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Note from John Bechard, creator of this Electronic text.


The following is a list of Scottish words which are found in George MacDonald’s “Sir Gibbie”.  I have compiled this list myself and worked out the definitions from context with the help of Margaret West, from Leven in Fife, Scotland, and also by referring to a glossary found in a collection of poems by Robert Burns, “Chamber’s Scots Dialect Dictionary from the 17th century to the Present” c. 1911 and “Scots-English English-Scots Dictionary” Lomond Books c. 1998.  I have tried to be as thorough as possible given the limited resources and welcome any feedback on this list which may be wrong (my e-mail address is JaBBechard@aol.com).  This was never meant to be a comprehensive list of the National Scottish Language, but rather an aid to understanding some of the conversations and references in this text in the Broad Scots.  I do apologise for any mistakes or omissions.  I aimed for my list to be very comprehensive, and it often repeats the same word in a plural or diminutive form.  As well, it includes words that are quite obvious to native English speakers, only spelled in such a way to demonstrate the regional pronunciation.


This list is a compressed form that consists of three columns for ‘word’, ‘definition’, and ‘additional notes’.  It is set up with a comma between each item and a hard return at the end of each definition.  This means that this section could easily be cut and pasted into its own text file and imported into a database or spreadsheet as a comma separated variable file (.csv file).  Failing that, you could do a search and replace for commas in this section (I have not used any commas in my words, definitions or notes) and replace the commas with spaces or tabs.


