

Abela (K. 32:15) Is the present Tell abil. Adra (K. 84:7) in Syriac Manuscript is indicated as dari ‘at or der’at the present Syrian border town with Jordan. The Batanaia is also called Batalona (K. 12:12). All was part of the land of Bashan (K. 44:9).

The two villages are best located at Tell ‘ashtarah and Sheih Sa ‘ad. The former is a large tell suitable for the Old Testament Ashtaroth (cf. K. 12:11). Perhaps the latter succeeded as chief administrative city of the district of Karnaeim (cf. K. 112:3). However in the Bible, Astaroth is merely identifying the site of a battle which took place near the city. If so, then Karnaeim added to the name gives the district in which the battle took place (cf. Biblical Archaeologist Dec. 1962, p.109). Eusebius seems to look for two sites.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome has four entries on Astaroth with several interpretation repeats: sheepfold, manger, blackened hall, or make an investigation (61, 85, 90, and 98).

5. Arbō. Arboc. Genesis 23:2; K. 6:8 and 7:11; L. 233:65.

Textual variants include: Arboch (Greek), Arbee (Latin), Arboq. Another variant seems to identify Arbō Chebrōn and the terebinth. The entire entry has been inserted out of biblical order by a late editor.

The terebinth is located at six stadia from Chebrōn by Josephus ( Wars, iv, 553). In (K. 76:1) Mamrē also locates the terebinth in the vicinity of Chebrōn (cp. K. 170:25). In K. 26:16 it is located two miles from Bethanin (cp. K. 68:21, 94:21 and Eusebius’ De Vita Constantini, iii, 51f., Demonstratio Evangelica V 9). Also see Kariatharbō K. 112:18 where Genesis 23:2 makes the equation.

The location in general is present day Hebron, el kalil, and this is the spot Eusebius locates clearly. It was never a strong Christian city. Ancient site is probably at Jebel er-Rumeide where Roman and Byzantine remains are also found. Jerome notes a church has been built there (cf. K. 7:3 and note for other churches). It is difficult to tell if Jerome refers to the Church of Mamrē ( Ramet el Khalil) or the church of the graves of the patriarchs.

Jerome in Hebrew Questions writes "For Arbee the LXX has ‘field’ with Chebron located on the mountain. The city is also called Mambra is named after the friends of Abraham" (44), cf. Genesis 18:1, I Chronicles 2:42, Joshua 14:13f, 20:7, 21:11, II Samuel 2:1 etc.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome translated "Arbee, four or fourth" (61) after the four great men: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Adam (cf. Hebrews Questions, p. 28, Epistle 108:11, 46:3, Commentary on Jeremiah 31:15, Zacharia 11:4, Matthew 27:33, and Ephesians 5:14.

6. Ailam (Ailath). Genesis 14:1; K.6:17; L. 234:75.

In the Vulgate we find Ailath, Elath, and Aila for this same site.

Palestine is the southern part of Syria. This word is missing in the Vatican Manuscript. Technically the southern limits of the Onomasticon should be Ailam (Ailath). The ruins are inland about one mile from Aqabah but not as far inland as Tell el Kbeleifah which is probably the older Ezion Geber (K. 36:l, cf. K. 34:23, 62:13, Josephus Antiquities, IX, 12, 1).

It was the end of the road going north to Damascus and the terminus of the overland road west to the Mediterranean. In Jerome’s time it was a very busy port ( Vita Hilariaris, 18, and cf. Commentary on Ezekiel 47:18). Eusebius does not indicate its size but it may be inferred that it was a polis. A bishop was present at Nicea.

Eusebius uses some army source and the text is useful for noting the deployment of the Roman legion. The Tenth is located here. The Notitia Dignitatum (73:18f.) verifies this entry. The Tabula Peutinger, 820 has a Haila 83 miles from Petra and 150 miles southeast of Gaza which fits this site at el ‘aqaba.

The city in II Samuel 10:16 is in northeast Transjordan. The Syriac text notes it is a city of the Philistines. The Greek allophulos usually means Philistines but once or twice we cannot be positive, so in this present translation the general term "foreigners" has been preferred, especially when Jerome does not have Filistine. He has Filistine in K. 7:15, K. 21:2, K. 3:25, K. 119:3 but more often uses transliteration allofylorum (see Appendix I).

7. Adama. Genesis 14:2; K. 8:4; L. 234:82.

The Sodomite Pentapolis is not clearly located by Eusebius. He generally locates them beside the Dead Sea (cf. Sodoma K. 150:10,) K. 153:16 suggests a tradition did exist for Segor but it is also not precisely recorded. The most exacting attempt is for Bala in K. 42:1f.

In Hebrew Questions Jerome translates "dirt, ground or earthen"(61).

8. Asasan Thamar (Asasonthamar). Genesis 14:7; K. 8:6; L. 234:84.

On the Madaba Map there is a Thamara located as suggested by Eusebius here. Tabula Peutinger has a Thamaro 52 or 53 miles from Jerusalem while Ptolemy’s list (V, 15, 5f) has a Thamaro about 55 miles distant. The Notitia Dignitatum (74:40) has a Tarba and (74:46) a Thamarra both of which have a garrison.

Alt found a fort at Qasr el Juheiniye and he is followed by many locating the fort there and the village at ‘ain el ‘Arus. Aharoni more recently ( TEJ, 1963, p.30ff) suggests ‘Ain Husb which is about a day’s walk (32 km) from Kurnub which is generally identified with Mapsis (cf. also Avi-Yonah) and has a large Roman fort as well as Nabatean and Iron II sherds.

The Madaba Map using Jerome’s spelling has located properly Mampsis. Many Nabatean, Roman-Byzantine levels excavated at Kuroub. It shows a revival in the fourth century A.D. as also does Oboda (Avdat, ‘Abda, and K. 176:9).This may be indicated by "village" in Greek and "oppidum" in Latin (cf. K. 10:25).

II Chronicles 20:2 identified Thamar with En Gedi or at least locates it in the district of En Gedi (86:16). Jerome in Hebrew Questions says, "his city which we now call Engaddi, is rich in balsam and palms since Asason Thamar translated into our language is city of the palms’" (18) (cf. Judges 1: 16, Ezekiel 47: 29).

9. Aloua (Allus). Genesis 36:40; K. 8:10; L. 234:89.

Textual variants: Alloyd (Greek), Gōla (LXX), and Alloys (Syriac). Hebrew has ‘Alvah or ‘Aliah.

Petra (cf. K. 142:7) is often called the capital of ancient Nabatean or the capital of the ancient Arabs. It has been suggested that Udrub, 14 km east of Petra may retain the tradition of this site since it is the Arabic synonym for the Hebrew.

The relation of Idumaea and Edōm to Gebalēnē is uncertain. They are connected here as well as in K. 62:8 and K. 102:23, etc. In his Commentary on Obadiah 1 Jerome has Gebalēnē on the border of Eleutheropolis and apparently includes part of the Daroma (K. 26:10) but generally it is lying east of the Dead Sea (K. 100:4).

10. Ainan (Aenam). Genesis 38:14; K. 8:12; L. 234:91.

Textual variants: Aenam (Greek), Aeinam (Greek), and Enan (Greek).

Ainan is one of three deserted places in the Onomasticon (Aggai K. 4:27 and Galgala K. 66:4). This phrase may indicate ruins noted by Eusebius or an editor. The location "near" (cf. Appendix V) is quite vague and could be adjacent or as far as 15 miles. It probably indicates it is within the region of a city at the editor’s time. Geographers are uncertain about the Old Testament site. It is difficult to determine a location from Eusebius but Noth suggests kefr ‘en. Procopius 463C has an accurate Latin translation of this entry.

Several times the Greek quotes only the biblical location as here "on the way to Thamna" (cf. K. 8:17, K. 10:15, K. 90:3). Thamna is on the Madaba Map (cf. K. 96:24) and near to Diospolis at Kh Tibne.

Eusebius has "large village" for 32 existing towns. There are others called "large city." Thamna is probably off the main Roman road from Jerusalem to Diospolis. Many road into Diospolis and it is frequently a reference point for the text (cf. K. 20:16, K. 24:24, K. 28:10, K. 48:23, K. 68:6 etc). Tabula Peutinger has Luddis 12 miles from Azotus and Emmaus. It is on the Madaba Map with a church near modern Lydda and perhaps is Old Testament Lod (I Chronicles 8:12). Acts 10:22 shows its Christian character. Its new name was given by Hadrian c. 136 A.D. In about 200 Septimus Severus gave it municipal status. The identity is made by St. Paula "Lydda which was changed into Diospolis near Arimethea" (PPT I p.4 cf. Jeremiah Epistle 108:8). It suffered heavily under the Diocletian persecutions of 303 (cf. Eusebius Martyrs of Palestine). There was a bishop in the 4th century.

Here we have evidence of the flourishing of the pagan cults in the 4th century in spite of Constantine’s efforts. Avi-Yonah suggests a temple and spring at the source of Wadi Ri’a may be the Aena of Jerome.

11. Ailōn Atad (Areaatad). Genesis 50:10; K. 8:17; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek text.

Textual variants: ‘Ainan Atad, ‘Alona Atad (Greek) and Areaatat, Areaatath (Latin).

This entry is not in the Greek Vatican Manuscript and so Lagarde does not print it. Klostermann here and elsewhere emends the Greek on basis of Procopius and Jerome.

In a few places, Eusebius gives mileage from two points (cf. K. 12:13, K. 14:1, K. 24:16) without clearly indicating a road. Both the scriptures and the Onomasticon seem confused about Atad or Abel-mizraim. It seems preferable to locate in the southwest of Palestine rather than across the Jordan or in the Jericho region.

Eusebius and Jerome only have a "place" not a village. The Madaba Map uses both Alōn Atad and Bethegla with the mosaic of a church there near the Wadi Qilt. Procopius 512B accurately reproduces the text. Apparently a secondary Christian tradition transferred the site from across the Jordan to the location southeast of Jericho. It probably is the present ‘ain and deir hajla (cf. K. 48:19, K. 52:8).

Jerome in Interpretation of Hebrew Names translates "Atad, evidence or twig" (62) and Bethagla as "his house of jollity" (91).


12. Ailim (Aelim). Exodus 15:27; K. 8:22; L. 234.97.

After this entry in the Vatican Manuscript 1456 there is a different hand which may be an attempt to locate the site in relation to a monastery. Lagarde and Klostermann both omit the entry in a new hand, probably because it is rather unclear. Also inserted are division "Numbers and Deuteronomy" in a different hand.

These stations are for the most part not within the provenance of the Onomasticon. It is probable that a later editor inserted these into Eusebius’ text. This of course would account in part for the manuscript confusion at this point.

13. Ailous (Aelim). Numbers 33:13; K. 10:1; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek text.

This entry also is not in the Greek Vatican Manuscript and is inserted from the Latin by Klostermann. As above, the list of stations in the desert is suspect.

Jerome in Interpretation of Hebrew Names has "fermented or mixed, as the Greeks say phurason, mixed" (79).


14. Aserōth. Numbers 12:1; K. 10:4; L. 234:100.

Summary of biblical information (Numbers 12:1, Deuteronomy 2:23).

Jerome has two entries on Aseroth in Interpretation of Hebrew Names: "majestic or beautiful house" (78) and "Aseroth is house or entrance court, if it is written with a heth and tzade. But if correctly written with alef and sin it means beautiful" (86).

For Gaza see K. 62:22 below.

15. Asemōna. Numbers 33:29; K. 10:7; L. 234:3.

Textual variant: Asemōnas (Greek). Out of order and a station list added later.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome translates "his bone, from bone, not from mouth" (79).

