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84

BIRDS FOUND IN PALESTINE,

WITH A REFERENCE TO THOSE NAMED IN SCRIPTURE.

N.B.–V.L. = Van Lennep; H. = Houghton; T. = Tristram.

English Name. Hebrew and Greek. Specimens found by Palestine Explorers. Where Found. Remarks.

Avocet.

 

Recurvirostra avocetta.

Sur.

 

Bat.

 (Lev. xi. 19.)

Atalleph.

***

Vesperugo Kuhlii.

 

Bats are included in the Bible amongst "birds," and also "creepers on all fours." See Quadrupeds, p. 76.

Bee-eater.

 

Merops apiaster.

Anti-Libanus.

A summer migrant.

Bittern.

 (Zeph. ii. 14.)

Kippôd.

***

Botaurus stellaris. T.

 

See Quadrupeds, p. 76.

Ardeola minuts.

(?)

Bought at Jerusalem.

Blackbird.

 

Merula.

 

Found in Palestine; not migratory. V.L.

Blackcap.

 

Silvia atricapilla.

Jericho.

 

Blue Jay.

 

 

 

Blue jay still found in Palestine. V.L.

Bulbul.

 

Ixus xanthopygius.

Beit Atab.

Peculiar to Syria. The nightingale is so called, as also a titmouse. V.L.

Chat.

 

Saxicola libanotica.

Bethlehem.

 

 

Pratincola rubicola.

 

Dromolæa leucopygia.

Ain Feshkah.

Cock.

 (Mark xiv. 30.)

***

 

 

 

Cormorant.

 (Lev. xi. 17.)

 (Is. xxxiv. 11.)

Shálâk..

***

Kâath.

***

Phalacrocorax carbo.

 

Probably kâath is the "pelican" (see marginal reading): but the common cormorant frequents the coast, comes up the Kishon, and is found on the Sea of Galilee and on the Jordan; and this is probably the shálák. T.

Corn-Bunting.

 

Emberiza miliaria.

Ain Fasail.

 

Cretchmaker's Bunting.

 

Emberiza cæsia.

Ain Fasail.

 

Crane.

 (Is. xxxviii. 14.)

Âgûr.

***

Grus cinerea. T.

 

Some think the "crane" should be "stork." Others agree with A. V. Cranes flock to wilderness of Beersheba in winter. T.

Cuckoo.

 (Lev. xi. 16.)

Shachaph

***

Cuculus canorus.

Jordan Valley.

Some translate shachaph "seagull" (as the LXX.).

 

Oxylophus glandarius.

Ain Fasail.

Summer migrant to Palestine.

Crow.

 (Prov. xxx. 17.)

'Oreb.

***

Corvus umbrinus.

 

Ordinary cinereal crows are very common scavengers, and are identified with the "ravens" that fed Elijah. V.L. But the term includes the whole tribe of crows, e.g. rooks, jackdaws, &c., all of which are very numerous. T.

Dove.

 (Is. xxxviii. 14.)

Yonah.

***

 

 

See Pigeon.

Dunlin.

 

Tringa cinclus.

 

 

85
English Name. Hebrew and Greek. Specimens found by Palestine Explorers. Where Found. Remarks.
Ducks.

Ducks, wild and domestic, everywhere.

Eagle.

 (Deut. xxxii. 11.)

Nesher.

***.

Circaetus gallicus.

Gyps fulvus. T.

Yebua.

Feeds on reptiles. The Arabic nissir, i.e. griffon, great vulture. Found in Palestine and Egypt.

Eagle, Gier.

 (Lev. xi. 18.)

Racham.

***

Neophron percnopterus.

Gier" is "Egyptian vulture," or "Pharaoh's hen," common in Asia and Africa, to Cape of Good Hope; migratory from Palestine in the winter.

Fowl, fatted.

 (1 Kin. iv. 23.)

Barburim.

Abusim.

"Fatted fowl," probably "geese," which abound all over Palestine, as do domestic fowls, whose native country is Asia, but which were not imported into Palestine till after the Captivity. V.L.

Glede.

 (Deut. xiv. 13.)

Raah.

***

Buteo ferox.

Probably the "buzzard," of which there are three kinds in Palestine, of which the commonest is the large red, resembling a small eagle. T.

Goldfinch.

Carduelis elegans.

Bethlehem.

Grakle.

Amydrus Tristrami.

Mar-Saba.

Dead Sea and Jordan Valley.

Grouse.