Word, Definition, Notes

a', all; every, also have

a' body, everyone; everybody,

a' thing, everything; anything,

aboot, about,

absteen, abstain,

abune, above; up; over,

accoont, account,

accordin', according,

accre, acre,

ae, one,

aff, off; away; past; beyond,

affrontit, affronted; disgraced, also ashamed; shamed

afore, before; in front of,

aften, often,

again, against; opposed to, also again

again', against,

agreeable, in agreement; willing,

Ahchan, Achan, reference to Joshua 7

ahin', behind; after; at the back of,

ahint, behind; after; at the back of,

aiblins, perhaps; possibly,

aigles, eagles,

Aigypt, Egypt,

ain, own, also one

aipple, apple,

airm, arm,

airmour, armour,

airms, arms, also coat of arms; crest

airt, quarter; direction; compass point, also art

airthquack, earthquake,

airts, quarters; directions; compass points,

aiss, ashes,

ait, eat,

aiten, eaten,

aith, oath,

aither, either,

aiven, even,

alane, alone,

alloo, allow,

allooin', allowing,

Almichty, Almighty; God,

amids, amidst,

amo', among,

an', and,

ance, once,

ane, one, also a single person or thing

aneath, beneath; under,

anent, opposite to; in front of, also concerning

aneth, beneath; under,

'aneth, beneath; under,

angert, angered; angry, also grieved

anither, another,

anker, liquid measure of 4 gallons,

a'ready, already,

arrenge, arrange,

as lang's, as long as,

as sune's, as soon as,

ashmy, asthma,

'at, that,

at farest, at the farthest, also at the latest

ates, hates,

a'thegither, all together,

a'thing, everything; anything,

'at'll, that will,

'at's, that is,

attreebute, attribute,

atween, between,

'atween, between,

auld, old,

auld langsyne, old days of long ago, also old friendship

auld-fashioned, old-fashioned,

auncient, ancient,

Aw, I, also all; owning

awa, away; distant,

awa', away; distant,

awfu', awful,

Awva!,At all!, exclamation of surprise; contempt

ay, yes; indeed, exclamation of surprise; wonder

aye, yes; indeed,

ayont, beyond; after,

bairn, child,

bairnies, little children, diminutive

bairns, children,

baith, both,

bale-fire, any large fire; bonfire,

ballant, ballad; song,

ballants, ballads; songs,

banes, bones,

bannin', cursing; swearing; abuse; scold,

bannock, round flat gridle-baked cake,

Barebanes, bare bones (i. e. death),

barkin', barking,

bawbee, halfpenny,

bealt, festered,

beastie, beast; animal, diminutive to express sympathy or affection

becomin', becoming,

beets, boots,

beginnin', beginning,

behaud, withhold; wait; delay, also behold

bein', being,

beirin', bearing; allowing,

belang, belong,

believet, believed,

believe't, believe it,

ben, in; inside; into; within; inwards, also inner room

be't, be it,

bethink (oneself), stop to think; reflect,

beuk, book, also Bible

Bible-word, word of honour,

bicker, wooden vessel,

bidden, abided; stayed,

biddin', bidding,

bide, endure; bear; remain; live, also desire; wish

bidena, do not bide; do not stay,

bides, endures; bears; remains; lives, also stays for

bield, protection; shelter; cover,

bigg, build,

biggit, built,

bilin', boiling, also the whole quantity

bin', bind,

binna, be not,

birdie, little bird, diminutive

birdies, little birds, diminutive

birk, birch tree,

birks, birch trees,

bit, but; bit, also small; little--diminutive

blate, over-modest; bashful; shy,

blaw, blow,

blawin', blowing,

bleck, black; smut, also nonplus; perplex

blecks, nonplusses; perplexes,

bledder, bleater; snipe, also foolish or idle talker

bleedin', bleeding,

blessin's, blessings,

blest, blessed,

blether, talk nonsense; babble; boast,

blethers, talks nonsense; babbles; boasts,

blew, blue,

blin't, blinded,

blude, blood,

bluidy, bloody,

boady, body,

boasoms, bosoms,

boatle, bottle (of whisky),

boddom, bottom,

bodies, people; fellows; folk,

bodit, boded,

body, person; fellow, also body

bonnie, good; beautiful; pretty; handsome,

bonniest, best; most beautiful; prettiest, also considerable

bonny, good; beautiful; pretty; handsome,

boortree, shrub elder,

bosky, wild; unfrequented,

bossie, large wooden bowl, serving bowl

boucht, bought,

bow-ribbit, bent in the ribs,

brackens, bracken; coarse fern,

brae, hill; hillside; high ground by a river,

brainch, branch,

brainches, branches,

braird, first sprouting of young grain,

brak, break,

brakfast, breakfast,

brakin', breaking,

brander, grating; gridiron; trestle,

bra'ner, grating; gridiron; trestle,

braw, beautiful; good; fine, also lovely (girl); handsome (boy)