16. Aētharim. Numbers 21:1; K. 10:9; L. 235:5.

The textual variants from Aquila and Symmachus are frequently recorded. Since the Hexapla was compiled by Origen in Caesarea, Eusebius must have had easy access to it. One medieval text confuses AK as an added syllable to the place name. One manuscript also has synodos for odos which does not make sense.

In Hebrew Names, Jerome translates Atharim "spies" (78).

17. Aiē or Achelgai. Numbers 21:11; K. 10:12; L. 235:8.

Eusebius and the LXX have trouble with Hebrew double names, so we find Achelgaei, Nachal Gaei.

The location is vague and uncertain in both the Bible and Onomasticon. Areopolis was an autonomous city in the Roman Province of Arabia. According to Procopius’ Buildings V, viii, 1, under Constantine this became Palestina Tertia. It is probably Ar Moab, the present Rabba (cf. below and K. 124:15)." Ptolemaus has it 65 miles from Philadelphia (16:15). This identity goes back at least to the third century A.D. The Madaba Map has an Aia at that location. In K. 36:24 it is identified with Ariel and is a pagan shrine (cf. Jeremiah 49:3; LXX 30:3).

There are a number of texts where the Greek has alternate names. The most familiar is Ashdod Azōtos (K. 20:18, K. 22:11). But also K. 36:7,24; K. 48:11; K. 25:27; K. 58:3; K. 64:6; K. 90:10; K. 132:8; K. 160:19; cf. K. 40:7 Babel.

18. Arnōn. Numbers 21:13; K. 10:15; L. 235:11.

This entry is not an original. It is a river or wadi, not a city. It is called a topos, and locus, "place." It has been considered the southern border of Transjordan. Jerome’s Commentary on Isaiah 16:2 notes, "it is the border between Amorites and Moabites." Procopius 857A paraphrases the Onomasticon: "formerly the land of the Amorites. The Arnon is said to be the border separating it from the Moabites" (cf. Numbers 21:23ff).

Areopolis is called a city of Arabia or Moab (cf. above and K. 124:15). Arabia is the name of the Roman province established in 106 A.D. whose southern border was the Dead Sea and the Arnon. Other Nabatean towns given autonomy in Provenance Arabia were Esbus, Medeba, Charachmoab and Petra. In 200 A.D. Septimus Severus gave it municipal status. According to the Tabula Peutinger it is 62 miles from Philadelphia. There was a Roman garrison at Areopolis according to Notitia Dignitatum (81:17) and other posts around the wadi ( Notitia Dignitatum 81:34, 82:35). A polis such as Areopolis may by its very name include a general region with all its dependent villages.

The name Arnon has obviously survived to the fourth century. In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome translates "heap of gloom or praise"(78).

19. Ar. Numbers 21:15; K. 10:25; L. 235:21.

Textual variant Êr (Greek as in LXX)

This place is related to the previous two entries. If it, as well as "deserted place" could mean "ruin," then perhaps there was a rebuilding by the time of Jerome. The word oppidum usually is not an indication of size of city or village but, if Pliny is to be believed it is a Roman settlement around a shrine or sanctuary, or it is a heavily fortified town (see Appendix I).

Jerome in Hebrew Names translated, "he stirred up or wakefulness" (78).

20. Aēsimōn. Numbers 21:20; K. 10:27; L. 235:23.

Textual variants: Aisimōn and Asēnōn (Greek).

The third in a series of four "places" at this point in Eusebius.

21. Abelsattein (Abelsattim). Numbers 33:49; K. 10:28; L. 235:24.

LXX has Abetsatteim and Setim.

Eusebius does not locate this "place" very well. Many feel it is the Byzantine Abile at Kh Kefraim but Eusebius does not make this identity. Jerome in his Commentary on Joel 3:18 suggests it is near Livias (K. 48:15) 6 miles from Dead Sea. In Hebrew Names he translates mourning of the bank or of the shore" (79).

The difference in direction may not be as great as it seems. Eusebius has west and Jerome south, but most directions refer to a quadrant, so southwest could fit into either quadrant. Possibly out of order or suspect.

22. Azōr (or Iazer). Numbers 21:24; K. 12:1; L. 235:25.

Textual variant for contemporary sites, Zazer (Latin).

A confused text is probably responsible for this entry. The relation of this with Iazēr (K. 4:13) is unclear. For biblical Hazor see 20:1, a different site.

Probably Ptolemy’s (V, 15,6) list of a Gazōros is the same town as K. 12:3 and K. 104:13. Josephus Antiquities. XII, 8, 1 has Jazōros or Jazorōs. A village eight miles west of Philadelphia is Kh sar (note 10 miles in K. 104: 13).

On Amman or Philadelphia see K. 16:15 below.

In Hebrew Names, Jerome has 5 entries which could pertain, based on "hearing" or "helping" (82, 94, 125, 127, and 134).

23. Aroēr. Deuteronomy 3:12, 4:48; K. 12:5; L. 235:29.

This polis is located on the brow of the Arnon (K. 10:15) and probably still exists with its traditional name at ‘Ara ‘ir. Archaeological excavation shows it was weak in 4th Century A.D. The biblical information from Numbers 21:26, Deuteronomy 2:9 and Joshua 13:25 is summarized by Eusebius, with real additions.

There are three or four biblical places with this same name. Jerome has three entries in Hebrew Names: "lightening or emptying of the watch or shell" (79), "cover of the guard or spread out the watch"(88) or "covered"(125).

In this entry polis in Eusebius becomes one of the few instances where it is translated by oppidum in Latin (cf. 10:25 and Appendix I). This and next entry are out of order and suspect as late additions.

24. Astarōth. Deuteronomy 1:4; K. 12:11; L. 235:35.

Astarōth occurs often in the Onomasticon (K. 6:4, K. 12:27, K. 112:3). Here the references in scripture are summarized (Joshua 12:4, 13:31). The Old Testament site is perhaps Tell ‘ashtarah which is too far from Dera to fit the Onomasticon. But nine miles closer could be Tell el Yaduda or el Muzeirib.

The "another" above refers to K. 6:4 and with no location is without any identification (cf. also K. 112:3).

Astaroth and Edrai were the major cities of Bashan. Adraa is at der’at located by the

Tabula Peutinger as 24 miles from Bostra (cf. K. 84:9) but 25 miles here. Valerian made Adraa a city in status. For Bostra see also K. 46:10. There was a bishop in Adra in the 4th and 5th centuries.

Batanaia is the all-inclusive name for the territory which includes Trachonitis (K. 166:1) as well as the Gaulon (K. 64:6). Perhaps also it is to be identified with part of Itouraia (K. 110:26). The relationship of these with the several regions of Arabia is unclear. In Herod’s time Dera was the east border of Batanaia, but it was in Nabatean or Syrian control in the 4th century.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "sheepfold or the spies act" (61).

25. Agrou skopia. Numbers 23:14; K. 12:16; L. 235:40.

In one text the Latin adds "is" a mountain.

This is not an original entry. Apparently Onomasticon identifies it with Phasgo (16:24), Phasga (168:28) and Pogor (168:25 cf. 170:13). The location is not readily fixed. The Hebrew and the Confraternity Translation suggest "hill of cursing" for the Greek "peak of the hewn."

26. Arabōth Mōab. Numbers 26:3; K. 12:20; L. 236:44.

Textual variants: Iebous (Greek) and Esbon (Latin).

The synonym used by Aquila and Symmachus are repeated in Procopius 992A. They are probably correct and so no confusion of this "place" arises with Ar Moab (K. 10:25). See below on Iordan (K. 104:20), Iericho (K. 104:25), Libias (K. 44:17 and K. 48:15), and Esbous (K. 84:1). For Phogor (cp. 168:25), this is probably a late addition to the text.

27. Araba. Deuteronomy 1:1; K. 12:25; L. 236:49.

See below K. 16:12 and K. 90:11.

Hexaplatic information in this entry. Out of order and doubly suspect.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome has "west or evening" (86) and "fine" (89).

28. Astarōth (Ataroth). Numbers 32:34; K. 12:27; L. 236:51.

Textual variants: Atarōth (Greek) and Astaroth (Latin).

Probably this is not the same as K. 12:11 above. It is of Gad and not Manassē. Reference to Solomon is in I Chronicles 2:54. Only a generalized biblical location.

The Peraia is always translated by Jerome as Transjordan. In Byzantine times Peraia was continuous with the region of Philadelphia (K. 104:14).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "crowns" (79), "crown" (89).

29. Astarōth Sōphar (Ataroth Sofan). Numbers 32:35; K. 12:30; L. 236:54.

Textual variant: Atroth (Latin).

Possible two cities of Gad combined in this entry. So far appears three times in Interpretation of Hebrew Names: "his spy or trumpet" (72), ‘’war trumpet" (85), "scattering of the lookouts or scattering of the spies or I will see the spies" (134).

30. Arad. Numbers 33:40, 34:4; K. 14:1; L. 236:55.

Textual variants: Arama (Greek) and Arath, Arat (Latin).

The Greek has confused Arad with the Addar of Hebrew. But Joshua 15:21 suggests this possibility in the LXX. One of rare entries with mileage given to two reference points.

The double location (repeated by Procopius 1045C) identifies this with Tell el ‘Arad about 20 miles south of Chebrōn but no Byzantine village there. Madaba Map location agrees with Eusebius: "Arad from which come the Aradites." The Bronze Age city is being excavated. A Judean temple and administrative center is there. Arad has Chaleolithic, Early Bronze, Iron, Persian and Hellenistic remains with a very slight Nabatean/Roman fortress. Eusebius’ Arad is not this tell since it has an archaeological gap of 1st through 7th A.D.

Malaatha is used for a reference by Eusebius (cf. 88:4, 108:3). It is in Idumea according to Josephus Antiquities, XVIII, 6, 2. It probably is the Moleatha of the Notitia Dignitatum (74:45) where there was a garrison. The name may persist in the tradition at Kh or Tell Milh (Malhata) where there is a Roman fort as well as some Middle Bronze, Iron and Hellenistic sherds. Perhaps the Byzantine village is to be found at el quseife which is 6 kilometers from Arad. Perhaps it is to be related to Molada (130:6). On "oppidum" cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I.

Jerome in Interpretation of Hebrew Names has "descending" (62 and 78).

31. Asemōna. Numbers 34:4; K 14:4; L. 236:58.

The Madaba Map quotes Eusebius for the southern limit of Palestine (Ioudaia) cf. Joshua 15:4, Ezekiel 47:134. It is probably Israeli Atzmon at ‘Ain el Quseimeb (cp. K. 10:7).

32. Akrabbein (Acrabbi). Numbers 34:4; K. 14:7; L. 236:61.

Eusebius has confused the southern border of Judah (Numbers 34:4) with a northern site. The Madaba Map follows Eusebius and locates it at a northern village site. Procopius 1048B records the first part of the Onomasticon referring to an eastern border. Biblical data is from Joshua 15:3 and Judges 1:36.

Perhaps Eusebius is influenced by Josephus' Wars II, 20,4 and III, 3,5 and sees this as one of the Toparchies of Juda, perhaps Akrabattinē (cf. K. 86:25, K. 108:20, K. 156;30, K. 160:14). This northern site is ‘aqrabeh, just nine miles southeast of Nablus.

But the southern border must be southwest of the Dead Sea, a boundary with Edom rather than with the Amorites. This may be the Ascent at Nagb-es-safi (cf. I Maccabees 5:3).

Jerome in Interpretation of Hebrew Names has "of scorpions or fitting" (79) and "of scorpions" (89 and 98).

