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BOOK I. declares the eternal counsel and distinct actual concurrence of the holy Trinity unto the work of redemption in the blood of Christ; with the covenanted intendment and accomplished end of God therein.
Chapter I. treats in general of the end of the death of Christ, as it is in the Scripture proposed:— I. What his Father and himself intended in it. II. What was effectually fulfilled and accomplished by it:— 1. Reconciliation; 2. Justification; 3. Sanctification; 4. Adoption; 5. Glorification. III. A general view of the opposite doctrine.
Chapter II. Of the nature of an end in general, and some distinctions about it:— I. The general distinction of end and means. II. Their mutual relation:— 1. In a moral sense; 2. In a natural sense. III. A twofold end noticed, viz.:— 1. Of the work; 2. Of the worker. IV. The end of every free agent is either that which he effects, or that for the sake of which it is effected. V. The means of two sorts, viz.:— 1. Such as have a goodness in themselves; 2. Such as have no goodness, but as conducing to the end. VI. An application of these distinctions to the business in hand.
Chapter III. considers, — I. The Father as the chief author of the work of our redemption; II. The acts ascribed to the person of the Father:— 1. The Father sending his Son into the world for the work of redemption:— (1.) By an authoritative imposition of the office of mediator upon him:— [1.] The purposed imposition of his counsel. [2.] The actual inauguration of Christ as mediator. (2.) By furnishing him with a fulness of all gifts and graces:— [1.] Christ had a natural all-sufficient perfection of his deity; [2.] He had a communicated fulness. (3.) By entering into covenant with him about his work:— [1.] With a promise of assistance; [2.] With a promise of success. 2. The Father laying upon him the punishment of sin.
Chapter IV. Of those things which, in the work of redemption, are peculiarly ascribed to the person of the Son:— I. His incarnation; II. His oblation; III. His intercession.
Chapter V. The peculiar actings of the Holy Spirit in this business:— I. As to the incarnation of Christ; II. As to the oblation or passion of Christ; III. As to the resurrection of Christ.
Chapter VI. The means used by the fore-recounted agents in this work:— I. The means used is that whole dispensation from whence Christ is called a Mediator:— 1. His oblation; 2. His intercession. II. His oblation not a mean good in itself, but only as conducing to its end, and inseparable from his intercession; as, — 1. Both intended for the same end; 2. Both of the same extent, as respecting the same objects; 3. His oblation the foundation of his intercession.
Chapter VII. contains reasons to prove the oblation and intercession of Christ to be one entire mean respecting the accomplishment of the same proposed end, and to have the same personal object:— I. From their conjunction in Scripture; II. From their being both acts of the same priestly office; III. From the nature of his intercession; IV. From the identity of what he procured in his oblation with what results from his intercession; V. From their being conjoined by himself, John xvii.; VI. From the sad consequence of separating them, as cutting off all consolation by his death.
Chapter VIII. Objections are answered, being a consideration of Thomas More’s reply to the former arguments for the inseparable conjunction of Christ’s oblation and intercession, viz.:— I. As to Christ being a double mediator, both general and special, alleged from 1 Tim. ii. 5, iv. 10; Heb. ix. 15. II. As to the tenor of Christ’s intercession, according to Isa. liii. 12; Luke xxiii. 34; John xvii. 21–23; Matt. v. 14–16; John i. 9. III. As to Christ being a priest for all in respect of one end, and for some only in respect of all ends, alleged from Heb. ii. 9, ix. 14, 15, 26; John i. 29; 1 John ii. 2; Matt. xxvi. 28.
BOOK II. removes false and supposed ends of the death of Christ, with the distinctions invented to salve the manifold contradictions of the pretended universal atonement, rightly stating the controversy.
Chapter I. Some previous considerations to a more particular inquiry after the proper end and effect of the death of Christ:— I. The supreme end of Christ’s death in respect of God; II. The subordinate end of his death in respect of us.
Chapter II. removes some mistaken ends assigned to the death of Christ:— I. It was not his own good. II. It was not his Father’s good, to secure for him a right to save sinners.
