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115

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.


Avoirdupois Weight. Troy Weight.

lbs. oz.   drs.

Agerah ......t'l......— — -439

10 gerahs = 1 bekah . . >.......— —      4'39

2 bekahs = 1 shekel.........— —     8' 9 «-

60 shekels = 1 maneh......... 2     14*628

50 manehs == 1 talent.........102 13    11'428

lbs. oz. dwt. grs. 12

2 125

6

5

10

Long Measure.

A digit, or finger (Jer. Hi. 21).......

4 digits = 1 palm (Exod. xxv. 25) . . . .

3 palms = 1 span (Exod. xxviii. 16) . . . 2 spans = 1 cubit (Gen. vi. 15).....

4 cubits = 1 fathom (Acts xxvii. 28) . . .

1*5 fathoms = 1 reed (Ezek. xl. 3, 5) 13-3 reeds           " ""                  ' "'

ft.

.......... 1

.......... 7

13*3 reeds =1 line (Ezek. xl. 3)..............145

in.

0-912

3-648

10-944

9-888

3-552

11-328

11-04

Land Measure.

                  Eng. miles, paces,      ft.

A cubit.......................— —      1-824

400 cubits = 1 furlong (Luke xxiv. 13)...........— 145      4*6

5 furlongs = 1 sabbath day's journey (John xi. 18; Acts i. 12) . — 729      3'0

10 furlongs = 1 mile (Matt. v. 41)............. 1 403      1*0

24 miles = 1 day's journey...............33 172      4-0

A caph 1'3 caph 4 logs 3 cabs

2 hins

3 seahs

Liquid Measure.

= 1 log (Lev. xiv. 10)................    —

= 1 cab......................     —

= 1 hin (Exod. xxx. 24) ...............      1

= 1 seah .....................      2

1 bath, or ephah (1 Kings vii. 26: John ii. 6)......      7

gals. pts.

—     0-625

—      0-833 3-333 2

W WWl*l*W       ----- J. WtllU) VJX VJfJXXiAIXX ^J. JL*.J-A.l£,£l X XX* *d*J • U Vll-Ll III J J        •••*•«              I

10 ephahs =• 1 kor, or homer (Isa. v. 10; EzeR. xlv. 14).......75

4 4-5

5-25

Dry Measure.

pecks, gals. pts.

A gachal......................      —      —      01416

20 gachals = 1 cab (2 Kings vi. 25; Rev. vi. 6).......      —      —      2-8333

1'8 cabs = 1 omer (Exod. xvi. 36)...........      —      —      51

3*3 omers = 1 seah (Matt. xiii. 33) ...........        1              1

3 seahs = 1 ephah (Ezek. xlv. 11)...........        3              3

5 ephahs = 1 letech (Hoseaiii. 2) ...........       16             

2 letechs = 1 kor, or homer (Numb, xi.32; Hos. iii.2) ....      32             

N.B.—The above Table will explain many texts in the Bible, especially those which, are placed within brackets. Take, for instance, Is. v. 10: "Yea, ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath, and the seed of an homer shall yield an ephah." This curse upon the covetous man was, that 10 acres of vines should produce only 7 gallons of wine, i.e. one acre should yield less than 3 quarts; and that 32 pecks of seed should only bring a crop of 3 pecks, or, in other words, nine-tenths of the seed sown should die in the ground, and so produce nothing, only one-tenth sprouting up into plants.

TIME.

The Natural Day was from sun-rise to sun-set. The Natural Night was from sun-set to sun-rise.

The Civil Day was from sun-set one evening to sun-set the next; for, " the Evening and the Morning were the first day."

Night (Ancient).

First Watch (Lam. ii. 19) till midnight. Middle Watch (Judg. vii. 19) till 3 a.m. Morning Watch (Exod. xiv. 24) till 6 a.m.

Night (New Testament).

First Watch, evening       — 6 to 9 p.m.

Second Watch, midnight   = 9 to 12 p.m.

Third Watch, cock-crow   = 12 to 3 a.m.

Fourth Watch, morning  = 3 to 6 a.m.

Day (Ancient).

Morning till about 10 a.m. Heat of day till about 2 p.m. Cool of day till about 6 p.m.

Day (New Testament).

Third hour       = 6 to 9 a.m.

Sixth hour       = 9 to 12 midday.

Ninth hour      == 12 to 3 p.m.

Twelfth hour    = 3 to 6 p.m.

116

THE JEWISH YEAR.

JEWISH MONEY,

With its value in English and American money; the American dollar being

taken as equal to 4s. 2d.

Jewish                                         English. American.

£ s. d. dols. cents.

A gerah (Exod. xxx. 13) ..............   =           1'36   =              2*73

10 gerahs = 1 bekah (Exod. xxxviii. 26)........   =        1   l-68   =            27*37

2 bekahs = 1 shekel (Exod. xxx. 13; Isa. vii. 23; Matt.

xvii.27)...................   =       02   3-37   =           54'74

50 shekels = 1 minah* (Luke xix. 13) ........   =       5 14   !75   =       27   37"50

60 minahs = 1 talent...............   =    342 3   9       =   1,642   50

A gold shekel.................   =       1 16   6       =         8   76

A talent of gold ...............   =  5,475           = 26,280     

N.B.—A shekel would probably purchase nearly ten times as much as the same nominal amount will now. Remember that one Roman penny (lid.) was a good day's wages for a labourer.

* The minah or maneh, according to 1 Kings x. 17, compared with 2 Chron. ix. 16, contained 100 shekels: though according to one interpretation of Ezek. xlv. 12, it contained 60, but more probably 50. The passage reads thus:—" Twenty shekels, five and twenty shekels, fifteen shekels shall be your maneh." This is variously interpreted, (1) 20 + 25 + 15 = 60. (2) 20, 25, 15 are different coins in gold, silver, and copper, bearing the same name. It is well to remark the meaning of these names: Shekel = simply weight: Bekah = split, i.e. the shekel drtided into two: Gerah = a grain, as in our weights, a grain and a barley-corn, the original standard weight. Maneh = appointed, equivalent to sterling, a specific sum: Talent = a round mass of metal, i.e. a weight or coin.

ROMAN MONEY.

Roman.                                                                                  English. American.

£ s. d. dols. cents.

A mite (Mark xii. 42).................   =      0-Q35  = 1*87

2 mites = 1 farthing (Mark xii. 42) .......   =      1-87   = 3'75

4 farthings = 1 penny (Matt. xxii. 19) .........   =      7'50   = 15

100 pence = 1 pound (Matt. xviii. 24).........   =      3 2 6       = 15

N.B.—Here we learn that:—

Naamax's offering to Elisha of 6,000 pieces (shekels) of gold, amounted to more than £10,000

= 48,000 dollars.

The Debtor (Matt. xviii. 24) who had been forgiven 10,000 talents, i.e. £3,000,000 = 14,400,000 dollars, refused to forgive his fellowservant 100 pence, i.e. £3 2s. 6d. = 15 dollars.

Judas sold our Lord for 30 pieces of silver, i.e. £3 10s. 8d. = 16 dollars, 96 cents, the legal value of a slave, if he were killed by a beast.

Joseph was sold by his brethren for 20 pieces, i.e. £2 7s. = 11 dollars, 28 cents.



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