33. Asadadda (Asadada). Numbers 34:8; K. 14:13; L. 236:67.

Textual variants: Asaradda (Greek) and Sadada (Latin, cf. K. 155:17).

Simple border of Judah as in Ezekiel 47:13; cf. K. 154:19. Out of order and suspect.

34. Arad. Numbers 34:4; K. 14:14; L. 236:68.

Textual variants: Arath and Arat (Latin).

Part of this entry is missing in Vatican Manuscript. See above K. 14:1.

35. Asarēnan (Asarenam). Numbers 34:9; K. 14:16; L. 236:70.

Textual variants: Asarēnan, Asaerēnan and Asserēnan (Greek).

Simple border listing. Same as next entry.

36. Aserna (Asernai). Numbers 34:10; K. 14:17; L. 236:71.

Textual variant: Asernaei (Greek).

Probably the same as the previous entry (cf. Ezekiel 47:13). Simple border listing.

37. Arbēla. Numbers 34:11; K. 14:18; L. 236:72.

Textual variant see K. 46:6.

Two sites: One in Transjordan and Decapolis (K. 80:16) region and the near the great plain of Megiddo.

Pella is an important reference point in the Onomasticon (K. 22:25, K. 32:6, K. 80:17, K. 110:13). In 66-67 A.D. it was a refuge for Christians fleeing from Jerusalem (cf. Historia Ecclesiastica, iii, 5, 3). At this time it is a polis in Palestine. Formerly it was one of the independent Decapolis, probably at Kh Fahil, and later it was included with Syria.

Arbela is a dependent village of Pella. It may be tell Abil or tabaqat fahl. Jerome has perhaps confused it with Ribla which may be at Irbid (cp. Betharbel, Hosea 10:14).

The great plain southwest of the Sea of Galilee is called after the important city ( oppidum) Legeōn. On oppidum cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I. This is the plain of Jesreel (Josephus' Antiquities, V, 1, 22 and IV, 6, 1). From the time of Hadrian on Legeōn controlled the area from Galilee to Samaria. It was called Maximianopolis in the early 4th century but Eusebius never uses that name. It had Roman camps around it. Now called Lejjūn. There is also an Irbid southwest of Galilee with a synagogue and Roman-Byzantine sherds, but the distance does not fit Onomasticon. Quite possibly Arbela is ‘Affule in Roman-Byzantine times.

Arebla in Interpretation of Hebrew Names is "a trap" (79).

38. Aulōn. Deuteronomy 1:1; K. 14:22; L. 236:75.

Textual variant: Tiberias is missing in the Vatican Manuscript. Dubious entry.

Aulon in Roman times came to be identified with the Jordan valley as reflected here in both Eusebius and Jerome. The description here, together with that of Jordan (K. 104:20) is fairly complete.

The valley begins in Libanon (K. 122:27) and reaches south to Pharan (K. 166:12).

Skythopolis is an important city, one of the cities of the Decapolis (K. 80:15), used frequently in the Onomasticon. The listing of all the others is confused but surely included Hippus, Gadara, Abila, Pella, Gerasa and Philadelphia. Skythopolis is identified with Bethshan at Tell al Husn (K. 54.8). It was the capital of Palestina Secunda in Byzantine times.

Lake of Tiberias was in Hellenistic times the sea of Gennesaris and and in the New Testament Gennesaith (K. 58:12 and K. 120:2). Today it is the Sea of Galilee (K. 72:20).

For Ierichō see K. 104:25.

Paneas is used as a referent often in the Onomasticon. A bishop came to Nicea from here. Baniyas today, at the source of the Jordan was also the site of Caesarea Phillippi, also listed as one of the Decapolis ( Historia Ecclesiastica, vii, 17). In Tabula Peutinger it is 32 miles from Tyre.

On the Dead Sea see K. 100:4.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome says, "Elan, oak or aulon of which we wrote more fully in the Book of Places" (83) and "Ailon which we spoke of under Aulon above (88)."

39. Amalēkitis (Amalecitis). Deuteronomy ?; K. 16:5; L. 237:84.

This is probably the wilderness of Zin in the Old Testament (K. 152:18, cf. Numbers 13:29, 14:25; Josephus Antiquities III, 2, 1) includes the inhabitants of Petra and Gobolitis as the Amalakites. Not an original entry, but a gloss.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "licking people" (61) "dull people or licking people" (74,161).

40. Araba. K. 16:1; Deuteronomy 1:7; L. 237:91.

Textual variant: Safforinea (Latin).

In Deuteronomy 1:7 it really refers to the plain as in K. 12:25.

Eusebius reports on two villages by this same name. Ona is three miles west of Skythopolis or Bethshan (K. 16:2 and K. 54:8). Some suggest ‘Arabūne but the distance is not great enough. Probably marks the place of the turn off from the main road.

The second is a village dependent upon Diokaisareia which is Sepphōris (Saffuriya) in Josephus ( Wars, II, 21, 7) and frequently used as a referent in the Onomasticon. Many Jews fled there in 71 and 135 A.D. Vespasion made Sepphōris into a municipality. A Roman garrison was there according to Notitia Dignitatum (73:28). Constantine built a church there (Epiphanes Ad Haer, I, 30, 11). The village may be located at ‘arabet el battōf. It is distinct from K. 86:9 although the Vatican Manuscript has a gloss at that place which wrongly seems to equate them.

41. Amman. Deuteronomy 2:19; K. 16:15; L. 237:94.

No doubt of this continuing identity (Deuteronomy 2:20). Jerome in Commentary on Nahum 3:8 writes, "Ammona which is now called Philadelphia." It also is one of the cities of the Decapolis (K. 80:16) and a bishop was present at the Council of Nicea. It is in the province of Arabia located by the Tabula Peutinger as 62 miles from Aeropolis (Rabbath Moab cf. K. 10:17). It is used as a referent in the Onomasticon. It is probably the same as Rabba Ammon.

To Eusebius it was a most important city. He uses polis episēmos for only seven towns of his own time: Abela (K. 32:16), Adra (K. 84:8), Gaza (K. 62:26), Gerasa (K. 64:3), Damaskos (K. 76:4), Philadelphia and Askalon (K. 22:15). Amman/Philadelphia is also used to describe the region.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Amon, son of my people or people of my wall" (61, 78, and 90).

42. Argob. Deuteronomy 3:4; K. 16:18; L. 237:97.

Og of Bashan (K. 44:9) had many cities according to Scripture. In I Kings 4:13 Argob is in the 6th district of Solomon. The Erga of Eusebius is not the same as that Argob. Fifteen miles West of Gerasa is er-rudjib, which may be Erga. Others more correctly suggest Arjan in the Wadi Yabis (cf. K. 94:26).

Bashan is also Trachonitis (K. 166:1) in the Province of Arabia. Gerasa is one of the famous cities of Byzantine times (K. 64:3). See entry above.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "height of cursing" (86 and109), "lofty cursing" (115).

43. Asēdōth. Deuteronomy 3:17; K. 16:22; L. 237:2.

This is one of eleven entries in the Onomasticon which include an etymological notation not specified as from the Hexapla (cp. K. 12:17, K.18:21, etc.).

44. Abareim (Abarim). Deuteronomy 32:49; K. 16:24; L. 237:4.

Textual variants: Easgan and Esbum (Latin).

As a "mountain" it is probably a late addition to the Greek list of place names.

The relation of Phasgō to the Moab plain is more clearly indicated here. Eusebius was fascinated with Phasgō, Peor, Phogor, etc. (K. 12:17, K. 16:22, K. 168:28, etc.). It is probably present day Mt.Nebo or ras sijagla where a Byzantine church has been partially restored. The identity of the two made here by Eusebius is contested by scholars who would put Phasgō farther south (cf. Deuteronomy 34:1 and 32:49).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Abarim, is passing over, which in Greek is indicated by peran" (179).

45. Auōth Iaeir (Avothiair). Deuteronomy 3:14; K. 18:4; L. 237:10.

Textual variant: Golam (Latin).

The etymology "shoulder of Iaeir" is not in the Vatican Manuscript. Out of order and suspect. Gōnias is mentioned only here and in K. 136:3 but Gauiōn and Gōlan are in K. 64:7f. and seem to be in the same area (cf. Basan 44:9 and Galaad 44:10; cp. Numbers 32:39, Deuteronomy 4:43; Joshua 13:30).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "gloria of the light or life of light" (86).

JOSHUA (of Naue)

46. Antilibanos (Antilibanus). Joshua 1:4; K. 18:8; L. 237:14.

This area is Eusebius’ interpretation, perhaps from a faulty Greek text. The New Testament and most LXX texts have Libanon here. In I Chronicles 5:23 Mt. Hermon (K. 20:9) is in the lot of Manasseh. The placement of the tribal indication last suggests it is a later editor’s addition.

47. Azēka (Azeca). Joshua 10:10; K. 18:10; L. 238:16.

Azeka is important Old Testament city in Jouda (cf. Joshua 15:35). It is mentioned in the Lachich letters. The Old Testament site is fairly certain at Tell es-Zakariyeh. This village may be on the Maddba Map west of Sōebō. In the vicinity is the Byzantine town, perhaps at Kh el ‘Alami. The Greek location literally means "halfway" to Jerusalem, but this is not precisely intended.

Eleutheropolis is frequently used as a referent by Eusebius. In about 200 A.D. Septimus Severus gave it municipal status. It was a city on which a great many villages were dependent. It was one of the largest regions in Palestina Prima. In Tabula Peutinger and Ptolemy it is called Betogabri and is located 32 miles from Jerusalem. It suffered greatly under Diocletion about 303 A.D. A bisbop attended the Council of Nicea. It is the present Beit jibrin.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Azeca, strength or crafty" (88).

48. Ailōm (Aialon). Joshua 10:12; K. 18:13; L. 238:19.

Textual variant: aialun (Latin).

Eusebius, followed by the Madaba Map, seems to be confused with Ailmōn (K. 28:l; cf. Joshua 21:18). This could be ‘Almit, east of Tell el Ful or Kh Haiyan both near Rama (K. 144:14) and Gabaa (K. 70:10, 22). The location in reference to Bethel points to Kh el ‘alja (cf. I Samuel 10:26, Judges 19:13) to the southeast.

The Hebrew tradition by which Jerome corrects Eusebius is much more reasonable. It fits the biblical materials and is repeated by Jerome in Commentary on Ezekiel 42:22 and Ezekiel 42:22 and Epistle 108:3 (cf. Paula vi, PPT, I,51) This Alous was known by Eusebius (K. 30:27) as in the Nicopolis region. It must then be Jalo, east of ‘Amwas on the road to Jerusalem.

Ailōn in Interpretation of Hebrew Names is referred to the previous Aulonem (88) or, for Aialon "fields or valleys" (90).

49. Achōr. Joshua 7:24, 26; K. 18:17; L. 238:23.

Note the error in the Greek where the name of Achan is turned into Achōr and the valley named after him (Hosea 2:15). Procopius and K. 84:18 have an entry under Emekachōr, i.e., "valley of Achōr." Procopius 1017 A writes, "Emekachōr is interpreted by Thedotion and Symmachos, valley of Achōr. Located north of Ierichō it is even now called this by those in the vicinity. Achōr means "perverted." Jerome's Epistle 108:13 and Paula VI, PPT 1, 12) writes "It would be quite lengthy if I would discuss the valley of Achor, i.e. commotion or uproar, where theft and greed were condemned." This is not a city, out of order, so suspect.

It seems obvious that the name of the "place" was known in the fourth century, possibly near Gilgal (K. 84:21). The Wadi Nue ‘ime fits Eusebius.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "commotion or uproar" (89), "commotion or uproar or perverted" (120).