143Chapter III. More particularly of the immediate end of the death of Christ, with the several ways whereby it is designed. The immediate end of the death of Christ particularly asserted from the Scriptures, viz.:— I. From those scriptures which hold out the intention and counsel of God with our Saviour’s own mind in this work, Matt. xviii. 11, etc. II. From those scriptures which state the actual accomplishment or effect of his oblation, Heb. ix. 12, 14, 26, etc. III. From those scriptures that point out the persons for whom Christ died, viz., Matt. xxvi. 28; Isa. liii. 11, etc. The force of the word “many” in several of these texts, and the argument taken from them, in comparison with other texts, vindicated from the exceptions of Thomas More. Who are meant by Christ’s sheep, and who not, John x. 15; and his objections answered.
Chapter IV. Of the distinction between impetration and application:— I. The sense wherein this distinction is used by the adversaries, and their various expressions about it. II. The distinction itself handled:— 1. The true nature, meaning, and use thereof:— (1.) It has no place in the intention of Christ; (2.) The will of God in this business is not at all conditional; (3.) All the things obtained by Christ are not bestowed upon condition, and the condition on which some things are bestowed is absolutely purchased; (4.) Impetration and application have the same persons for their objects. 2. The meaning of those who seek to maintain universal redemption by that distinction; with a discovery of their various opinions on this head. III. The main question rightly stated.
Chapter V. Farther of application and impetration:— I. That these, though they may admit of a distinction, cannot admit of a separation, as to the objects thereof, is proved by sundry arguments. II. The defence made by the Arminians on this head (alleging that Christ purchased all good things for all, to be bestowed upon condition; which condition not being performed, these good things are not bestowed), overthrown by sundry arguments.
BOOK III. contains arguments against universal redemption from the word of God; with an assertion of the satisfaction and merit of Christ.
Chapter I. Arguments against the universality of redemption. The first two from the nature of the new covenant, and the dispensation thereof:— Arg. i. From the nature of the covenant of grace, as being made in Christ, not with all, but only some. Arg. ii. From the dispensation of the covenant of grace, as not extended to all, but only some.
Chapter II. Three other arguments:— Arg. iii. From the absolute nature of Christ’s purchase for all the objects thereof. Arg. iv. From the distinction of men into two sorts by God’s eternal purpose. Arg. v. From the Scripture nowhere saying that Christ died for all men.
Chapter III. Two other arguments, from the person which Christ sustained in this business:— Arg. vi. From Christ having died as a sponsor. Arg. vii. From Christ being a mediator.
Chapter IV. Of sanctification, and of the cause of faith, and the procurement thereof by the death of Christ:— Arg. viii. From the efficacy of Christ’s death for sanctification. Arg. ix. From the procurement of faith by the death of Christ. Arg. x. From the antitype of the people of Israel.
Chapter V. Continuance of arguments from the nature and description of the thing in hand; and, first, of redemption:— I. Arg. xi. From redemption by the death of Christ.
Chapter VI. Of the nature of reconciliation, and the argument taken from thence:— II. Arg. xii. From reconciliation by the death of Christ.
Chapter VII. Of the nature of the satisfaction of Christ, with arguments from thence:— III. Arg. xiii. From satisfaction by the death of Christ:— 1. What satisfaction is:— (1.) Christ made satisfaction, and how; against Grotius. (2.) Acts exercised by God in this business:— [1.] Of severe justice, as a creditor; against Grotius. [2.] Of supreme sovereignty and dominion. Consequences of these acts as to those for whom Christ satisfied. 2. Inconsistency of all this with universal redemption.
Chapter VIII. A digression, containing the substance of an occasional conference concerning the satisfaction of Christ:— I. Its consistency with God’s eternal love to his elect. II. Necessity of it for executing the purposes of that love.
Chapter IX. Being a second part of the former digression, containing arguments to prove the satisfaction of Christ:— Arg. i. From Christ bearing sin, and the punishment thereof. Arg. ii. From his paying a ransom for sinners. Arg. iii. From his making atonement and reconciliation. Arg. iv. From the nature of his priestly office as exercised on earth. Arg. v. From the necessity thereof unto faith and consolation. Arg. vi. From 2 Cor. v. 21, and Isa. liii. 5.
144Chapter X. Of the merit of Christ, with arguments from thence:— IV. Arg. xiv. From the merit ascribed to the death of Christ. V. Arg. xv. From the phrases “dying for us,” “bearing our sins,” being our “surety,” etc.
BOOK IV. — All considerable objections are answered as yet brought to light, either by the Arminians or others, in the behalf of universal redemption, with a large unfolding of all the texts of Scripture by any produced and wrested to that purpose.