Pteroels Senegallus.

Desert.

Also in Jordan Valley.

Harrier.

Circus æruginosus.

Dead Sea.

C. cineraceus.

Jericho.

Hawk.

 (Job xxxix. 26.)

Netz.

***

Accipiter nisus.

Netz is generic, including the whole kestrel tribe. T.

Hawk, Night.

 (Lev. xi. 16.)

Tachmâs.

***

Caprimulgus (?). T.

Doubtful; perhaps "night-jar." Some say, a kind of owl.

Hen

 (Luke xiii. 34.)

See Fowl.

Heron.

 (Lev. xi. 19.)

Anâphah.

***

Ardeola comata.

Ardea cinerea. T.

Jordan Valley.

White, blue, and brown herons are found; also the "buff-backed," often called the "ibis," especially about the Waters of Merom. H.

Hoopoe.

 (Lev. xi. 19.)

Dukipath.

***

Upupa epops.

Bludan.

Summer visitant to Palestine; very common, especially in woods and near rocky water-courses. It is a very filthy feeder, so unclean. T.

Jar.

Caprimulgus Europæus.

Beit Atab.

Kestrel.

Netz.

***.

Tinnunculus alaudarius.

Beit Atab.

Abounds in all southern Palestine. T.

T. Cenchris.

Ramleh.

Kingfisher.

Alcedo ispida.

Jericho.

Ceryle rudis.

Alcyon Smyrnensis.

Found in Asia Minor.

Kite.

 (Lev. xi. 14.)

Ayyah.

***

Milvus regalis.

Ayyah is a generic term for "keen-sighted" birds; regalis very common in winter.

Lark.

Galerida cristata.

Jaffa.

More abundant in species and individuals than in England. T.

Otocoris penicillata.

Anti-Libanus.

Found only on mountain tops of S.W. Asia.

Lapwing.

 (Lev. xi. 19.)

Dukipath.

***

No doubt the hoopoe, since the Arabic term is the same; in size similar to the thrush, but crested. See Hoopoe.

86
English Name. Hebrew and Greek. Specimens found by Palestine Explorers. Where Found. Remarks.

Magpie.

 

 

 

One of the most valuable scavengers of Syria, relieving cattle of flies and vermin.

Nuthatch.

 

Sitta Syriaca.

Anti-Libanus.

 

Owl.

 (Is. xxxiv. 13.)

Bath-haya-'anah.

 

 

Many agree with the LXX., and regard it as an ostrich.

Owl, great.

 (Lev. xi. 17.)

 (Is. xxxiv. 15.)

Yanshooph.

***

Kippos.

***

Bubo Ascalaphus.

Jericho.

Kippos and lilith are both found there. The former could scarcely be the "ibis," which could not live among the ruins of Petra; but kôs is called by Arabs mother of ruins." Kôs (a cup) is translated by some "pelican," from its pouch. T. Some translate kippos, "arrowsnake."

Owl, little.

 (Lev. xi. 17.)

Kôs,

***

Athene meridionalis.

Bethlehem.

Owl, of desert.

 (Ps. cii. 6.)

Owl, screech.

 (Is. xxxiv. 14.)

Lilith.

***

Otus vulgaris.

Jericho.

Osprey.

 (Lev. xi. 13.)

Asniyah.

***

Pandion haliaëtus.

 

Fish-eating eagle, never plentiful, on account of the scarcity of its food; but the term includes also the "short-toed" eagle, by far the most common in Palestine.

Ossifrage.

 (Lev. xi. 13.)

Peres.

***

Gypaëtus barbatus.

 

The Lämmer-geier, most magnificent of vulture species; found sparingly in most rocky ravines. Both the Hebrew and English names mean "bone-breaker." T.

Ostrich.

 (Lam. iv. 3.)

Ya'anah.

***

Struthio camelus.

 

Still found in the wilderness of Sinai.

Partridge.

 (Jer. xvii. 11.)

Korè

***

Caccabis Græcus.

Jericho.

Found everywhere in Palestine and Egypt, especially the rock partridge.

Partridge.

 (1 Sam. xxvi. 20.)

 

Ammoperdix heyii.

Peculiar to the Jordan Valley.

Peacock.

 (1 Kin. x. 22.)

Tucciyim.

***

Pavo cristatus.

 

Not native; imported by Solomon from Malabar coast, or Ceylon; extinct. The name is not Hebrew, but Tamil, togeï, and they are still called by it in Ceylon.

