« Prev Footnotes Next »

[Footnotes moved to the end and renumbered]

1.  1  Legis, id est, of the Holy Scriptures.

2.  2  docuimus.

3.  3 vos esse divino indicio.

4.  4 peccatores----i.e. in the matter of the schism (cf. iv, 3 etc.).

5.  5 It will be noticed that in this summary of the preceding Books, there is no express reference to the Fourth. For this reason Casaubon thinks that the two lines which are now printed at the end of the Fourth ought to be placed at the beginning of this Fifth Book; Probatum est ergo te non contra nos, sed contra vos dixisse, quod a te dictum est de oleo et sacrificio peccatoris.

6.  1  quod Baptisma vestra violavit audacia.

7.  2  multa contra vos pro nobis, quae sunt nostra, dixisti (cf. i, 5).

8.  3  dictionis tuae. (Dictio is a formal piece of rhetoric.)

9.  4 in processu tractatus tui. Tractatus is usually a sermon (cf. p. 176, note 2).

10.  5 de aqua vera et falsa.

11.  6 infirmando confirmas.

12.  7  That administered by Catholics.

13.  8  alterum te inanire professus es, ut alterum replere videreris. Videor is again used pleonastically.

14.  1  extra haereticorum Baptisma. By heretics St. Optatus here understands heretics such as Marcion, Praxeas and Valentinus (cf. iv, 5), who denied the doctrine of the Trinity. As they did not baptise in the Name of the Trinity, baptism administered by them was certainly invalid (cf. notes i,p. 17; 2, p. 22). Of such varia et falsa baptismata (i, 12) there was to be no question in this Book. They lay outside its scope.

15.  2  Baptisma alterum et alterum.

16.  3  diversa, in the same way that Catholic Baptism differs from any baptism not administered in the Name of the Trinity.

17.  4  auferre alterum, id est, to deny the validity of Baptism by Catholics.

18.  5 id est, rebaptism by Donatists.

19.  6  laborasti ut de secundo quasi primum facere videreris. We have here once more a pleonastic use of videor.

20.  7  prosapia.

21.  8 eius imago. 

22.  9 rem singularem post esse debere.

23.  1 peritomen semel ablatum.

24.  2 Trinitate confectum.

25.  3  quid tibi igitur placuit, frater Parmeniane?

26.  4  rem singularem.

27.  5 contra hanc. 

28.  6 mendacem.

29.  7 Cataclysmi. 

30.  8 lavacro interveniente.

31.  9 in faciem pristinam mundaretur. 

32.  10 extra.

33.  11 morbidos.

34.  12 mendacem. The epithet applied by Donatists to Catholic Baptism.

35.  1 si ita est.

36.  2 condita est.

37.  3 non de persona, that is not (as the Donatists maintained) from the sanctity of the baptiser.

38.  4 mendacem.

39.  5 ex toto.

40.  6 John xiv, 6.

41.  7 configere crimina.

42.  1  a nobis et pro vobis. G reads pro nobis. No doubt an emendation, to make the text less difficult.

43.  2  conversatio = manner of life.

44.  3  communes lectiones (St. Optatus, however, seems to contradict this in vi, 3, where he accuses the Donatists of having 'furtivas et alienas lectiones ').

45.  4 singulare baptisma.

46.  5 criminum mortem.

47.  6 peccatorum naufragium.

48.  1  quod omnes negare minime poteritis.

49.  2  In Baptism.

50.  3  The Donatists held that the Invocation of the Trinity effected nothing in Baptism unless the Minister of the Sacrament was pure ( mundus). But, as they taught that all the Catholics were impure ( inmundi), it followed that they held practically that the Trinity could do nothing in Baptism unless they were present.

51.  4 si nobis derogatis.

52.  5 qui in Trinitate prior est. The reference is to Psalm cix, 1: 'Dixit Dominus Domino meo.'

53.  6  omnia operatur et complet.