Chapter I. Things to be considered previously to the solution of objections:— I. The infinite value of the blood of Christ. II. The administration of the new covenant under the gospel. III. The distinction between man’s duty and God’s purpose. IV. The error of the Jews about the extent of redemption. V. The nature and signification of general terms used:— 1. The word “world” of various significations. 2. The word “all” of various extent. VI. Persons and things often spoken of according to their appearance. VII. Difference between the judgment of charity and verity. VIII. The infallible connection of faith and salvation. IX. The mixture of elect and reprobates in the world. X. The different acts and degrees of faith.
Chapter II. An entrance to the answer unto particular objections. Answer to objections from Scripture, viz.:— I. From the word “world” in several scriptures:— 1. John iii. 16 largely opened and vindicated.
Chapter III. An unfolding of the remaining texts of Scripture produced for the confirmation of the first general objection or argument for universal redemption. 2. 1 John ii. 1, 2, largely opened and vindicated. 3. John vi. 51 explained. 4. A vindication of other texts produced by Thomas More, viz.:— (1.) 2 Cor. v. 19. (2.) John i. 9. (3.) John i. 29. (4.) John iii. 17. (5.) John iv. 42; 1 John iv. 14; John vi. 51.
Chapter IV. Answer to the second general objection or argument for the universality of redemption. II. From the word “all” in several scriptures, viz.:— 1. 1 Tim. ii. 4, 6. 2. 2 Pet. iii. 9. 3. Heb. ii. 9. 4. 2 Cor. v. 14, 15. 5. 1 Cor. xv. 22. 6. Rom. v. 18.
Chapter V. The last objection or argument from Scripture answered. III. From texts which seem to hold out a perishing of some for whom Christ died, viz.:— 1. Rom. xiv. 15. 2. 1 Cor. viii. 11. 3. 2 Pet. ii. 1. 4. Heb. x. 29.
Chapter VI. An answer to the twentieth chapter of the book entitled “The Universality of God’s Free Grace,” etc., being a collection of all the arguments used by the author (Thomas More) throughout the whole book, to prove the universality of redemption:— Answers to Arg. i. From the absolute literal sense of Scripture. Arg. ii. From an alleged unlimitedness of Scripture phrases. Arg. iii. From Christ’s exaltation to be Lord and Judge of all, Rom. xiv. 9, 11, 12. Arg. iv. From the proposal of Christ’s death to all by the gospel. Arg. v. From the confession to be made of Christ by all. Arg. vi. From Scripture assertions and consequences. Answers to the proofs of this sixth argument:— 1. From 1 John iv. 14; John i. 4, 7; 1 Tim. ii. 4. 2. From some texts before vindicated. 3. From Ps. xix. 4; Rom. x. 18; Acts xiv. 17, etc. 4. From John xvi. 7–11, etc. 5. From Ezek. xviii. 23, 32, xxxiii. 11, etc. 6. From Matt. xxviii. 19, 20; Mark xvi. 15; Isa. xlv. 22, etc. 7. From Acts ii. 38, 39, etc. 8. From 1 Cor. xv. 21, 22, 45–47; Rom. iii. 22–25, etc. 9. From Matt. xxviii. 19, 20; 2 Cor. v. 19, etc. 10. From Matt. v. 44, 48; 1 Tim. ii. 1–4, etc. 11. From 1 Tim. ii. 3, 8, etc. 12. From 1 Cor. vi. 10, 11, etc. 13. From Tit. ii. 11, 13, iii. 4, 5, etc. 14. From John iii. 19, etc. 15. From Scripture expostulations with men. 16. From Jude 4, 12, 13, etc. 17. From Rom. xiv. 9–12, etc. 18. From Jude 3–5.
Chapter VII. Other objections from reason are removed:— Answers to Objection i. From men being bound to believe that Christ died for them. Obj. ii. Alleging that the doctrine of particular redemption fills the minds of sinners with doubts and scruples whether they ought to believe or not; the objection retorted. Obj. iii. That this doctrine disparages the freedom of grace; the objection retorted. Obj. iv. That this doctrine disparages the merit of Christ; the objection retorted. Obj. v. That this doctrine mars gospel consolation; in answer whereto it is proved that, — 1. The doctrine of universal redemption affords no ground of consolation; 2. That it quite overthrows the true ground of consolation; 3. That the doctrine of particular redemption is not liable to any just exception as to this matter; 4. That this doctrine is the true, solid foundation of all durable consolation. — Ed.
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