Pelican.

 (Ps. cii. 6.)

Kâath.

***

 

 

Spends the winter in Palestine; migrates in the summer to Russia.

Pigeon.

 (Ps. lxviii. 13;

Matt. iii. 16.)

Yonah.

***

 

 

 

Called "dove" in A.V. Blue or black, with patches of white; common and migratory. There are the wood, rock, and wild pigeons. V.L.

Pigeon.

 (Gen. xv. 9.)

Gozâl.

***

Plover.

 

Charadrius hiaticula.

Jaffa.

 

Quail.

 (Ex. xvi. 13.)

Selav.

***

Coturnix vulgaris.

 

Like a small partridge; migratory for breeding in spring from Africa to high plains of Asia Minor, Turkey, and S. Russia. They alight on Red Sea shore for rest before passing over the mountains; and are found by the Dead Sea. Their flesh is a delicacy.

Raven.

 (Prov. xxx. 17.)

'Oreb.

***

 

 

See Crow.

Redstart.

 

Ruticilla phœnicura.

Jordan Valley.

Summer migrant to Palestine.

Ruticilla Tithys.

Bludan.

Robin.

 

Erythæus rubicula.

Jericho.

Winter migrant to Palestine.

Ruticilla Suecica.

Coracias garrula.

Gaza.

87
English Name. Hebrew and Greek. Specimens found by Palestine Explorers. Where Found. Remarks.

Sandpiper.

 

Tringoides hypoleucos.

Solomon's Pools.

Same as English species.

Shrike.

 

Lanius lathora.

Jericho

Very much larger toes and feet than the English species.

Lanius auriculatus.

Jordan Valley.

Lanius nubicus.

Sparrow.

 (Ps. cii. 7.)

'Tzippor.

***

Passer salicarius.

Ain Fasail.

The word occurs forty times in the Bible; and is always, with two exceptions, translated "bird," or "fowl." Sparrows swarm in the Plain of Gennesaret, and are trapped and sold for very little; but are very sparse and solitary in Judæa. H.

 

Fringilla patronia.

Jericho.

Starling.

 

Sturnus vulgaris.

Jericho.

 

Stork.

 (Jer. viii. 7.)

Khasidâh.

***

Ciconia alba.

 

The black stork is constantly seen building in fir trees, and the common stork on the roofs of houses, and mosques; they migrate to Egypt. Forbidden as food by the Mosaic law.

Sun-Bird.

 

Cinnyris osea.

Jericho.

Peculiar to the Jordan Valley. P.E.

Swallow.

 (Prov. xxvi. 2;

Ps. lxxxiv. 3.)

Deror.

***

Hirundo rustica.

Jordan Valley.

Agûr is thought to be a mistranslation for "crane," and sûs in the same passage is the "swift." Several species in Syria; some frequent rivers, some crags. The common swallow abounds in the Mosque of Omar, and its Haram. They save the country from a plague of flies. V.L.

Swallow

 (Is. xxxviii. 14.)

Âgûr

***

 

 

Swan

 (Lev. xi. 18.)

Tinshemeth.

***

 

 

Swans, white and gray, come down to the lakes in winter.

Swift.

 (Is. xxxviii. 14.)

Sis, sûs.

***

Cypsellus melba.

Jordan Valley.

 

Swift

 

Cypsellus apis.

 

Found everywhere in summer. T.

Swift

 

Cypsellus affinis.

 

Found all the year; it resembles the house martin. T.

Thrush

 

Petrocincta cyanus.

Mar-Saba.

Sedentary. P.E.

Trateropus chalybeus.

Jericho.

Peculiar to Jordan Valley. P.E.

Tit, great.

 

Parus major.

Beit Atab.

 

Turtledove.

Gen. xv. 9.)

Lev. i. 14.)

Tor-yonah.

***

Turtur auritus.

Yebua.

Summer migrant to Palestine; very common and abundant. See Pigeon. P.E. The palmdove and ringdove are sedentary.

Turtur risorius.

Jericho.

Vulture

 (Lev. xi. 14..)

Dââh.

***

 

 

Vultures are very plentiful, and are the chief scavengers for the removal of the dead bodies of animals. V.L. See Eagle.

Vulture

 (Ex. xix. 4.)

Racham.

***

Wagtail.

 

Motacilla alba.

Ramleh.

 

Motacilla sulphurea.

Jericho.

Water-rail.

 

Rallus aquaticus.

Jericho.

 

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