54.  7  aquas primum vivas animas edidisse. Parmenian no doubt had before his mind the following words of Tertullian ( De Baptismo): 'Primus liquor quod viveret edidit; nec mirum sit in Baptismo, si aquae animare noverunt.'

55.  8  numquid sua sponte.

56.  9  Gen. i, 20.

57.  10 sine operante.

58.  1 qui operabatur (cf. John i, 3).

59.  2 Gen. i, 2.

60.  3 nihil minus a Tribus.

61.  4 revocate pisces in originem.

62.  5 geminare (cf. vi. 2: inmane facinus a vobis geminatum est; vi. 8: geminata fraude; vii. 6: salutatione geminata).  

63.  6 non leve certamen innatum est et dubitatur, an . . .

64.  1  nutant et remigant animae populorum.

65.  2  omnes contentiosi homines sumus.

66.  3 studiis veritas impeditur. Cf. i, 26: 'de studio partium strepitus cotidiani sunt habiti.'

67.  4  non potest Christiana nosse secreta.

68.  5  Obviously this comparison cannot be unduly pressed. The Gospels cannot strictly be called Christ's Will, since not one word of them had been written at the time of His Death. St. Optatus, and St. Augustine after him (see note 2, p. 212), took advantage, for the purpose of their argument, of the word Testamentum ( διαθήκη), which was already in use, though in a quite different sense, for the Sacred Books of the New Covenant. Dean Swift in his Tale of a Tub (Section II) is thought by some to have had this passage in his mind.

69.  6 numerosos.

70.  1  de pectore morituro transfert in tabulas diu duraturas.

71.  2  Catholics have always appealed in domestic dissensions amongst themselves on theological questions, concerning which the Church has not spoken authoritatively, to the testimony of (1) Holy Scripture, (2) Apostolic Tradition. In dissensions with heretics they have appealed to the testimony of Scripture, which heretics profess at least to accept. So St. Augustine in controversy with the Donatists makes the same appeal, and indeed uses the same words as St. Optatus: 'Fratres sumus; quare litigamus? Non intestatus mortuus est Pater; fecit testamentumet sic mortuus est . . . Sedet Christus in caelo, et contradicitur Eius testamento' ( in Ps. xxi). But St. Augustine makes this appeal with greater caution than did St. Optatus. St. Optatus in the text appeals to John xiii, 7, in order to prove that Baptism may not be repeated; whereas St. Augustine, who no doubt felt that this was a forced application (cf. con. Petil. ii, 22) of the text, prefers to press the appeal to Scripture in order to prove thereby that the Catholic Church is the one Church of Christ. This he does without ceasing, urging the authority of the Catholic Church as decisive. When the discussion concerns any particular question (e.g. the repetition of Baptism) St. Augustine prefers to appeal to Apostolic Tradition rather than to Holy Scripture (cf. De Unit. xix; De Bapt. ii, 7, iv, 6, v, 23).

72.  1 John xiii, 8.

73.  2 inter ceteros Testamenti titulos.

74.  3 hunc titulum.

75.  4 solam formam humilitatis.

76.  6 obsequium.

77.  6  quo pars corporis petebatur ad obsequium, totum corpus obtulit ad lavacrum.

78.  7  nunc adestote, omnes turbae et singuli Christiani populi.

79.  8  dum provocat Petrus.

80.  9 mundus totus, John xiii, 10.

81.  1 de eo lavacro.

82.  2 de Trinitate.

83.  3 qui dum lavant, sordidant.

84.  4  quo de Trium Nominum fontibus inundat. Cf. note 3, p. 88,

85.  5  Matt. xxviii, 19.

86.  6 de hoc lavacro dixit

87.  7  de re locutus est non de persona (sc. the Minister of the Sacrament) .

88.  8  distantia. (Cf. v, 4 infra: 'vos vultis eiusdem personae esse distantiam.')

89.  9  bene.