bray, press; squeeze; push,

bree, brew; whisky; broth; gravy,

breeks, breeches; trousers,

breist, breast,

breistie, little breast, diminutive

breith, breath,

bridle, modify,

brither, brother,

brithers, brothers; fellows,

brocken, broken,

brods, boards; (book covers),

broo, brow; eyebrow,

broom, shrub with bright yellow flowers,

broonie, brownie; benevolent elf,

broonies, brownies; benevolent elves,

brose, water; soup; meal; oatmeal pudding,

broucht, brought,

brunt, burned,

buik, book, also Bible

buiks, books,

bun'le, bundle,

burn, water; stream; brook,

burnie, little stream, diminutive

bursten, burst,

buss, bush; shrub; thicket,

butterflees, butterflies,

buyin', buying,

by ordinar', out of the ordinary; supernatural, also unusual; exceptional

byke, hive; swarm; crowd,

byre, cowshed,

byres, cowsheds,

ca', call; name,

ca'd, called,

ca'in, calling,

ca'in', calling,

cairried, carried,

cairries, carries,

cairry, carry,

cairryin', carrying,

caitiff, coward; cowardly, more of an older English word than Scots

caller, fresh; refreshing; cool,

cam, came,

cam', came,

camna, did not come,

canna, cannot,

carena, do not care,

carin', caring,

carolled, sang (carols),

cast, thrown off; discarded (clothes), also appearance; aspect; bearing

casten, spoilt; worthless; thrown aside; faded,

catched, caught,

caul', cold,

cauld, cold,

caup, small wooden bowl,

caups, small wooden bowls,

'cause, because,

caw, drive; impel; hammer,

cawpable, capable,

'cep, except; but,

'cep', except; but,

certie, of a truth; certainly,

certy, of a truth; certainly,

chaps, knocks; hammers; strikes; raps,

chatterin', chattering,

chaumer, chamber; room; bedroom,

cheek, side; jamb, also cheek

cheemistry, chemistry,

cheenge, change,

cheenged, changed,

cheengin', changing,

cheerie, cheery,

cheese, choose,

chiel, child; young person; fellow, term of fondness or intimacy

chield, child; young person; fellow, term of fondness or intimacy

chop, shop; store,

chopdoor, shop door,

claes, clothes; dress,

clan, group; class; coterie,

clappers, door knockers; rattles,

clean, altogether; entirely, also comely; shapely; empty; clean

cleansin', cleansing,

cled, clothed; clad,

cleed, clothe; shelter,

clim', climb,

cloaset,(prayer) closet,

cloods, clouds,

cloot, clout; box (ear); beat; slap, also patch; mend

closed, enclosed,

closet, room; bedroom,

coaties, children's coats or petticoats,

cobblin', cobbling; shoemaking,

cock-crawin', crowing of the cock,

coffer, legacy of wealth; fortune,

colliginer, college student, also college boy

colloguin', associating; conspiring; plotting,

Come awa' ben.,Come on in.,

Come yer wa's in.,Come on in.,

comena, do not come,

comin', coming,

concernt, concerned,

condescendin', condescending,

conduckit, conducted,

conneckit, connected,

consaive, conceive,

considert, considered,

consortit, consorted,

contentit, contented,

contrar', contrary,

coo, cow,

cooard, coward,

cooards, cowards,

coontenance, countenance,

coorse, coarse, also course

cottar, farm tenant; cottager,

cottars, farm tenants; cottagers,

couldna, could not,

couples, rafters,

coverin', covering,

cowt, colt,

crap, top part,

crap o' the wa', natural shelf between wall and roof,

cratur, creature,

craturs, creatures,

craw, crow; rook (types of birds),

craws, crows,

creepie,(three legged) stool, a child's chair

creepin', creeping; crawling,

creepit, crept; crawled,

crook, hooked iron chain inside a chimney, for hanging cooking pots on

cry, call; summon,

cud, could,

cudna, could not,

cunnin', cunning,

curriet, curried; dressed,

cursit, cursed,

cuttit, cut; harvested,

cweentry, country,

cwite, coat,

dacency, decency,

dacent, decent,

dale, deal; fir- or pinewood plank,

dammin', damming; condemning,

damps, coal-pit gases,

dang, knock; bang; drive, also damn

daud, blow; strike; abuse,

daudit, buffeted; struck,

dauner, stroll; saunter; amble,

daur, dare; challenge,

daured, dared; challenged,

daurin, daring; challenging,

daurin', daring; challenging,

daurna, dare not; do not dare,

daursay, dare say,


dearie, sweetheart; darling,

deavt, deafened,

dee, do, also die

deed, died, also deed; indeed

'deed, indeed,

dee'd, died,

deein', doing, also dying

deen, done,

deene, done,

dee't, do it,

deevil, devil,

deevilry, devilry,

deevils, devils,

defilin', defiling,

deid, dead,

deif, deaf,

deil, devil,

deils, devils,

deith, death,

delicht, delight,

dementit, demented; mad; crazy,

dene, done,

denner, dinner,

denner-time, dinner time,

denyin', denying,

dertin', darting,

despisin', despising,

deuk-quack, duck quack,

deuks, ducks,

dictionar', dictionary,

didna, did not,

differ, difference; dissent, also differ

din, sound; din; report; fame,

dingin', overcoming; wearying; vexing, also driving; dashing

dings, overcomes; wearies; vexes, also drives; dashes

dinna, do not,

dinna fling the calf efter the coo, do not give up, also don't throw the baby out with the bath water