50. Asēdōth. Joshua 10:40; K. 18:21; L. 238:27.

Cf. K. 16:22 above. This is one of six entries where "another" or "a second" is used for occurrences of the same name, probably indicating editing of several sources.

51. Asōr. Joshua 11:1; K. 20:1; L. 238:29.

Ancient Hazor has been well excavated and the location attested at Tell el Qedah, but Eusebius does not locate it. Procopius 1048D reports, "it alone Iēsous burned while besieging the other kings since it was the chief of the foreigners" (Joshua 11:10 also Joshua 90:9; cf. K. 30:22.

The second Asōr (cf. Esōr K. 84:26) from Joshua 15:25 is near Askolon and probably dependent upon it. It may be present day jasur east of Asbdod (K. 20:18).

Interpretation of Hebrew Names has "arrow of light" (88 and102) and "entrance hall" (109).

52. Aermōn. Joshua 11:3, 17; K. 20:6; L. 238:34.

LXX also uses the term Baalermon. Vatican manuscript has Ailerthmōn.

Again a mountain gives its name to a region which was the frontier of Og and of the tribes. It is part of the Anti-libanas (K. 18:8) range. Also called Sanir (K. 20:10) or Sanior, and Sirjon (see below K. 20:9, cf. Judges 3:3).

The snows of Hermon were famous for delicacies of ice in the course of history. The inhabitants of Beirut still bring snow, even snowmen on radiators of cars, down from the mountains in the summer. Even now it is at times called jebel el teld or "mount of snow," but mostly jebel esh sheikh.

Tyrus (K. 162:15) is also called Sor.

Interpretation of Hebrew Names "banned wall" (88).

53. Alak (Aalac). Joshua 11:17; K. 20:7; L. 238:35.

Textual variant: Ahalac (Latin). It is not in the New Testament.

This entry is textually corrupt. In the Vatican Manuscript a new hand is recognized and several words have been added. Perhaps an attempt is made to use LXX and add Symmachus.

As noted previously, mountains, three of which are here in successive entries together, are suspect as not fitting the original purpose and limitations of the Onomasticon to place names.

Interpretation of Hebrew Names "my portion or slippery" (88).

54. Aermōn. Joshua 11:17; K. 20:9; L. 238:37.

Textual variant: For Saniōr the Vatican Manuscript has Aniōr.

This mountain (cf. K. 20:6 and K. 18:8) is given several names. The Phoenicians called it Sirjon. In Ugaritic it is ah-r-j-n and in Hittite Sarijana and perhaps indicates the Anti-libanos range. The Amorites called it Senir and the Assyrians Sanian. In LXX we find both Sanir and Saneir. Eusebius records some of these traditions (Deuteronomy 3:9; Joshua 12:1).

Paganism was not extinct in the fourth century. Ruins of a temple at Banyas have been found. The information Eusebius records of this pagan cult is dependent upon an anonymous source, quite possibly only hearsay. This seems to be the purport of phasin, "they say" or "it is reported" (cf. the Latin dicitur). Paneas became an autonomous city at the death of Agrippa II and was called briefly Caesarea Philippi.

55. Anōb. Joshua 11:21; K. 20:15; L. 238:44.

Textual variants: Bētoannab (Greek) and Bethoannaba (Latin).

Eusebius’ reference here is to Bētoannaba which is as confusing as his reference to Anea (K. 26:8). Jerome attempts to correct Eusebius at Beit Nuba near Nikopolis but the Madaba Map follows Eusebius and identifies Anob with Bētoannaba to the East of Diospolis (K. 8:14).

In the Roman post service, the horses were changed every four miles and the two authors have two locations. Eusebius probably identifies ‘innaba as his Bētoannaba. Four miles is distance to turn off from the main road. Jerome seems to intend Beit nūba for his Bēthannaba. Both sites have Roman-Byzantine ruins. The proper Old Testament site is Kh ‘Anab.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "my submissiveness" (88).

56. Asdōd. Joshua 11:22; K. 20:18; L. 238:47.

Cf. below K. 22:11. Note "oppidum" in Latin (cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix II).

57. Ader. Joshua 12:14; K. 20:21; L. 238:50.

Possibly confused with K. 62:5 and K. 68:11. The letter G is noted as missing in the by Hebrew by Jerome (K. 63:4, cf. also K. 43:22).

Interpretation of Hebrew Names "flock" (88).

58. Aphek (Afec). Joshua 12:18; K. 22:1; L. 238:52.

Textual variant: Aphak (Greek).

Eusebius has several references to Aphek (K. 22:19, K. 30:16, K. 34:11, cf. K. 26:15). No location is indicated in this entry. The three items listed together seem to be copied from a list of cities conquered by Iēsous. Probably for eight different towns in the Old Testament.

Interpretation of Hebrew Names "surrounded or border" (89) "new madness or bounded" (102), "he surrounds or reaches to" (114).

59. Aksaph (Acsaf). Joshua 12:20; K. 22:3; L. 239:54.

Textual variants: Achaselōth and Exalous (Greek) and Asapb, Asapat and Ascaph (Latin).

Aksaph is wrongly connected with Chasalous and its real biblical location is in debate: et Tell, Tell Far, Tell Harbaj, Tell Keisan, Kh el musheirefeh are all preferred by some scholars to the homonymy KhIksa. However Kh Iksa may be Eusebius’ Chasalous. It has Byzantine remains. (But see K.28:23).

Thabōr is a city on the mountain which is used by Eusebius as a referent. Located at jebel at-Tor (cf. K. 98:23).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "limping or made, i.e. poiēsis (creation)" (89).

60. Akkarōn (Accaron). Joshua 13:3; K. 22:6; L. 239:57.

Akkarōn is the Greek form of the name given to one of the five cities of the Philistines, Ekron (see next entry cf. K. 32:11, K. 62:22, K. 68.4).

The Madaba Map puts Akkarōn near Iamnia (K. 106:20) on the road to Azōtus (K. 22:11). The map has the name repeated possibly for ancient and modern site with identical names in Greek.

The Old Testament site seems to be at Kh Muqenna’ a very large site with proper sherds. The name is reflected in ‘Aqir which is a Byzantine to modern site and perhaps was the one which Eusebius had in mind. Jerome reports an obviously erroneous tradition which would locate it at Caesarea.

This is one of eleven towns reported to be inhabited by Jews in Eusebius’ day (K. 26:9, K. 26:12, K. 86:18, K. 88:17, K. 98:26, K. 108:8, K. 78:6, K. 86:21, K. 92:21, K. 136:24 plus perhaps Nineveh (K. 136:2) cf. Appendix II.

Interpretation of Hebrew Names "teaching of gloom or barrenness" (89) "flocks grazing or is pasture as the Greek has en poimniotrophiois (sheep feeders)" (123).

61. Azōtos (Azotus). Joshua 13:3; K. 22:11; L. 239:63.

Textual variant: Askadōd (Greek). Note Latin transliteration Allefylous (cp. K. 68:24 and Azotes is the Greek of I Maccabees 4:15 etc. for this Philistine city, cf. the more general entry in K. 20:18 (Joshua 15:47, Judges 1:18).

The continued use of the name probably accounts for the lack of any location being given here. After all it is one of the famous cities of his time as also is Askalōn (K. 22:15) and Gaza (K. 62:26). In K. 20:19 Eusebius uses polichnē but in K. 22:11 polis. He uses polichnē for only four other cities of his time: Iamneia (K. 106:20), Sebastē (K. 154:22), Gaza (K. 130:8) and Gabe (K. 70:8).

The Madaba Map has the two cities, one coastal and one inland. Reflecting the Greek of Eusebius it may be suggesting that in the 4th to 6th centuries the inland Ashdod was less important.

The Tabula Peutinger locates Asdōd ten miles from Iamnia (K. 106:20) and twelve miles from Askalōn. Procopius 1024B retains the double names Asdōd and Azōtos. Josephus also reported on the double Azōtos. Jerome in Commentary on Isaiah 20:1 writes "Azotus," which is called Esdod by the Hebrews, is the most powerful of the five cities of Palestine." It was made a municipality by Vespasian. The other Philistine cities are in K. 22:6, K. 22:15, K. 62:22 and K. 68:4.

The ancient Philistine site at ‘eshdud is being excavated. The Roman-Byzantine settlement is strong and prosperous on the old site. The ancient sea port was at Tell Mor, but the Roman-Byzantine port is at Minet el caāa and it was of increasing importance in Eusebius’ time.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Azotii, i.e. Asdodi, fire of my uncle or burning"(89) "Azotus is called by the Hebrews Esdod and they have the same etymology, fire of the uncle" (143) "Ashdod destruction or violent movement or burning"(88).

62. Askalōn (Ascalon). Joshua 13:3; K. 22:15; L. 239:67.

Askalōn is one of the "famous cities" in the Onomasticon and another of the five Philistine cities (see previous entry). According to Josephus Wars I,21, 11 Herod the Great rebuilt it. Jews were there from the first century on and a synagogue has been excavated from late Roman times. For a brief period a city Diocletianopolis was in the vicinity named after the Emperor. It may be the same town, but the Onomasticon makes no mention of it. A bishop from Askalōn was at the Council of Nicea. There is a large walled city on the Madaba Hap south of Azōtus (cf. Joshua 15:25, Judges 1:18)

As a city it is used as a referent by the Onomasticon. The Tabula Peutinger locates it 12 miles from Azōtus (K. 22:11) and 15 miles from Gaza (K. 62:22). Tell ‘Ashalon is the site for all periods with the Roman and Byzantine city expanding off and around the mound.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "weight or disreputable fire" (89) "disreputable fire or ignoble fire" (143).

63. Apheka (Afeca). Joshua 13:4; K. 22:19; L. 239:71.

A number of Apheks are in the Onomasticon (cf. K. 22:1). This Apheka is one of three contemporary villages called "great" in the text (cf. Thamna 96:25 and Magdiel 130:21) but others are episēmos "famous" or "notable," megistai (splendid) rather than megalē (large).

The location "near" or "in the vicinity of" is very inexact in the terms of our text. Sometimes it is made more exact by a second location which gives mileage.

Hippos is a city of the Decapolis and is near present day Susita (Aramaic for the Greek?). The remains are primarily Qalat el Husn. A great Hellenistic-Roman and Byzantine site is there. Its region included dependent villages such as Apheka.

On the plateau east, the Sea of Galilee (K. 72:21) is the present day Fiq which suits the Onomasticon and is on the road between Damascus and Beisan. The change in its fortunes over a century may be indicated by the change to "large castle" in Jerome. Or it may merely be Jerome’s Hebrew knowledge coming through since Hebrew aphek can be translated "fortress" (Appendix IX).

Palestine may be East Jordan called Palastinē Secunda.

64. Algad (Agad). Joshua 13:5; K. 22:22; L. 239:74.

Here as in many entries the Onomasticon merely quotes the Bible. Perhaps this should be Baalgad as in MT (cf. K. 48:1). The LXX transliteration is used.

65. Aimath (Aemoth). Joshua 13:5; K. 22:23; L. 239:75.

Textual variants: Aitham (Greek) and for "other" Amatha (Latin).

Possibly three or four towns are involved in these lines.

In the Peraia and located in relation to Pella (cf. K. 14:19), this Ammathous was a chief city in Herodian Peraia. It is probably Tell ‘Ammata near Tell el Qos. This site has many Roman-Byzantine sherds. The Talmud identifies this with Saphon (K. 156:1) which may have been at Tell el Qos. There was probably a Roman garrison at this first Ammathous according to Notitia Dignitatum (73:33).