90.  10 simpliciter.

91.  1    haec sententia generalis est non specialis.

92.  2  venientem hoc magisterio et exemplo tota simplicitate suscipimus.

93.  3  absit.

94.  4 sanum fidelem.

95.  5 ut iam lotum revocemus ad fontem. It may be noted that in the Catholic Church to-day, whenever a convert has to be conditionally baptised, in consequence of some doubt as to the 'Matter' and 'Form' of his Ba.ptism outside the Church (e.g. as to whether it was in Trinitate), this ceremony does not take place at the font, but elsewhere in privacy.

96.  6 Cf. Matt. xii, 31-32; Mark iii, 28-29; Luke xii, 10.

97.  7 iteremus.

98.  8 quod semel est.

99.  9 duplicemus.

100.  10  una tinctio (cf. Eph. iv, 5).

101.  11  quasi libenter duplicare contenditis.

102.  1  in Marcionis foveas (cf. iv, 5; i, 9).

103.  2  De uno Deo unus est Christus.

104.  3  A man who has been born once, either in the natural or supernatural order, cannot be born again in the same order of things.

105.  4 una fides ab haereticorum erroribus, et ab eorum varia fide fides unica separatur.

106.  5 etiam vobis praescribitur, i.e. the first Baptism is 'in possession.' Cf. infra: quod praescribat praesumptionibus vestris.

107.  6 totum ponendo in dotibus, nihil in Sacramentis (cf. ii, 10, where the thought is more fully developed: 'Cur de solis ecclesiae dotibus loqui voluisti et iam illud respondeas et de sanctis eius membris ac visceribus tacuisti, quae sunt procul dubio in Sacramentis et in Nominibus Trinitatis?').

108.  7  hoc nomen fidei. St. Optatus writes of Nomen Christianum (iii, 8); Catholicum (iii, 1); Ecclesiae (i, 21; iii, 5); Baptismatis (v, 4); Traditorum (i, 28); Legis (vii, 1); fraternitatis (i, 3); pietatis (iii, 10); communionis (vii, 6).

109.  8  pertineat ad credentem, non ad operantem (i.e. minister of the Sacrament).

110.  1  quocumque enim interrogante, qui credidit Deo, credidit.

111.  2  post illius unum 'Credo,' tu exigis alterum 'Credo.' The reference is to the baptismal interrogatories.

112.  3  species. Literally aspects, points of view.

113.  4  in credente (the subject of the Sacrament).

114.  5  in operante (the minister of the Sacrament).

115.  6  non pari libramine ponderandae sunt singulae.

116.  7  quasi necessaria. Cf. 'quasi ecclesia '(iii, 10). 'Contingently necessary' is Mr. Sparrow Simpson's translation ( op. cit. p. 47). It conveys the idea that the appointment of a Minister in Baptism is not absolutely necessary in itself, but contingent on the Will of God. I doubt, however, whether this thought was before the mind of Optatus. His argument proceeds, as we shall see immediately, on somewhat different lines.

117.  8  persona operantis. Persona from the part played by an actor = here the duty which the 'minister' has to perform----the official work assigned to him.

118.  1 fides in singulis una est.

119.  2 persona operantis.

120.  3 duabus prioribus speciebus par esse non posse.

121.  4 eiusdem personae esse distantiam. Persona, sc. operantis (v. supra). In the administration of Baptism, whether Peter baptises or Judas, there can be no real distantia. For distantia, as used by Optatus, cf. v, 3: Nam si esset distantia (i.e. personae, as here); i, 10 ( inter schismaticos et haereticos); i, 21 (delictorum, i.e. inter delicta).

122.  5 For they attributed the efficacy of Baptism, not to the work of the Trinity, but to their own sanctity.

123.  6 Baptismatis unicum nomen est. There is only one Baptism. (Cf. Singulare Baptisma, passim.)

124.  1  cui subest proprium corpus.