dirt, worthless persons or things, term of contempt

dis, does,

disappint, disappoint,

discoorse, discourse,

disna, does not,

dissiples, disciples,

dis't, does it,

div, do,

dod!,God! (exclamation),

doggie, little dog, diminutive

doin', doing,

doobt, suspect; know; doubt, have an unpleasant conviction

doobtin', suspecting; knowing, also doubting

doobtless, doubtless,

doobtna, do not suspect; do not know, also does not doubt

doobts, suspects; knows, also doubts

dooms, extremely; exceedingly; very,

doon, down,

doon', down,

door-cheek, door-post; threshold; doorway,

door-sill, threshold,

doos, doves,

dos, does,

do't, do it,

douce, gentle; sensible; sober; prudent,

doup, bottom; backside; buttocks,

draigon, dragon, reference to Revelation 12-13

draigons, dragons,

dram, glass of whisky,

drap, drop; small quantity of,

drappit, dropped,

drappy, little drop; a little (liquor), diminutive

drawin', drawing,

drear, dreary; dreariness; tedium,

dree, endure; undergo; suffer, also fear

dree my weird, undergo my doom,

dreemt, dreamed,

dreid, dread,

dreidfu', dreadful; dreadfully,

drinkin', drinking,

dronin', droning,

drookit, drenched; soaked,

droon, drown,

droonin', drowning,

droont, drowned,

drop, drop-shaped (earring), also drop

drouth, thirst; dryness, also drought

drouthie, thirsty; dry,

drucken, drunken; tipsy,

du, do,

duds, clothes; rags; tatters,

duin', doing,

dulse, type of edible seaweed,

dummie, little mute person, diminutive

dune, done,

dyke, wall of stone or turf,

dykes, walls of stone or turf,

ear, early,

ear', early,

ee, eye,

e'e, eye,

eedit, heeded,

een, eyes,

e'en, even; just; simply, also eyes; evening

eese, use,

efter, after; afterwards,

else, otherwise; at another time; already,


en', end,

endeevour, endeavour,

endeevourin', endeavouring; trying,

eneuch, enough,

enstance, instance,

er, ere; before,

er', ere; before,

ettle, reach; intend; purpose; aim, also aspire; attempt

even, even; compare; equal,

ever, before, also ever

ever-mair, ever more,

exemple, example,

expeckit, expected,

fa', fall; befall,

failt, failed,

faimily, family,

fain, eager; anxious; fond, also fondly; gladly

fa'in', falling,

fallow, fellow; chap,

fallow-feelin', mutual feeling,

fan', found,

fan't, found it,

fa'ntit, fainted,

fardin', farthing,

faulds, folds,

fause, false,

fau't, fault; blame,

fauvour, favour,

fawvour, favour,

feared, afraid; frightened; scared,

fearfu', fearful; easily frightened,

fearsome, terrifying; fearful; awful,

feart, afraid; frightened; scared,

feathert, feathered,

fecht, fight; struggle,

fechtin', fighting; struggling,

feck, value; worth; advantage, also abundance; majority

fee, hire oneself out,

feel, foolish, also fool

fegs!, truly!; really!; goodness!, mild oath; exclamation of surprise

fell, very; potent; keen; harsh; sharp, intensifies; also turf

fell-dyke, wall made of layers of sod,

fellow-cratur, fellow creature,

fells, sods,

feow, few,

fess, fetch,

fest, fast,

fey, doomed (to death),

fillit, filled,

fin', find; feel,

fin'in', finding; feeling,

fin'on haddie, smoked haddock,

firin', firing; heating,

fit, foot; base, also fit; capable; able

fittin', fitting,

flax, flax; wick,

flee, fly (insect),

fleers, floors,

fleg, blow; kick; stroke, also scare; frighten

fleggin', blowing; kicking; stroking, also scaring; frightening

fleggit, blew; kicked; stroked, also scared; frightened

flegs, blows; kicks; strokes, also scares; frightens

fleyt, terrified; frightened,

fling, kick; throw,

fling't, kick it; throw it,

flit, shift; remove; depart,

flitted, shifted; removed; departed,

flittin', shifting; removing; departing,

flure, floor,

forby, as well; as well as; besides, also over and above

forgie, forgive,

forgiein', forgiving,

forgi'en, forgiven,

forgifness, forgiveness,

forkit, forked,

for's, for his,

for't, for it,

foucht, fought,

fowk, folk,

fowth, plenty; abundance; full measure,

frae, from,

frank, generous; lavish, also generously

fricht, frighten; scare away, also fright

frichtit, frightened; scared away,