Near Gadara (K. 74:10) in the Bethshan valley there is a Tell el Hamah which may reflect Emmatha and possibly the city of Roubin. Better for Eusebius is nearby scheri ‘at-el mensdire where there are springs, baths and extensive Roman establishments. Note how each of these first two are localized in a different manner.

Jerome's addition is the present Syrian town of Hamath on the Orontes (cf. K. 36:10).

The fourth town in Syria was the Northeast limit of David’s kingdom as noted here from II Kings 14:25f. Its identity with Epiphania is repeated in K. 90:7 and in Jeromes’ Commentary on Isaiah 10:5. But in the Commentary on Amos 6:2 he apparently sees that as the "little Emath" while the "great Emath is now called Antiochia." Possibly this Hamath also is in K. 88:30 below.

66. Ammon. Josua 13:10, 25; K. 24:1; L. 239:81.

Cf. 16:15 above.

67. Adira. Joshua 15:3; K. 24:3; L. 239:83.

The broken section of the Madaba Map may include Addara near Diospolis (K. 8:14). The location of the biblical site is unknown as is the location of the "other" site. The best suggestion is Kh ed Deir for the region of Diospolis (cp. K. 80:11).

Thamna (K. 96:24) on the southern border of Joudas is in the region also of Diospolis. It gives its name to the Thamnitikē southwest of Nablus. If Jerome is consistent, there is indication of a change in fortune for the worse in the century.

68. Akarka. Joshua 15:3; K. 24:6; L. 239:86.

Textual variants: Akkarka and Akarkas (Greek).

The text is unclear. It may be a confusion for Ekron, Akkarōn (K. 22:6). Or with the LXX it may be the Hebrew article transliterated. Near the steppe or desert could fit Karkaia (K. 116:18) a day beyond Petra, but that is inconsistent with the tribe of Jouda annotation. No identification is possible.

69. Achōr. Joshua 15:7; K. 24:8; L. 239:88.

The last part of this entry is missing in the Vatican Manuscript.

A Simple tribal listing. See K. 18:17 and K. 84:18.

70. Adommim. Joshua 15:7; K. 24:9; L. 239:89.

Textual variants: Adonim and Addommim (Latin).

There is a strong possibility that the Greek text is incomplete and that Jerome is not adding information to Eusebius. The first word is missing in the Vatican Manuscript.

This is "deserted" or in ruins at the editor’s time. It is also called "a place" but not a "deserted place" literally. This is the only use, however, of "deserted village" in the Onomasticon. Jerome in Epistle 108:12 (Paula PPT I,11) writes, "she passed by, (i.e. on the road from Jerusalem to Jerico), reflecting on the kindness of the Samaritan, that is of the shepherd who put the half dead man upon his own beast and brought him to the fold of the church and the place Adomim which is translated ‘of blood’ because much blood was shed there in the frequent inroads of robbers" (Luke 10:30ff.).

Maledommei means "ascent of blood" and in Arabic Qal’at ed damm means almost the same thing, "fort of blood", while Tal’at ed damm would be identical in meaning. This spot is located just about half way to Jericho. The tradition of robbers, of the Good Samaritan is reinforced by the reddish limestone in the area. Popularly the Chan el Ahmar is pointed out, but the spot is really off the road farther, perhaps at Qal’at ed damm.

The garrison in the area between Jerusalem and Jericho is reported elsewhere in Notitia Dignitatum (74:47-48). Baldi suggests that Jerome reflects the present scattered tradition. The ascent of blood seems to refer to the geographic position; the fort of blood to the Roman fort, and the supposed sites of the parable Chan el Hatrūn and of the Inn Chan el Ahmar.

71. Amam. Joshua 15:26; K. 24:12; L. 240:92.

Textual variant: Amem (Greek).

A simple listing of the tribal allotment occurs frequently, especially in the Joshua entries. Jouda more frequently localized than other tribes suggesting the early source of Onomasticon was developed in Jewish times in Jerusalem.

72. Aser. Joshua 15:27; K. 24:12; L. 240:93.

In Mt.Hezron and Hazor are equated and located on southern border of Judah (cp. K. 20:3 above). In Eusebius’ time it was a large village but location is uncertain.

73. Asarsoual (Asarsual). Joshua 15:28; K. 24:14; L. 240:95.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "home of foxes" (90).

74. Ain. Joshua 15:32; K. 24:15; L. 240:96.

Textual variants: Baithanin, Bēithanin, Bēthcnim (K. 94:20 Greek) and cf. ēnaim also.

Located with two mileage markers from the terebinth (K. 76:1) and Chebron (K. 170:25) two well-used referents (cf. Josh 21:16). This Bēethanin is probably the same as Beit ‘ainun, north of Hebron. This is probably the real location of either Bethalōth (K. 50:17) or Bēthenim (K. 94:20). In the MT it is quite probable that Ain was only a prefix to Rimmon (K. 144:11)

Interpretation of Hebrew Names "eye or well" (89); "well" (79); "well or eye" (118); but "interrogation" (88).

75. Asthaōl. Joshua 15:33; K. 24:18; L. 240:99.

Asthō is not a proper identification for Asthaōl. At Asthō there may have been a Roman garrison ( Notitia Dignitatum 73:35-36) but its remains are undefinable. A border town in the Onomasticon but not clearly located.

76. Asna. Joshua 15:35; K. 24:20; L. 240:1.

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 26:4).

77. Adolam (Adollam). Joshua 15:35; K. 24:21; L. 240:2.

The size of this village seems in debate between Eusebius and Jerome or it changed in the century. It is dependent upon Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) but is not on a major Roman road. In the MT it is in the Shephelah and probably located at Tell esh sheikh Madkur (cf. K. 84:22 and K. 140:20).

The Vulgate has variants Adullam. Odullam and Odollam (cf. K. 84:22 where such a village is twelve miles east of Eleutheropolis) and K. 172:7 near Chasbi also in the region of Eleutheropolis) at Kh id el Minya south of Chasbi.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Adollamin, their society" (89) and Adollam also (106).

78. Adiathaim (Adithaim). Joshua 15:36; K. 24:23; L. 240:4.

Textual variants: Adatha and Adiathaeim (Greek).

In the Madaba Map we find Adlathim which now is Aditha, east of Diospolis. Adia does not appear as the name of the village near Gaza in the Greek texts. The Latin texts vary as to Adia a village or little village and Aditha around or near Diospolis. On the Tabula Peutinger there is an Addianim which may or may not be related to this entry.

Apparently Aditha is added here by confusion of sounds. This town in Eusebius and on the Madaba Map is northeast of Lydd at el Haditha (cf. I Maccabees 12:38 and Ezra 2:33).

The original Adiathain is located at another el Haditeh, north of Yalu (Ajalōn). This may be stretched as a location "near Gaza" but probably, the first village Adia is unknown.

79. Adasa. Joshua 15:37; K. 26:1; L. 240:6.

Textual variants: Gouphna, Gophna, Taphnōn, Gophnōn (Greek cf. K. 168:16, K. 74:2) and Gofnesem (Latin).

The biblical reference is to a town in the Shephelah which is not clearly identified, but Kh el judeideh has been suggested. Eusebius has been confused and Jerome says so in clear fashion (cf. Josh 16:5 and Onomasticon K. 29:7). Probably the village Eusebius would locate for us is Kh ‘Adaseh near Beth Horon referred to in I Maccabees 7:40. Gouphōn comes into the picture because of Josephus Wars I, I, 5-6 which connects Nicanor’s retreat and fall with Gophonitikē.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Adasa, new" (89).

80. Ather. Joshua 15:42; K. 26:3; L. 240:8.

Textual variants: Atherei, Ether and Acherei (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Athar, depreciating" (89).

81. Asan. Joshua 15:42; K. 26:4; L. 240:9.

Textual variant: Theuasa (Greek). Latin omits "to the west."

Bethasan is a dependent village of Jerusalem. In MT it should be found in the Shephelah. This may be Adasa of I Maccabees 7:40. It is probably beit shenna near ‘amwas. The Old Testament site is Kh ‘Asan northwest of Beersheba. Perhaps Eusebius is locating here the Ashna of Joshua 15:23 which is only listed in the Onomasticon at K. 24:20.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Asam, smoke" (90) or "smoking" (102).

82. Asema. Joshua 15:43; K. 26:6; L. 240:11.

A simple tribal listing. Possibly related to Iedna K. 106:15.

83. Achzeib (Agzif). Joshua 15:44; K. 26:7; L. 240:13.

Textual variant: Azeib (Greek).

A simple tribal listing.

84. Anab. Joshua 15:50; K. 26:8; L. 240:14.

This entry is probably identical to K. 20:15. The Anab located by Eusebius in the territory of Eleutheropolis is appropriate. The reference to Annia is confusing (cf. Bethanatha K. 52:24). This is another of the villages inhabited by Jews, most of which are in southern Judah (K. 22:9). A neighboring town is all Christian (K. 26:14). This twin city has been identified with Kh Juweim el Jarbiya southwest of Hebron. The higher one to the east is Christian and the lower Jewish. Nine miles marks off from main road.

The Daroma is a region south of Judah and southwest of Edom. Daroma is one of the many Hebrew words for "South" [(cf. Negeb (K. 136:14) and Theman (K. 137:15)]. At least 15 towns are in the Daroma according to the Onomasticon (K. 26:12, 60:8, 68:19, 70:11, 78:21, 86:9, 86:21, 88:4, 88:18, 92:15, 98:27, 108:3, 108:10, 110:18, 120:22, 146:25, 156:12, 172:21).

85. Asthemō (Asthemof). Joshua 15:50; K. 26:11; L. 240:17.

Textual variants: Ansoema, cp. Esthemo (K. 86:20), Esthama (K. 90:2) and Ansim for the contemporary site (Greek), Anem (Latin).

Only Jerome notes this to be a Jewish village and probably it is es semu’a where remains of a synagogue have been found. It is near Anaia (K. 26:9) another Jewish village (cf. Note on K. 22:9). The Greek K. 86:20 notes it is a large Jewish village in the Daroma (Appendix II).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Esthamoe, woman of the womb" (93) and "Esthamma, passion" (93).

86. Aneim (Anim). Joshua 15:50; K. 26:13; L. 240:19.

This entry is related to K. 26:8 above. This is the twin of the Jewish village which probably continued on the Old Testament site. This Christian village is new and upper Kh Juwein el Foqa also called Juwien esh-Shargiya. There are only three wholly Christian villages in the Onomasticon over against almost a dozen wholly Jewish ones listed (cf. K. 112:16 Kariatha). Very close in the west is Ietheira (K. 108:3).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Anem, circles or crowns or singing" (89).

87. Aphaka (Afeca). Joshua 15:53; K. 26:15; L. 240:22.

A simple tribal listing, but one of the many related to Aphek in both the Old Testament and the Onomasticon (cf. K. 22:19).

88. Amata (Ammata). Joshua 15:54; K. 26:16; L. 240:23.

Textual variants: Ammata (Greek), Ammeta (Latin) and Athmatha (Vulgate).

A simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ammeta, light" (89).

89. Arebba. Joshua 15:60; K. 26:17; L. 240:24.

Textual variant: Aremba for MT rabbah (Greek).

A simple tribal listing.

90. Archiatarōth (Ataroth). Joshua 16:2; K. 26:18; L. 241:25.

Textual variant: Ramam (Latin).

The Greek calls this a biblical city, which the Latin text omits. The Latin gives a vague location while the Greek has none. The Greek combines this entry with the next as is done by the LXX.