125.  2  cui corpori certa sunt membra. That which we now call the Matter and Form of the Sacrament.

126.  3  i.e. of the 'body' of Baptism. The 'Minister' has to be chosen, and consequently is external to the 'body' of Baptism. This reminds us of the converse argument that Umbilicus cannot be reckoned as one of the Endowments, because it is not external to the Body of the Church, but is a member ( membrum) of that Body (ii, 8). Evidently St. Optatus looked on the Minister in Baptism as a sort of ' Dos Baptismatis.'

127.  4 The water, the invocation of the Trinity, the Trinity Itself, the Faith never change. They are always one everywhere and are always necessary---- from the first Christian Baptism to the last that shall be administered before the coming of our Lord. Everything else admits of change----the place, the time, the person of the 'Minister.'

128.  5 operarios esse non dominos. The reference clearly is to Luke x, 2: 'Rogate Dominum messis ut mittat operarios in messem suam,' where Challoner's N.T. and both the A.V. and R.V. translate operarios 'labourers' (the old Rheims has workmen). Consequently I think it better to employ the word labourers here in order to recall the gospel text, though elsewhere, for the sake of lucidity, I translate operarius with reference to Baptism by the theological word Minister.

129.  1  Sacramenta per se esse sancta, non per homines. Harnack writes of these words ( History of Dogma, v, p. 42): 'This is the famous principle of the objectivity of the Sacraments, which became so fundamental for the development of the dogmatics of the Western Church, although it could not be carried out in all its purity in the Roman Church, because in that case it would have destroyed the prerogatives of the clergy.' It is difficult to see what Harnack had in his mind when he wrote this last qualifying sentence. Nothing can be more certain than that the Roman Church has always taught, without any limitation or qualification whatsoever, that the efficacy of the Sacraments is always and everywhere independent of the virtues or vices of those who administer them. Harnack in this passage probably used the words Roman Church as synonymous with Western Church (although this would not appear to be the case at first reading), since he would not wish to suggest that there is any difference in doctrine or practice between any Catholic Church in the West and the Church in Rome. But whilst recognising this, we are none the nearer to a comprehension of his real meaning.

130.  2  Ps. 1, 9.

131.  3 Ps. 1, 4.

132.  1 Is. iv, 4.

133.  2 iii, 2.

134.  3  ' qui non habet quod det, quomodo dat?' This was the great argument of St. Cyprian and his school against the validity of Baptism outside the Church. 'How,' they asked, 'can a man give the Faith which he has not got? No one can give what he has not.' In like manner the Donatists went on to argue that Baptism by a sinner was invalid, for----so they urged----by true Baptism grace is given; but the sinner without grace, cannot give what he has not. To this St. Optatus answers that it is God, not man, who bestows gifts in Baptism.

135.  4  videte Dominum esse datorem. These words are omitted by RBv.

136.  5  qui eiusdem fabricator est mentis.

137.  1 lavacrum vestrum.

138.  2 qualis est ipsa mens.

139.  3 quam habet formam.

140.  4 Is. i, 18.

141.  5 As St. Optatus has said already, man is by God's appointment the necessary (or rather the quasi-necessary) minister of the Sacrament. But God gives His Grace in Baptism directly to the baptised. He does not give it through a man----that is to say, He does not give it first to the 'Minister,' making him holy, so that this 'Minister,' by his own holiness, gives grace----though this would follow logically from Donatist principles.

142.  1 quod praescribat praesumptionibus vestris. 

143.  2 John iv, 13.

144.  3  tota inportunitate. For inportunitas see ii, 18.

145.  4  in poenitentia et remissa peccatorum (cf. i, 9: in remissam peccatorum).

146.  5 John i, 33.

147.  1 Cf. John iii, 26.

148.  2 John iv, 2.

149.  3  ut nos operemur.

150.  4  infinita millia (cf. iii, 6: sub Iohanne infmita multitudo hominum baptizata est).