fule, fool,

fules, fools,

fulfillt, fulfilled,

fundation, foundation,

fun't, founded,

fut, foot,

gae, gave,

gaed, went,

gaein', going,

'gain, by; nearly; almost,

gairdens, gardens,

gait, way; fashion, also route; street

gaits, ways, also routes; streets

ga'le, gable,

gane, gone,

gang, go; goes; depart; walk,

gang yer wa's, go on,

gangin', going; walking,

gar, cause; make; compel,

garred, made; caused; compelled,

gars, makes; causes; compels,

gar't, made; caused; compelled,

gat, got,

gauin, going,

gauin', going,

gear, possessions; money; property, also livestock

geese, goose,

German Ocean,, old reference to the English Channel & North Sea

gerse, grass,

gether, gather,

gey, fairly; considerable,

geyan, considerably; somewhat; rather,

ghaist, ghost; soul; spirit,

ghem, game (hunted animal),

gie, give,

gied, gave,

giein, giving,

giein', giving,

gien, if; as if; then; whether, also given

gien't, if it,

gies, gives,

gie't, give it,

gin, if; as if; then; whether,

girdle, griddle for baking scones, iron disc

girnels, granaries; meal-chests,

glaid, glad,

glaiss, glass,

glaisses, glasses,

glamour, spell; charm; enchantment,

glaur, mud; slime; ooze,

gleg, quick; lively; smart; quick-witted,

glimp, glimpse; glance, also the least degree

glintin', twinkling; glittering,

gloamin', twilight; dusk,

gloaming, twilight; dusk,

gnerlet, gnarled,

goodman, master; husband; head of household, also farmer

gowans, daisies,

gowany, flowered with daisies,

gowd, gold,

gowk, cuckoo; fool; blockhead,

gowkit, foolish; silly,

gowks, cuckoos; fools; blockheads,

graivelly, gravely,

gran', grand; capital; first-rate,

gran'est, grandest,

gran'father, grandfather,

green bree, cesspool, also stagnant pool by a dunghill

greitin', crying; weeping,

grenite, granite,

gret, great,

grief, grieve,

grip, grasp; understand,

grippit, grasped; understood,

growin', growing,

growlin', growling,

grue, feeling of horror; tremor, also tremble

grum'lin', grumbling,

grup, grip; grasp,

gruppit, gripped; grabbed,

gudeman, master; husband; head of household, also farmer

guid, good, also God

guid-hertit, good-hearted,

guidit, treated; handled; managed,

guiss, guess,

guissin', guessing,

haddie, haddock,

hadna, had not,

hae, have; has,

hae a news, talk; gossip,

haein, having,

haein', having,

haena, have not,

hae's, have his,

hae't, have it,

haill, whole,

hairm, harm,

Haith!,Faith!, exclamation of surprise

haithen, heathen,

haithenish, heathenish,

haiven, heaven,

haiver, talk nonsense; babble,

hale, whole,

half-hoor, half-hour,

hame, home,

han', hand,

hang, hanged, also made

hangin', hanging,

hangt, hanged,

hanks, rope; coil; skein of cotton,

han'le, handle,

han's, hands,

hantle, much; large quantity; far,

hap, cover; wrap; shield,

h'ard, heard,

hark, listen,

harns, brains,

hasna, does not have,

haud, hold; keep,

hauden, held; kept,

haudin', holding; keeping,

hauds, holds; keeps,

haugh, river-meadow,

hause, neck; throat,

h'aven, heaven,

hawpy, happy,

haymows, large haystacks,

heap, very much, also heap

hearin', hearing,

hearken, hearken; hear; listen,

hearkenin', hearkening; listening,

hearkent, hearkened; heard; listened,

hear't, hear it,

hearten, encourage,

Hech!,Oh! strange!, a sighing exclamation

hed, had,

hedna, had not,

heedna, heed not; do not heed,

heicht, height,

heid, head; heading,

heids, heads; headings,

heigh, high,

he'll, he will,

helpin', helping,

helpit, helped,

hen-scraich, chicken cackle, lit. chicken scream

her, she, also her

herd, herd-boy; cow-boy, also herd

hermony, harmony,

hersel', herself,

hert, heart,

her't, it to her,

hertenin', enheartening; encouraging,

hertless, heartless,

herts, hearts,

herty, heartily; hearty,

he'rty, heartily; hearty,

hicht, height,

hid, had, also hid

hield, held,

hillie, little hill, diminutive

himsel', himself,

hin', hind; backside,

hin' side afore, back to front; backwards,

hing, hang,

hingin', hanging,

hings, hangs,

hirplin, limping; hobbling,

his, has, also his; us (emphatic)