91. Atarōth. Joshua 16:5; K. 26:19; L. 241:26.

The Old Testament site is not clearly located by scholars. Some see the name as persisting near Bir Zeit in Kh ‘Attarah.

In Eusebius’ time there were two Atarōths dependent on Jerusalem (K. 26:26, K. 112:6). The Onomasticon errs in locating it four miles north of Sebestē (K. 154:21) at ‘attara. But the 4 miles marks the turn off from main road to the contemporary village there. This is one of the few places in the Greek text where the word miliōn is used for "mile." The usual word is "semeiōn" for "sign" indicating milestone or marker. In Latin the most frequent term for milestone is lapidus but occasionally miliarius is used. More infrequently milus and millus for 1000 paces or mile "between" or "from" a site. In K. 27:24 lapidus has a textual variant miliarius.

Sebastē is the Roman city of Samaria (K. 162:13, K. 154:21) and is used as a referent the Bible and Onomasticon. Dothaeim is also north of Sebastē (K. 76:13).

92. Adar. Joshua 16:5; K. 26:21; L. 241:28.

A simple tribal listing.

93. Asēr. Joshua 17:10; K. 26:22; L. 241:29.

See also Aser above (K. 24:13) in Judah.

Many of the pilgrims located the home of Job fifteen miles from Nablus on the main road from the Jordan Valley (cf. PPT I, 18, 67) and it probably is the present tajasir. In the Onomasticon the home of Job is far away (K. 112:6, K. 142:3).

94. Atarōth. Joshua 18:13; K. 26:25; L. 241:32.

The two villages are probably both called now Kh’attara, one near Bir Zeit (above K. 26:19) and the other east of Hizma dependent upon Jerusalem (K. 112:6). These may only be retaining the name and the Old Testament sites are to be located elsewhere.

95. Anathōth. Joshua 21:18; K. 26:27; L. 241:34.

Jerome in Commentary on Jeremiah 11:21 agrees with the three miles given here. The Roman-Byzantine site for the home of Jeremiah was the present village of ‘Anata. Josephus has it 20 stadia from Jerusalem ( Antiquities X, 7, 3). There are more ancient remains but not as many at nearby Ras el Harrubeh which may be the Old Testament site.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Anathoth, obeying or responding to signs" (90) and "response or responding to signs or obedience" (125).

96. Adar (Addar). Joshua 18:13; K. 26:30; L. 241:37.

A simple tribal listing. This may be an addition if the previous entry is correct.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Adar, splendid or coverlet" (89).

97. Ailmōn (Aelomon). Joshua 21:18; K. 28:1; L. 241:38.

Textual variant Ailōn (Greek).

Cf. also K. 18:13. This is out of the biblical order.

98. Amekkasis (Amez-casis). Joshua 18:21; K. 28:2; L. 241:39.

Textual variant Amekasis (Greek).

The Latin has proper MT translation of Amek or emek "valley" but the location is unknown.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Emeccasis, valley of breaking up" (93).

99. Aueim (Avim). Joshua 18:23; K. 28:3; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek text.

Not in Vatican Manuscript.

A simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Eneam, behold you or behold they are" (93).

100. Aphra. Joshua 18:23; K. 28:4; L. 241:40.

Textual variant Effrem (Latin).

The village Aiphraim fits this location. A textual variant has six for five miles. Madaba Map with "Ephron or Ephraia" may reflect Jerome’s spelling. Seems that Eusebius has the correct location at et tayibe (cf. K. 86:1). For Ophra, Ephron, Ephraim and Aphra. Madaba map notes the New Testament event as in K. 90:18. A strong Maccabean city (I Maccabees 5:46). It was occupied by Vespasian ( Antiquities IV, 9, 9).

101. Ammōenia (Ammoeniam). Joshua 18:24; K. 28:6; L. 241:42.

A simple tribal listing. Vulgate has Emona for MT Ammonah.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ammona, his people" (90).

102. Aphnei (Afni). Joshua 18:24; K. 28:7; L. 241:43.

Simple tribal listing, probably the same as the Gophna ( jifna) of the pilgrims. Cf. K. 168:16.

103. Alph. Joshua 18:28; K. 28:8; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek text.

Simple tribal listing. Missing in the Latin text.

104. Arēm (Arim). Joshua 18:28; K. 28:9; L. 241:45.

This is a Greek transliteration for "villages" in the MT. The Bēthariph near Diospolis (K. 8:14) may be dair tarif near Lydda and off the main road. The Greek has been emended here from the Latin text.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Eram, sublime life" (94).

105. Amsa. Joshua 18:26; K. 28:11; L. 241:47.

Textual variant Ampsa (Latin).

Simple tribal listing. Possibly out of order and suspect.

106. Asar. Joshua 19:3; K. 28:12; L. 241:48.

Simple tribal listing.

107. Asan. Joshua 19:3; K. 28:13; L. 241:49.

Textual variant Aaon (Latin).

A simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Asan, smoke" (90).

108. Amarchabob. Joshua 19:5; K. 28:14; L. 241:50.

Textual variant Amarchabōn (Greek).

A simple tribal listing.

109. Ain. Joshua 19:7; K. 28:15; L. 241:51.

A simple tribal listing with editorial addition from the list of priestly cities. Thus a tribe could be given to two tribes as on the border. Loyalty may have shifted (cp. K. 50:1, 88:11, 98:22, 130:6, 144:11, etc.).

110. Asenna. Joshua 19:7; K. 28:16; L. 241:52.

A simple tribal listing.

111. Ammathar. Joshua 19:13; K. 28:17; L. 241:53.

Textual variant Amatha (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.

112. Anoua (Anua). Joshua 19:13; K. 28:18; L. 241:54.

Textual variants: Anoua apioutōn, Anouabōr kai and Anoua boreēthen. Josephus has Anouathon Borkaios ( Wars III 3, 5). Vatican manuscript also has Anouan for Ailian an obvious scribal error. There is a variation of 5 miles between the Greek and Latin Text.

Location is unknown for the Roman-Byzantine site.

113. Anathōn. Joshua 19:14; K. 28:21; L. 241:57.

Textual variants: Anathōth (Greek) and Annathon (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ennathon, giving favor" (93).

114. Acheselōth (Achaseloth). Joshua 19:18; K. 28:22; L. 241:58.

Textual variants: Achaseluth and (for contemporary site) Chaslus (Latin).

Cf. K. 22:4 for similar location of Chaslous probably at iksal southeast of Nazareth (K. 138:24) which preserves part of the ancient name. Probably to be equated with Chaselath Thabor (K. 174:11).

115. Aiphraim (Aefraim). Joshua 19:19; K. 28:25; L. 241:61.

Textual variant Afraim (Latin).

The biblical site is unknown since et taiyebeh suggested by some is really Ophra (cf. K. 28:4 above). The Byzantine Aphraia is probably Kh Fareir northwest of Legeōn (K. 14:21) and properly measured in distance to turn off from main road.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Efraim, growing or fruitful" (81, cf. 65) "fertile or growth which we are not able to call Augentium, from growing." (142).

116. Anerth (Anereth). Joshua 19:19; K. 28:27; L. 242:64.

A simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Enarath, behold be takes hold" (93).

117. Aims (Aemes). Joshua 19:20; K. 28:28; L. 242:65.

Textual variant Aim (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ames, powerful" (90).

118. Achsaph (Achsaf). Joshua 19:25; K. 30:1; L. 242:66.

Textual variant Achiam (Greek).

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 22:3).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Acsa, limping or dead" (89).

119. Alimelech. Joshua 19:26; K. 30:2; L. 242:67.

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 22:3).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ekunekech, my god is king" (102).

120. Amod (Amath). Joshua 19:26; K. 30:3; L. 242:68.

Textual variant in LXX Amad.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Amath, these people" (90).

121. Abdōn. Joshua 19:28; K. 30:4; L. 242:69.

Textual variants: Ardōn (Greek) and Dabbōn (LXX B).

Simple tribal listing. The Latin has added from the list of Levitical cities and the Greek could be emended so, but such listings are a later editing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Abdo, his slave" (90) "Abdon, slave of the wall" (99).

122. Aneiēl (Aniel). Joshua 19:27; K. 30:5; L. 242:70.

Textual variants: Aneir and Aniel (Greek).

The Byzantine Baitoannaia (cf. K. 52:24) is ‘Anin, off the road to Legeōn, east of Caesarea the mileage is mark for leaving main highway. It has nothing to do with the identity of the Old Testament site. In K. 70:8 a Gabe is 16 miles east of Caesarea but this is no problem since a quadrant is involved, not the same road. It is peculiar that an anonymous report on the healing qualities is recorded by an author from nearby Caesarea. Did Eusebius doubt the volcanic baths’ power? Or is this indication of an editor? (Cp. K. 52:24.)

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Enihel, god is my grace" (81).

123. Achran. Joshua 19:28; K. 30:8; L. 242:73.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Achran, he disturbed them" (78).

124. Ammōn. Joshua 19:28; K. 30:9; L. 242:74.

Textual variant Amon (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ammnon, people of the wall" (90).

125. Akchō (Accho). Joshua 19:30; K. 30:10; L. 242:75.

Textual variant Akko (Greek).

Procopius 1048A has "Agcho, it is now said to be Ptolemais." The identity is repeated by Jerome's Epistle 108:f. (cf. Paula PPT I, 4) Tabula Peutinger has Ptolemais 32 miles from Tyre end 20 from Dor. There was a bishop from here at the Council of Nicea. The ancient city is east of the modern town of Acre. A whole complex of Roman roads led there. It is often used as a referent in the Onomasticon. It was a territory as described in Josephus Wars II, 10, 2. The reference to Israel’s incomplete conquest is from Judges 1:31 (cf. below K. 30:12, 16).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Accho, up to this or hook or his submissiveness" (98).

126. Achzeiph (Achzif). Joshua 19:29; K. 30:12; L. 242:77.

The first portion of this entry is not in the Vatican manuscript but has been emended on the basis of the Latin. The mileage is also missing in Vatican. Vulgate variant has Achazib.

All agree with Eusebius that Ekdippa was the same as Achzib (Josephus Wars I, 13, 4 ( Itin. Bourd 19, 5). Many Roman-Byzantine-Arab artifacts found here. The distance is exact for ez zib which still reflects the same name. Some itineraries have 8 miles for Eusebius’ 9. This reflects difference in counting: from center of city or first milestone from edge, etc. Israel’s failure noted in Judges 1:31(cf. K. 30:10).

127. Amma. Joshua 19:30; K. 30:15; L. 242:79.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Amma, his people" (90).

128. Aphek (Afec). Joshua 19:30; K. 30:16; L. 242:80.

Another of the many Apheks. Israel’s failure in Judges 1:31 (cf. K. 30:10, 12).

129. Ademmei (Ademme). Joshua 19:33; K. 30:18; L. 242:82.

Textual variants Armai (LXX) and Aderni (Syr.). Confusing Hebrew daleth and resh.

Simple tribal listing.

130. Asedeim (Aseddim). Joshua 19:35; K. 30:19; L. 242:83.

This is a name based on a LXX variant which has incorporated the Hebrew article into the transliteration. LXX also confused the Hebrew daleth and resh. The Vulgate Assedim appears. Onomasticon correct with d from Hebrew.

Simple tribal listing.

131. Amath. Joshua 19:35; K. 30:20; L. 242:84.

Textual variants: Amathi (Greek) and Ematha (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Amath, this people" (90).

132. Adami. Joshua 19:36; K. 30:21; L. 242:85.

Simple tribal listing.

133. Asōr. Joshua 19:36; K. 30:22; L. 242:86.

Simple tribal listing plus II Kings 15:29. Cp. K. 20:1 above.