151.  5 operabatur servus et vacabat Dominus. There is a specific distinction between the Baptism of John and the Baptism of Christ. (Cf. v. 5: alterum fuerit baptisma Iohannis et alterum sit Christi.)

152.  6  antequam baptizandi daret formam.

153.  7  peractum est non modicum tempus Gb, per acceptum non modicum tempus RBv. Ziwsa has suggested per actum non modicum tempus.

154.  1 Matt. xxviii, 19.

155.  2 Matt. xi, 12.

156.  3 qui vim faciunt.

157.  4 ante praecepta, sc. de Baptismate.

158.  5 post praecepta.

159.  1  in Regnum legibus intraverunt.

160.  2 vim fecerunt.

161.  3 ante praecepta.

162.  4 cui nemo iudicat.

163.  5 pro perfecto iudicatum est.

164.  6 quasi quidam limes. Ziwsa says that limes = terminus.

165.  7  iussionis inter tempora antecedentia et sequentia. St. Optatus held that the Baptism of John conferred grace before the institution of Christian Baptism, but not afterwards. From this it follows that anyone who had received the Baptism of John after the institution of Christian Baptism had to receive the Baptism of Christ. This he proceeds to deduce from Acts xix, 1 seq.

166.  8  post praecepta.

167.  9 an accepissent Spiritum Sanctum.

168.  10 sic . . . quemadmodum, i.e. even without any knowledge of the Mystery of the Trinity.

169.  11  ante legem, sc. Baptismatis.

170.  12 ad indulgentiam pertinuerunt.

171.  1  legibus (sc. Baptismatis) non occupati.

172.  2 non erant ex ioto rei. 

173.  3 post legem, sc. Baptismatis.

174.  4 post leges, sc. Baptismatis. 

175.  5 in Sacramento erraverant.

176.  6 exclusum fuerat.

177.  7  post mandata divina, sc. de Baptismate.

178.  8  legibus (sc. Baptismatis) debuerant ire in regnum.

179.  9  non per violentiam.

180.  10 Matt. xi, 12.

181.  11  nolite vobis blandiri.

182.  12 At Ephesus.

183.  13  non post personam operarii interrogavit, sed post rem (cf. v, 3). St. Paul did not enquire as to the character of him who had administered the Sacrament, but as to the fact whether its recipients had received the Holy Ghost.

184.  14  non ipsum, sc. Baptisma Salvatoris.

185.  15  res. With a reference to that which he has just written of St. Paul enquiring not about the persona, but about the res.

186.  1  si tamen de lege aliquid feceritis. By the law is here still meant Christ's Law concerning Baptism. If the Donatists had put right any baptisms, which had not been validly administered, they had done well; e.g. if they had baptised any persons who had received a baptism, but not in the Name of the Trinity. Such, however, was not the case.

187.  2  Acts xix, 3.

188.  3 In their Baptism.

189.  4 Parmenian had urged that Baptism given outside the Church was null and must be repeated, because those baptised by the Baptist were baptised anew by the Apostles. Optatus answers that the cases are not parallel. The same reply is given by Augustine, con. Petil. ii, 37, iii, 56; De Bapt. v, 9, 10 etc.

190.  1 vox est de vico conlecta, non de libro lecta. A mere catchword without any real authority. It is impossible to express in English the verbal antithesis between conlecta and lecta.

191.  2 1 Cor. i, 13.

192.  3 gaudetis.

193.  1 cui creditur ipse dat, quod creditur, non per quem creditur. 

194.  2 infinita.

195.  3 illo operante.

196.  4 humana sunt opera, sed Dei sunt munera. 

197.  5 hoc munus baptismatis esse dantis, non accipientis. 

198.  6 qui huius rei dator est.

199.  7  et nos et vos teneamus singulos gentiles. Cf. i, 8: nihil interesset inter fideles et unumquemque gentilem.