hit, it, emphatic

hiz, us, emphatic

hoarible, horrible,

hoo, how,

hoor, hour,

hoors, hours,

hoose, house,

hoosemaid, housemaid,

hooses, houses,

hoosie, little house, diminutive

hoot, pshaw, exclamation of doubt or contempt

hoots, pshaw, exclamation of doubt or contempt

hose, stocking,

houff, haunt; den; public house,

houp, hope,

how, hollow; valley; glen,

hum'le, hornless; fingerless,

hun'ers, hundreds,

hungerin', hungering; hungry,

hunger-like, shrivelled; lacking nutrients,

hungert, starved,

hurtin', hurting,

hurtit, hurt,

hyne, far (away), also hence; late

i', in; into,

I doobt,I know; I suspect,

I wat,I know; I assure (you),

idleseat, idleness; frivolous amusement, also laziness

idleset, idleness; frivolous amusement, also laziness

ilk, every; each, also common; ordinary

ilka, every; each, also common; ordinary

ill, bad; evil; hard; harsh; badly, also misfortune; harm

'ill, will,

ill-fauredest, most unbecoming or ill-mannered,

ill-guideship, mismanagement; ill-treatment,

ill-guidit, mismanaged; ill-treated,

'im, him,

imaigine, imagine,

immorawlity, immorality,

in atween, in the meantime; between,

informt, informed,

ingle-neuk, chimney-corner or recess; fireside,

in's, in his,

inten', intend,

inten'it, intended,

intil, into; in; within,

intill, into; in; within,

intill't, into it,

intil's, into his; into us,

intil't, into it,

inveet, invite; invitation,

inveetit, invited,

ir, are,

'is, his,

I's awa.,I'm off.; I'd better go.,

Ise,I shall,

isna, is not,

is't, is it,

i'stead, instead,

ither, other; another; further,

'ithin, within,

it'll, it will,

itsel', itself,

jabble, ripple; small broken waves,

jaws, billows; splashes; surges; waves,


jeedge, judge,

jeedgin', judging,


jine, join,

jints, joints,

jist, just,

j'ists, joists,

jography, geography,

jokin', joking,

jooggy, jigger; shot (of whisky),

justifeed, justified,

kail-wife, woman who sells colewort, also female greengrocer

kaimbt, combed,

keepin', keeping,

keepit, kept,

keerious, curious,

ken, know; be acquainted with; recognise,

kenna, do not know,

kenned, known; knew,

kennin', knowing,

kens, knows,

kenspeckle, conspicuous, easily recognised from some peculiarity

kent, known; knew,

ken't, know it,

killt, killed,

kin', kind; nature; sort; agreeable, also somewhat; in some degree

kin'ness, kindness,

kirk, church,

kirkyaird, churchyard,

kirkyard, churchyard,

kist, chest; coffer; box; chest of drawers,

knicht, knight,

koft, bought,

kye, cattle; cows,

laad, lad; boy, term of commendation or reverence

laads, lads; boys, term of commendation or reverence

laddie, boy, term of affection

laddies, boys, term of affection

lads, boys, term of commendation or reverence

laidders, ladders,

laird, landed proprietor; squire; lord,

lairick, larch (type of tree),

lairt, stuck fast (e. g. in a bog),

laith, loath; unwilling; reluctant,

laithly, loathsome; foul; repulsive,


lan', land; country; ground,

lane, lone; alone; lonely; solitary,

lanes, lone; alone,

lang, long; big; large; many, also slow; tedious

langer, longer,

lang's, long as,

langsyne, ancient; (old) times; long ago,

lan's, lands; estates,

lass, girl; young woman, term of address

lasses, girls; young women,

lassie, girl, term of endearment

lat, let; allow,

lat gang to dirt an' green bree, let go to pot; let go to ruin,

lat's, let's; let us; let his,

latten, let; allowed,

lattin', letting; allowing,

lauch, laugh,

lauchin', laughing,

lave, rest; remainder; others, also leave

laverock, lark (type of bird),

lawfu', lawful,

layin', laying,

lea', leave,

lear, learning; education; lore, also teach

learn, learn, also teach

learnin', learning, also teaching

learnt, learned, also taught

leddies, ladies,