Possibly these five Nephtheim entries are from a late list added or else the following entry is an addition out of order.

134. Azanōth. Joshua 19:34; K. 30:24; L. 242:88.

Textual variant Azananōth (Greek).

Another of the villages dependent on Diokaesareia but Eusebius is not sure about the location.

135. Ailōn. Joshua 19:43; K. 30:26; L. 242:90.

Textual variants: Ahialon and Ahilon (Latin).

Eusebius seems to be confused here. Perhaps this is the Aialon of Jerome 19:16. Nikopolis is in the Valley of Aialon. In 220/1 A.D. Emaus was given the name Nikopolis (cf. K. 90:1.5). It was a famous city and a regional free city including both Aislon and Gezer (K. 66:21) in its territory. There was a bishop at the Council of Nicea from this chief city of the district. Jerome's Epistle 108 reports a church here. It is present day ‘Amwas. Alous is the located at Yalu.


136. Arad. Judges 1:16; K. 32:2; L. 242:94.

Textual variant Arab (Greek).

See above K. 14:1f.

137. Ared. Joshua Judges 7:1; K. 32:4; L. 242:96.

Rivers, wells, mountains are all suspect entries in the Onomasticon. This is also out of order in the biblical sequence of things and suspect for that second reason also (cf. K. 36:4, 54:21, 72:22, 116:23, 116:25, 118:11).

138. Arisōth. Judges 4:2; K. 32:5; L. 242:97.

Textual variant Asiroth (Latin).

Eusebius identifies erroneously this with Iabeia Galaad (cf. K. 110:11f). Iabis is located six miles from Pella (K. 14:19) in both entries and this points to vicinity of Tell el Maqlub, which is the Old Testament site. Byzantine site is Kh Isna exactly six miles from Pella. By Procopius’ time (1049A) it was a village, no longer a great city. But Procopius has confused the distance - 20 miles from Pella and 60 from Gerasa. (The Greek of Procopius has been corrected from the Onomasticon to read six, but only in Latin is the text complete for Procopius on this item.). Perhaps a corrected distance would be six from Pella and 20 from Gerasa. Harosheth of Old Testament is not located by the Onomasticon.

139. Ares. Judges 8:13; K. 32:8; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Text missing in Greek Vatican manuscript.

There seems to be a confusion of the Greek and Hebrew biblical texts.

140. Aroueir (Aruir). Judges 11:33; K. 32:9; L. 243:00.

Textual variant Arouei (Greek).

The scene seems to be in Transjordan but the homecoming has confused Eusebius (cf. K. 12:5). The Greek, if not an error, points to the vicinity of er Ram, possibly Kh arajanj. If Jerome is followed, as many prefer to do in order to arrive closer to Mizpeh (K. 130:1), it must be located at Kh ‘arūra. The 20 is in conjuction of main road north from Jerusalem. A branch goes west to Kh ‘arūra.

141. Arima. Judges 9:41; K. 32:11; L. 243:2.

A simple report of Scripture (cf. K. 144:27)

142. Aialon (Aialin). Judges 12:12; K. 32:12; L. 243:3.

The judge of Israel (Judges 12:11) has a name which sounds almost the same as that of the clan. Probably Ailon or Elon would be proper for both. Biblical information only.

143. Abel of the vineyards. Judges 11:33; K. 32:14; L. 243:5.

Textual variants: Abel (Greek) and Abila (Latin).

The biblical site is located by Eusebius in the region of Philadelphia (K. 16:15) and seems to be in the vicinity of Na ‘ur, perhaps even Na ‘ur or Qom Yajus or else closer to Heshbon at Kh es Suq. The Greek text makes this very vague (cp. K. 10:28).

Abela near Gadara (cf. K. 74:10) is the large town of the Decapolis (K. 80:16) which is to be located at Tell Abil. A few scholars would locate it at nearby Muqes.

Abela of the Phoenicians is not identified as to size by Eusebius. Possibly following the Tabula Peutinger which has it 18 miles from Damascus (K. 76:4) it is possibly located at suk wadi barada on the way to Paneas (K. 16:4).

In Eusebius’ day Phoenicia was a distinct ‘Roman province not to be confused with Palestine or Syria. This was true from about 194-381 A.D. According to Eusebius it includes Damascus, Abela, Byblos and Sidon with Tyro as its chief city.


144. Armthem Seipha (Sofim). I Samuel 1:1; K. 32:21; L. 243:12.

The New Testament identification (Matthew 21:51) here may be the first real work of the Christian author (whether Eusebius or not) who compiled and collected several Jewish and biblical lists (cp. K. 144:29).

For Diospolis see K. 8:14 and Thamnitikē see K. 24:4. In 200 Diospolis took over the region earlier called Thamna.

The Madaba Map has both names and follows Eusebius in identifying the two Old Testament and New Testament places but does not clearly follow Eusebius in the location. "Armathem or Arimathea" seems to be due north of Jerusalem near Nebi Samwil and Ramalla while Eusebius and other Christian traditions locate Arimathea at Rentis, northeast of Diospolis. Both the map and Eusebius seem to separate these two names from Ramah (I Samuel 1:19 cf. K. 144:14). The Armathem in Greek reflects the transcription of the Hebrew article. Jerome writes in Epistle 108:8 (Paula PPT I, p. 4) "not far from it (Diospolis) is Arimathiam the little village of Joseph who buried the Lord" (cf. Luke 23:5). The Old Testament Rama of Samuel is uncertain.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Armathaim, their height" (102).

145. Abenezer. I Samuel 4:1; K. 32:24; L. 243:15.

This is a "place" and possibly textually suspect as well. Etymology (K. 56:6) plus a biblical reference and a vague location. Since the Survey of Western Palestine it has been suggested that Eusebius had in mind Deir Aban near Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) but all agree that is not the Old Testament site.

Bethsamys or Bēthsames (K. 54:11) is probably ‘ain Shema near beit jibrin.

146. Aphesdomeim (Afesdomim). I Samuel 17:1; K. 34:1; L. 243:18.

Textual variant Afesdommim (Latin).

Biblical and Hexaplaric information only.

147. Anegb (Annegeb). I Samuel 20:41; K. 34:3; L. 243:20.

Textual variant Aneka (Greek). The Greek text has again transliterated the Hebrew article. Two synonyms for the southern quadrant are used in the Greek and two in the Latin. Only Hexaplaric information (cp. K. 136:14, 137:16f.).

148. Arith. I Samuel 22:5; K. 34:4; L. 243:21.

The LXX is followed by our Greek text and makes this a city while in the New Testament we find "forest." It is a region west of Jerusalem. Eusebius’ Arath which is not the forest may be perpetuated in Kh Hareish.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Arith, delay" (102).

149. Aialim. I Samuel 24:3; K. 34:6; L. 243:23.

Textual variants: Aalim, Abialeim (Greek), Achia, Ala, Ahialim (Latin).

The Onomasticon makes a proper name out of the MT phrase. Theodotion is more literal. Only Hexaplaric information.

150. Aendōr. I Samuel 29:1; K. 34:8; L. 243:25.

Textual variant Iesrael (Greek).

The LXX has this place name where the MT only has "fountain in Israel." It is in the vicinity of Mt.Thabor (K. 22:4, 98:23). The name is perpetuated at ‘Andūr. Perhaps the same as Eddēr (K. 94:22) of Saul which is located near Nain and so also near Thabōr. ‘Andūr has no ancient ruins and is not a tell. It has been suggested that nearby Kh es safsafeh is the place and it does have evidence of lengthy occupation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Aendor, eye or well of the generation" (102) and "Endor well of the generation" (93).

151. Aphek (Afec). I Samuel 29:1; K. 34:11; L. 243:28.

Textual variant Apher (Greek).

One of the many confused Apheks in Scripture and the Onomasticon. By inference this is said to be near the above Aendōr. Eusebius gives no location data which is not directly from the Bible.

152. Arma. I Samuel 30:26, 30; K. 34:13; L. 243:30.

In Samuel there are a number of towns which are listed in the Onomasticon with no other information than the biblical reference to David’s spoils (I Samuel 30:26f.). This may possibly be identical with K. 88:1 below.

153. Athach. I Samuel 30:26, 30; K. 34:14; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Textual variant Athlac (Latin).

This entry is missing in the Vatican manuscript. Only information is on the spoils as in the above Arma. LXX also has Athach for Ether (K. 88:3) in Joshua 15:42.

154. Amma. II Samuel 2:24; K. 34:15; L. 243:31.

One of the entries where only the Scripture is quoted for location and identity.

155. Aeththam Adassai (Aethon Adasai). II Samuel 24:6; K. 34:16; L. 243:32.

Textual variant Arnmeiththa (Greek).

Perhaps the same as Thaad in K. 100:19. Only Hexaplaric information.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ammeta, light" (89) and "Adasa, new" (89).

156. Alōn Area Orna. II Samuel 24:16; K. 34:17; L. 243:33.

Textual variant ‘orion (Greek).

This is not a place in the MT but refers to a person who is a Jebusite and is connected with Jerusalem. The identification of Eusebius is in the biblical passage Joshua 18:28 (cf. K. 106:7 below). ‘Alōn and Area both are proper translations of MT "threshing floor."

157. Assour. I Kings 9:15; K. 34:18; L. 243:34.

This item is out of order and may be an editorial addition. The Roman Ioudaia is indicated here rather than the Old Testament Jouda. If this is one of the cities Solomon built it is a textual variant for Hazōr (K. 20:1). This same annotation occurs in K. 90:9, 132:2 and 134:1, 3.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Assur, directing or beauty or stepping or accusing" (60) and "Assur beauty or step" (78).

158. Abelmaelai (Abelmaula). I Kings 4:12; K. 34:20; L. 243:35.

Textual variant Bethaula (Latin).

Eusebius is not sure of the location of this village. He knows only two possibilities with similar sounds. Josephus' Antiquities VIII 13, 7 notes, "Elisha of the city of Abela" (cf. I Kings 19:16). This could be Beeleōn (K. 44:21) which is also the large village from which Elissaios came (K. 46:2) but that is nine miles from Esbus which would put it in the southeastern section of the Aulōn (K. 14:22).

Bethmaela is 10 miles from Skythopolis (K. 16:2) but only Jerome has "south." Such a milestone has been reported at Tell Abu Sus. Other scholars would locate Eusebius’ site near ‘Ain el helweh or Tell Abu Sifri but the latter has no Roman-Byzabtine remains. The former has Roman-Byzantine remains but no clear evidence. Tell Abu Sus is Old Testament site, Kh es Sakut nearby is Byzantine.

Abelmea is perhaps in the other direction on the way west and up to Neapolis (K. 4:28) but only seen from the road. There are remains of a Roman bath, etc. near the source of the Wadi el Malih so perhaps ‘ain malih is correct for this Eusebius site, but not for the Old Testament location.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Abimahel, my father from God" (61).

159. Auothiaeir (Avothiair). I Kings 4:13; K. 34:24; L. 244:39.

Textual variant Auōthenaēr (Greek).

Simple biblical summary.

160. Ailath. I Kings 9:26; K. 34:25; L. 244:40.

Textual variant. Latin omits Ailas.

The first part of the entry quotes the biblical text. Ailas probably refers to Ailam (K. 6:17 cp. K. 36:1 and K. 62:13).

161. Ailōth (Aeloth). II Kings 14:22; K. 34:27; L. 244:42.

Textual variant Ailōn (Greek) Aloth (Latin).

This is out of order and seems to be an editorial addition to the previous entry and the one in K. 36:1. It gives an additional item of biblical information.