200.  8  quem tenetis.

201.  9 ' nolo.'

202.  1  ' renuntio et credo' et cetera.

203.  2  non ille, pro cuius voluntate, ut dicitis, sanctitas vestra succedit. For succedit cf. i, 3: 'Petrus, cui successit Linus,' etc. In pro cuius voluntate we have another curious example of Optatus' use of pronouns. Cf. v, 5: 'Qui non post personam operarii interrogavit.'

204.  3  confectione vellus candidum purpurascit. Cf. Cic. in Acad. ap. Non. 2, 717: 'Nonne unda, cum est pulsa remis, purpurascit? '

205.  4  fidelem.

206.  1  et vocabulum mutat et mentem.

207.  2  consideranda sunt effecta, retractanda sunt efficientia.

208.  3  quibus tincta vellera per colorem promoveantur in admirabilem dignitatem.

209.  4 Luke ix, 49.

210.  1  Luke ix, 49, 50.

211.  2  ut opus esset illorum sanctificatio Trinitatis.

212.  3  ergo Nomen est, quod sanctificat, non opus.

213.  4  operarios esse non dominos. Cf. note 2, p. 22.

214.  5  nam propter tumorem vestrum, quo in nos intumescitis. We may notice the verbal alliteration tumorem . . . intumescitis. St. Optatus does not, of course, mean to imply that St. Paul any more than Isaiah or Ezekiel had received a supernatural gift of prophecy, whereby Apostle or Prophet could consciously to himself foresee and provide medicine for the troubles brought on by Donatism. But the lessons given for all time by the Sacred Writers seemed to Optatus especially applicable to his own days.

215.  1  in se et Apollo actus nostri temporis conformat.

216.  2   i Cor. iv, 6.

217.  3 i Cor. iii, 6. 

218.  4 vineam suam pastinare.

219.  5 operarium.

220.  6 electa plantaria.

221.  7 aquam inducere potest; imperare, ut teneat, non potest. It is very difficult to understand what is meant here by ut teneat. How can water hold the vines? Possibly he may be the subject of teneat: 'He cannot command the vines, so as to keep them there.' If for teneat we read teneant, we might translate in an intransitive sense: 'He cannot order that they hold' = coalescere in terram (infra). But nothing is really satisfactory. Casaubon thinks that the ut teneat is probably a corrupt gloss due to some scribe who could not understand the imperare standing alone. The meaning is clear. It is God alone who can ripen the vine. Casaubon suggests that if St. Optatus wrote anything between imperare and non potest, it was vineae. On the other hand, cf. iv, 9: Lacus detritos, qui non possunt aquam continere. St. Optatus, who often slightly varies his phrases, may have had this phrase unconsciously lingering in his ear.

222.  1  de medullis palmitum producere radices coalescentes in terram et gemmantes oculos, incrementa frondium provocare. Coalescentes: cf. Plin. xiv. 2: 'Ut nisi pinguissimo solo coalescere non possit.' The little feelers or feeling roots must be one with the soil. Gemmantes oculos: cf. Cicero, De oratore, iii. 38: ' gemmare vites, laetas segetes etiam rustici dicunt,' 'Even rustics understood and used such metaphors as these.' Oculos = the knob from which the bud rises; cf. Columel. iv, 29: 'Interest plures oculos, quibus egerminet inesse.'

223.  2  operarius.

224.  3 qui ad incrementa perducit. Cf. 1 Cor. iii, 7.

225.  4 sole intrante. This is a Hebraism. The Jews spoke of the setting sun as entering (into the heavens), and of the rising sun as coming forth (from the East).

226.  1 in die retributionis.

227.  2 nobiscum de mercede contendere.

228.  3  Maiestatis dominium. Cf. iv. 9: 'in Deo perennis Maiestas exundat.'

229.  4  pro humanitate exhibita.

230.  5 Matt. xxv, 34.

