Alexandrian Biblical critic, exegete, theologian, and spiritual writer
Born of a Christian family (most likely in Alexandria), the oldest of seven children, Origen was initially trained in both secular and religious literature by his father Leonides (who was exceedingly proud of his son's learning). Very early Origen developed a passion for martyrdom, but he was restrained by his mother when he attempted to join his father in martyrdom. The burden of caring for the family fell upon Origen at the age of seventeen, so he began to teach. His classes proved so popular that he had to divide them, leaving beginners to an assistant, reserving the more advanced for himself.
Origen lived in extreme austerity. Eusebius related that in his rashness he castrated himself, but that account may not be accurate. He was bold in his admiration for martyrs, and many of his students suffered in the persecutions. Despite his lack of care for his own life, he was spared because many pagan philosophers and Christian heretics came to him for instruction. (The Neoplatonist Porphyry was an early acquaintance.) Origen was apparently free to travel, for he visited Rome, Palestine, and Arabia briefly, where he gained approval from many foreign bishops.
His range of learning was vast. In addition to his father's instruction, Origen also studied under Ammonius Saccas and Clement of Alexandria. For the sake of biblical exegesis, he learned Hebrew. His knowledge of the philosophies of the day, especially Platonism, was profound. While still living in Alexandria, be began to write and compile books. One of the earliest and most significant was De principiis, one of the first efforts toward a systematic theology. Another work was his Hexapla, an enormous edition of the Bible arranged in six columns. It contained the Hebrew text, a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew, the Septuagint, and the Greek versions by Symmachus, Aquila, and Theodotion. The Hexapla was a great aid in the study of the Scriptures.
So famous did he become that Mamaea, mother of Emperor Alexander Severus, summoned him to Antioch to instruct her. On his way to Greece, he was ordained as a priest by the bishop of Caesarea. That action was uncanonical and was protested by his own bishop of Alexandria. As a result, he never returned to Egypt but settled down in Caesarea, where he taught for the remainder of his life.
Constantly called upon all his life to preach (even when he was a layman), he finally, after he had passed the age of sixty, allowed his homilies to be recorded by shorthand experts. Toward the end of his life (250), he was seized by civil authorities and tortured in an effort to make him apostatize. The persecution, although very severe, failed in its purpose. But it may have contributed to his death a few years later. Thus he died, not a martyr, but a confessor.
Origen wrote an incredible number of books. Many have been lost. What has been preserved has come down only in part in Greek, the rest in Latin translation. His leading Western interpreter was Tyrannius Rufinus, a friend of Jerome. All of Origen's work was, at least in theory, based on the literal text of Scripture, which he believed to be historical. Origen's exegesis of the text was often allegorical and typological-a style following that adopted by Alexandrian commentators on the Homeric epics. To Origen, Christ was the center-all Scripture must be interpreted in his light. That meant, for Origen, speculation on the spiritual significance of the literal. Basically he was not terribly systematic. The very size of his literary output gave rise to paradoxes and dilemmas in his expression, even to contradictions. As a consequence, he was admired and hated in his own lifetime and afterwards. But many who disagreed with him were deeply influenced by him.
His De principiis and Hexapla have already been mentioned. He also wrote commentaries on Genesis, the Psalms, Song of Songs, Lamentations, the prophets, Matthew, John, and the Pauline corpus. His homilies treated Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel, Song of Songs, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Luke. The total body of his work has not been preserved.
Works by Origen
Originally printed in 1885, the ten-volume set, Ante-Nicene Fathers, brings together the work of early Christian thinkers. In particular, it brings together the writings of the early Church fathers prior to the fourth century Nicene Creed. These volumes are noteworthy for their inclusion of entire texts, and not simply fragments or excerpts from these great writings. The translations are fairly literal, providing both readers and scholars with a good approximation of the originals. This volume continues with the works of Tertullian, compiling a series of his shorter treatises. It also contains the work of other Church Fathers from "Latin Christianity"--Minucius Felix and Commododianus. Finally, it contains some of the works of well-known and influential theologian Origen. These writings were heavily influential on the early Church, and for good reason, as they are inspirational and encouraging. These volumes also come with many useful notes, providing the reader with new levels of understanding. Overall, Ante-Nicene Fathers, or any part of it, is a welcome addition to one's reading list.
Although it was written in the late first/early second century CE, today Origen on Prayer remains an influential text for believers on the practice, structure, and mindset of prayer. Early church scholar and theologian Origen was born, lived, and taught in Alexandria, Egypt and wrote several works. Origen writes that prayer is the way in which humans can know and have discourse with God. He notes the many ways prayer is depicted in the Bible, and then tackles the argument that prayer is superfluous. He describes the four purposes of prayer: requests, prayers (praise), intercessions, and thanksgivings. Origen also performs an exegesis of the Lord's Prayer, and this in-depth look at each phrase of the prayer is a valuable resource for Christians old and new. Origen concludes with comments on the formalities of prayer, in which he describes the proper posture and state of mind for praying. Origen on Prayer is helpful for those who wish to know how to approach prayer and notable for its expert discussion of the Lord's Prayer. Origen uses many Biblical references, particularly to prayerful characters, so the text presents a number of heralded role models for our communication with God.
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