162. Ainda (Aenda). I Kings 15:20; K. 34:28; L. 244:43.

Textual variant Ain of Dan (Greek). The MT has only Dan.

This biblical information is repeated in K. 148:15 also with the Greek of the LXX text which varies from the MT.

163. Asiōn Babai (Asiongaber). I Kings 22:49; K. 36:1; L. 244:44.

Additional biblical information is given for the site on the Gulf of Aqabah. Eusebius seems to try to distinguish two sites nearby: Aisia (K. 62:15) and Alla (K. 6:17, 34:25, 62:16). The Bible does not distinguish too clearly between Ezion Geber and Elath (cf. II Chronicles 20:36). A bishop from Ailath at Nicea.

Tell el Kheleifeh is usually identified with Old Testament Ezion Geber after Glueck, but it has no ruins later than the Israelite captivity. Possible location may be Jirzere Farra’un. Aila-Aqabah-Elath has Nabatean, Roman, Byzantine, and Arab occupation.

Another small settlement Aisia between the coast and the Old Testament site seems to be indicated in Eusebius. Modern Israeli Eilat is a new town.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Esopmgaber, a wish or council of sorrow" (111).

164. Alae (Alle), Abor, Gozan. II Kings 17:6; K. 36:4; L. 244:47.

Textual variant Abar (Latin).

This is outside the geographical limits of the Holy Land. It is out of the proper biblical order. All rivers are suspect as additions to the text.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Abur, livid spot or wound" (114) and "Gozan their tone or their courage" (111).

The next four entries are all late editorial additions to the test.

165. Abena (Abana). II Kings 5:12; K. 36:6; L. 244:49.

Suspect on the same grounds as above - a river.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Abana, his stones" (114).

166. Aophsith (Aofsithe). II Kings 15:5; K. 36:7; L. 244:50.

LXX variants of Aphphōsoth and Aophasōth, Hexaplaric elements.

167. Aian. II Kings 15:29; K. 36:8; L. 244:51.

Vulgate has Ahion.

Simple biblical report.

168. Aia. II Kings 17:24; K. 36:9; L. 244:52.

Vulgate has Ava.

This and the next entry are probably beyond the geographical limits of the Holy Land in Syria (cf. K. 36:10 below and K. 174:17).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Aia, vulture" (105).

169. Ainath (Ameth). II Kings 17:24; K. 36:10; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Textual variant Amech (Latin). Probably same as Aemath of K. 23:30.

Part of these two successive entries K. 36:9 & 10 are missing from the Vatican manuscript.

170. Asimath (Asima). II Kings 17:30; K. 36:11; L. 244:53.

One of the few uses of "oppidum" in Latin (cp. K. 10:25 and Appendix II). No such designation in Greek.

There seems to be an error in the Vatican manuscript with Idoumaia and Ioudaia.

171. Arkem (Arcem). II Kings 17:30; K. 36:13; L. 244:55.

The name is not in the New Testament but is from the LXX. On the basis of Josephus Antiquities IV, 4, 7 it has been identified with Petra "came to a place in Arabia which the Arabs have deemed their metropolis, formerly called Arce (Arkēn Greek) today named Petra" (K. 142:7, 144:7). Personal name in Numbers 31:8 may have influenced Josephus.

Palestine is here apparently used for the whole country since Petra would not fit the old Roman province of Palestine. If the later use of I, II and II Palestine is intended then of course we have evidence of later editing of the text.

Usually when topography is given, some biblical history is also summarized. Other exceptions are in K. 124:20, 126:14, 126:19, 132:3, 140:4, 146:23, and 170:23.

172. Adramelech. II Kings 17:31; K. 36:15; L. 244:57.

This obviously is not within the original purview of a book on place names! Other idols noted are Bel (K. 58:9 cf. K. 44:13), Molchom (K. 134:17), Nesarach (K. 138:19), Chamos (K. 174:22), and Remnan (K. 146:26). A Roman god is mentioned below in K. 36:26 (cf. K. 8:15 and Appendix II).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Adramelech, stola of the king or the comeliness of the king" (144).

173. Arōnieim (Aroniim). Isaiah 15:5; K. 36:17; L. 244:59.

Textual variants: Aōronaim (Greek), Arona (Greek A’); Arnomim, Armonum, Oronaim (Latin). The Vulgate has Oronaeum and Oronaim. The Moabite Stone has Hauranein. There was a Roman garrison nearby according to Notitia Dignitatum (81:18).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Oronaim, opening of the wall" (121).

It is quite possible that all the prophets listings are a separate editorial addition or separate source.

174. Agalleim (Agallim). Isaiah 15:8; K. 36:19; L. 244:61.

The first of the entry is missing in Vatican manuscript and is restored from the Latin. Another Latin variant is Agallim.

The Byzantine ruin and name is found at rujm el jilimeh called Aegalim. This is at the proper distance from Areopolis (K. 10:13) but probably is not Old Testament site.

175. Aileim (Aelim). Isaiah 15:8; K. 36:22; L. 244:64.

The Vulgate has "well of Elim" which is for the MT birelim. It has been equated with Dimon (Isaiah15:9) which may be the same Madōn (K. 126:26) but can hardly be Deimona of Jodda (K.73:16).

176. Arina (omitted in Latin) or also Ariel. Isaiah 15:9; K. 36:24; L. 244:66.

In the MT text the word "lion" is used as noted in Interpretation of Hebrew Names "lion of God" (106 and 114). Jerome Epistle 108:9 (Paula PPT I, 6) has, "Woe to thee, city of Ariel, that is lion of God, once most strong, which David took by storm." In Commentary on Isaiah 29:1 Jerome writes, "Therefore Arihel, that is lion of God, once most strong is called Jerusalem, out it is preferred by others temple and altar of God which was in Jerusalem." His Commentary on Isaiah 15:1 is more apropos, "This metropolis, the city of Ar, which today is called Areopolis by the combination of Hebrew and Greek words, not as many think because it is the city of Ares, that is Mars" (cf. K. 10:13). Procopius 2097A follows this identification and calls it a great village. A number of entries have double names (cf. K. 25, 48:11, 58:3, 64:6, 76:1, 76:7, 90:10, 132:8, 160:19, etc.). Reference to idols is not uncommon (cf. 36:15 and Appendix)

177. Adama. Isaiah 15:9; K. 38:1; L. 244:70.

Textual variant in Vatican manuscript where Theodotion is misplaced with Aquila and Symmachus. This is not a proper name in MT. Only Hexaplaric information given.

178. Agros (Ager). Isaiah 7:3; K. 38:2; L. 244:71.

The fuller’s field is referred to again in K. 102:16. This is one of several entries detailing Jerusalem areas. Out of order and suspect as later addition.

179. Asedek (Asedec). Isaiah 19:18; K. 38:4; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Textual variant Asedech (Latin).

The entry is missing in Vatican manuscript. Since it is out of the geographical limits of the Holy Land, it probably is not to be emended from the Latin. Jerome’s Commentary on Isaiah19:18 also indicates the ambiguous etymology from either "clay" or "sun."

Ostracine is out of the Tabula Peutinger 23 miles beyond Rinokoura (K. 148:3).

Heliopolis is identified with ōn (K. 176:2).

180. Arphad (Arfad). Isaiah 36:19, 37:13; K. 38:7; L. 244:73.

Simple biblical summary.

The additional notes are to Jeremiah 49:23 and II Kings 18:34. This kind of addenda could be a marginal gloss when it appears at the end of an entry.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Arpath, healing" (126) or "Arfath, healing or cure" (114).

181. Anaeougaua (Aneugaua). Isaiah 37:13; K. 38:9; L. 245:75.

This is a Greek combination of two Hebrew names. Textual variants: Anathoysau and Ane and Gaye (Greek).

These may be out of the geographical limit of the Holy Land. Jerome's Epistle (?)39:13 notes the possibility that the ou refers to the Hebrew conjunctive wav. So also in his Commentary on Isaiah 37: 13 he says, "Ana and Aua which the LXX mixed up calling it Anauegaua with the conjunction and, that is wav, between two nations which in Hebrew are Ana and Aua."

The added reference is to II Kings 18:34 as a gloss or later editing.

182. Armenia. Isaiah 37:38; K. 38:11; L. 245:77.

Also outside the geographical limits of the Holy Land as is the first entry Ararat (K. 2:23). Sarasa is probably a scribal error written as a variant Arasa, but it could possibly be confused with a marginal gloss on Sharezer who killed Sennacherib and escaped to Armenia (Isaiah 37:38).

183. Asel (Asael). Zechariah 14:5; K. 38:12; L. 245:78.

Textual variant Asaēl (Greek).

In Commentary on Zechariah 14:5 Jerome writes, "The LXX transliterates Asael. Aquila puts the Hebrew word as Asel with a short letter e but Theodotion has a long."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Asahel, deed of God" (125).

184. Anamaēl (Anameel). Zechariah 14:10; K. 38:13; L. 245:79.

The LXX has changed the N of Hebrew into an M (cf. Jeremiah 31:36).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ananahel, grace of God."

185. Asademōth (Assaremoth). Jeremiah 31:40; K. 38:14; L. 245:80.

Possible variant in Greek would agree with the Latin form.

Jerome's Commentary on Jeremiah 31:40 also notes Aquila’s translation of Sademoth "suburban." This is probably not a proper name.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Asarmoth, entrance way of the dead." (61).

186. Aeniōth. Jeremiah 37:16; K. 38:16; L. 245:82.

Simple entry with Aquila for evidence that this is not a proper name. LXX also translated the HebrewMT.

187. Alōth (Alaoth). Jeremiah 48:5; K. 38:17; L. 245:83.

The Vatican manuscript does not have the notation on the MT Loyith. This name appears in K. 122:29 as Loyeitha (Vulgate Luit), but the location between Areopolis and Zoara is vague.

188. Aitham (Aethan). Jeremiah 49:19; K. 38:18; L. 245:84.

Textual variant Aetham (Greek).

Probably not a proper name. Hexaplaric information noted.


189. Akeldama (Aceldama). Matthew 27:8; K. 38:20; L. 245:86.

The New Testament places are rather limited but may be the only major part of the work done by Eusebius himself after compiling and collating various Jewish lists. Later editors added other lists to the work.

Textual variants: Acheldema and Acheldemag (Latin).

This is said to be the earliest non-biblical reference to this site. In K. 102:14 it is written Acheldamax. In the Madaba Map it is Akeldama following this Onomasticon entry. Jerome locates it south and Eusebius north of Jerusalem. The pilgrim text suggests southeast of Silwan and it is probably Deir Abu Tor near Hagg ed Dam which preserves the etymology.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Acheldemach, field of blood" (134, 143) which is a quote from Matthew.

190. Ainōn (Aenon). John 3:23; K. 40:1; L. 245:88.

Textual variants: Aleim (Greek) and Salem (Latin).

As in previous New Testament entry the first note after the place name is a quotation from the Gospel. It is not a city or town in the fourth century but only a "place" which is "near Saleim" (cf. K. 153:6). Ainon of Onomasticon is just north of Umm el ‘umdan.

The Madaba map places the words "Ainōn which in near Salim" at a spring south of Skythopolis (K. 16:2) following Eusebius. This is probably along the main road to Ierichō. Possibly the spring is ‘Ain el Deir. It should be near to Bethmaoula (K. 34:22) which is 10 miles South of Beisan. This all seems to place the tradition on the west bank of the Jordan, so some even suggest the waters of the Wadi Far’ah are intended.

But the Madaba map also has on the east bank an Ainon, possibly pointing to the Wadi el Harrer cf. Bēthaabara for still another tradition (K. 58:13).

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