231.  6 totum convivii dominium.

232.  7 1 Cor. iii, 4, 5.

233.  8 in universis servientibus non dominium sed ministerium.

234.  1  The reference is to v, 4: 'In hoc Sacramento baptismatis celebrando tres esse species constat.'

235.  2  ex tribus speciebus illam primo tripartitam esse, sc. the Trinity.

236.  3  Having discussed the part played by the Trinity and the minister (operarius) in Baptism, something must be said of the remaining species, the Faith of the adult recipient.

237.  4 de virtute sua.

238.  5 pro matris credulitate.

239.  6 feriata cessaret.

240.  7 se vacasse.

241.  8 Luke viii, 48. St. Optatus was evidently quoting by heart, and in consequence got strangely mixed. It is hardly necessary to point out that no such incident as that here described is to be found in any of the Gospels. Optatus seems to have been confusing his recollections of Luke viii, 42-48 with Matt. viii, 5 and Luke vii, 2 seq.

242.  1  dantis est, non accipientis was, as we have learned already, a saying of the Donatists. By 'the giver' they meant the Minister of the Sacrament, one of themselves, one of the holy. St. Optatus has already shown, in answer to their argument Nemo dat quod non habet, that the real giver is God. He now proves that God does not ' work' (vacat), but is always ready to give, and lets the recipient receive according to his faith. Unless he who is to be baptised possesses faith, God will not give the grace of Baptism, even as our Lord on earth would not work miracles excepting on behalf of those who believed----their faith He put before His own power.

243.  2  totus = corporeally.

244.  3 Matt. viii, 13. 

245.  4 This is evidently sarcasm.

246.  5 vel tria complenda sunt fidei testimonia. Optatus often uses vel in the sense of at least.

247.  1 Luke viii, 43-46; Matt. ix, 20-22; Mark v, 25-34.

248.  2 tantas celebrari virtutes (cf. iv, 9).

249.  3 dolor.

250.  4 invenit consilium tacita fides.

251.  1  fides quantum praesumpsit exegit. Quantum, 'so far as,' = 'all that.' Ziwsa, however, thinks that exegit here = impetravit.

252.  2  dantis est, non accipientis. It is clear that Parmenian had given a series of proofs, concluding at the end of each: Dantis est, non accipientis, and Optatus ironically repeats the words. According to the argument of St. Optatus there are three 'species': ( α) The Name of the Trinity by which all the grace is given; ( β) the minister of the Sacrament, who is only instrumental----a servant; and ( γ) the faith of the recipient, which by the ministry of ( γ) impetrates the grace from ( α). Finally therefore all depends upon ( γ). The Trinity is unchangeable, the minister a mere servant, but the disposition of the recipient all-important. If, then, outside the Church the recipient has faith the Baptism will be valid. Of course this implies that although baptism by heretics (if administered in the Name of the Trinity) is valid, the baptism of a heretic is invalid. But we have to bear in mind that St. Optatus assumes (for such had so far for the most part been the experience of the Church) that a heretic does not believe in the Trinity or in the Catholic Doctrine of the Incarnation (cf. note i, p. 17). His argument, so far as it is here stated (apart from any implications), is good, but incomplete. The doctrine of character handed down by the Greek Fathers was unknown to St. Optatus. He had no idea of character being given without grace, nor of reviviscentia on arriving at true and living Faith.

253.  3  quasi immaturam quandam durissimorum nascentium vulnerum massam.  [Note to the online text - the last couple of words were obliterated in the printed copy]

254.  1  scabrosissimis moribus.

255.  2  qui lenissimam gratiam aquae salutaris accipere detractaret.

256.  3  hominis innovationem.

257.  4 veternosam. Cf. 'vetus, vietus, veternosus senex': Ter. Eun. iv, 4, 21.

258.  5  talis commemorata est lectio.

259.  6 Cf. 4 Reg. v.

260.  7  iussione. Casaubon reads with G ante . . . iussionem.

261.  8  ut merito denuo melius lavaretur. 

262.  9 nec sic vobis occurreret.

263.  10 primitivum.

264.  11 illi homini.

265.  1  populorum peccata. This use of populi = multitude is not uncommon in Optatus.

266.  2  qui ianitores et ministros fefellerit vestros.

267.  3   foras.

268.  4 si ita est.

269.  5  quod resurrectio repraesentet.

270.  6  sc. the Wedding Garment.

271.  7  Casaubon supplies the word caelestis after Rex, but since the word Deus follows, caelestis (which is not in the MSS.) hardly seems necessary.

272.  8  praesentia multorum gaudeat et de aliquorum absentia contristetur. aliquorum, i.e. the Donatists. Optatus on several occasions already has spoken of God grieving (cf. i, 2 bis; ii, 24; ii, 26; iii, 2 'Deus dolet'). Here he represents Him as grieving over the absence of those first called, and rejoicing over the presence of others from the byways and hedges. St. Optatus evidently leaves the opposition between his praesentia multorum and the pauci electi without noticing it.

273.  9  Cf. Matt, xxii, 14.

274.  1  cum Films Dei Ipse Christus sit Sponsus et vestis et tunica natans in aqua, quae multos vestiat. Casaubon has suggested natos in aqua for natans in aqua. If this suggestion be adopted, we translate 'and the Tunic, wherewith He may clothe many who are born in the water (the baptised).' This, however, has no MS. authority, and is quite unnecessary. The spiritual garment of grace is Christ, whom the baptised 'puts on' (induit), as the water flows over him. But St. Optatus will not identify Christ with the water----so He is the Grace in the water----a spiritual garment invisibly 'floating in the water,' which clothes the baptised, as the water covers him. It is a very beautiful idea. There seems to be no reference here to the i0xqu&j. (Still cf. iii, 2: 'Hic est piscis, qui in baptismate per invocationem fontalibus undis inseritur.')

275.  2  infinitos.

276.  3 nec vestiendo deficiat. 

277.  4 Gal. iii, 27.

278.  5 decenter.

279.  6 nec rugatur. Literally ' is not wrinkled.'

280.  1  qui baptisma singulare servaverint.

281.  2  Is it the case that this strange sentence shows that St. Optatus was a Chiliast? It is quite possible that the text as we have it is corrupt; however, the view that St. Optatus held Millennarian tenets in some form or other is at least plausible. We know that, though St. Augustine abandoned Chiliasm, he would by no means have held that its repudiation, even in his time, was a matter of obligation.

282.  3  nudus et lugubris.

283.  4 quas fraudulentas adisti fauces? 

284.  5 quos latrones? (cf. i, 19).

285.  6 All the MSS. finish this Book at this point.

286.  1  This chapter is to be found in G at the end of Chapter viii. Though not to be found in RBv, Du Pin thinks on intrinsic grounds that it was written by Optatus, but that it has been dislocated in position. He placed it (and in this Ziwsa follows him) here, at the end of the Book. The words with which the passage begins (Et ut vel sero compendium faciam, credo etiam hoc sufficere etc.) undoubtedly seem to point to this transposition. It is possible that St. Optatus placed it in his first edition and deliberately omitted it in his second. It is certainly very poor and not worthy of the book or of its argument.

287.  2  sc. of rebaptising.

288.  3  If the holiness of the Donatists was great enough, as they claimed, to give the grace of Baptism----the life of the soul, it ought to suffice to restore the life of the body. According to Catholic doctrine God gives the life of the soul in Baptism, but God can also, if it so please Him, raise the dead to renewed earthly life.

289.  4  Ez. xiii, 19.


This text was transcribed by Roger Pearse, Ipswich, UK, 2006.

Greek text is rendered using unicode.


« Prev Footnotes Next »



| Define | Popups: Login | Register | Prev Next | Help |