leddy, lady, also boy; lad; laddy

lee, pasture; fallow ground, also shelter from wind or rain

lee'd, lied; told lies,

lees, lies,

leest, least,

leeve, live,

leevin', living; living being,

leevit, lived,

leeward, towards the grassland, also towards the sheltered side

len', lend; give; grant, also loan

len'th, length,

leuk, look; watch; appearance,

licht, light,

lichtin', lighting,

lickit, thrashed; punished; struck,

lift, load; boost; lift; helping hand, also sky; heavens

like, like; likely to; looking as if to, also as it were; as if

likesna, does not like,

likin', liking,

likit, liked,

liltin', singing softly; humming,

lingelt, fastened; fettered; hobbled,

lippen, trust; depend on, also look after

livin', living,

'll, will,

loch, loch; lake,

lodd, loaded,

lo'denin', loading,

lo'dent, loaded,

lo'e, love,

lo'esome, loveable; lovely; winsome,

lood, loud,

lookin', looking,

loon, rascal; rogue; ragamuffin, also boy; lad

loons, rascals; rogues; ragamuffins, also boys; lads

loot, let; allowed; permitted,

Losh!, corrupt form of 'Lord', exclamation of surprise or wonder

low, flame,

lowin', flaming,

lowse, loose; free, also dishonest; immoral

lowsed, loosened; let loose; freed,

lucifer spunks,Lucifer-matches,

lucky, old woman,

lug, ear; fin (fish), also shallow wooden dish

luggin', lugging,

lugs, ears,

luik, look,

luikin', looking,

luikit, looked,

luiks, looks,

lum, chimney,

lyin', lying,

lythe, shelter,

'm, him,

mainner, manner,

mainners, manners,

mainteen, maintain,

mair, more; greater,

mairtins, martins (type of bird),

maist, most; almost,

'maist, almost,

maister, master; mister,

maistly, mostly; most of all,

maitter, matter,

maitters, matters,

mak, make; do,

mak', make; do,

makin', making; doing,

maks, makes; does,

mankin', mankind,

mappies, young rabbits, diminutive

maun, must; have to,

maunna, must not; may not,

mavis, thrush; song-thrush (type of bird),

mayhap, perhaps; maybe,

mayna, may not,

mealock, crumb (e. g. of oatcake),

meanin', meaning,

meen, moon,

meenute, minute,

meeserable, miserable,

meesery, misery,

meetin', meeting,

mem,Ma'am; Miss; Madam,

mendit, mended; healed,

menseless, ill-bred; boorish; unmannerly,

mentionin', mentioning,

mercifu', merciful; favourable,

merriage, marriage,

merry, marry, also merry

merryin', marrying,

mervel, marvel,

mervellous, marvellous,

mesel', myself,

me't, it to me,

micht, might,

michtna, might not,

michty, mighty; God,

midden, dunghill; manure pile,

midge, midge; gnat; mosquito,

mids, midst; middle,

miltin', melting,

min', mind; recollection, also recollect; remember

mincin', mincing,

minnin, minnow,

minnister, minister,

min's, minds; reminds; recollects,

mint, aimed at; intended to; attempted,

mintit, minded; remembered,

mirricle, miracle,

mischeef, mischief; injury; harm,

misguidit, wasted; mismanaged; ill-used,

mistak, mistake,

mither, mother,

mony, many,

moo, mouth,

moo', mouth,

moo'fu's, mouthfuls,

mornin', morning,

mornin's, mornings,

motes, motes; specks; crumbs, reference to Matthew 7:3-5

mou'fu', mouthful,

moul', mould; loose earth; top soil,

mould, mould; loose earth; top soil,

muckle, huge; enormous; big; great; much,

mune, moon,

muntains, mountains,

murderin', murdering,

muv, move; affect,

My certie!,Take my word for it!,

My certy!,Take my word for it!,

my lane, on my own,

mysel, myself,

mysel', myself,

na, not; by no means,

nae, no; none; not,

nae wise, nowise; in no way,

naebody, nobody; no one,

naegait, in no wise; nowhere; in no way,

naething, nothing,

naither, neither,

naitral, natural,

nait'ral, natural,

nane, none,

nat'ral, natural,

natur, nature,

natur', nature,

near han', nearly; almost; near by,

nearhan', nearly; almost; near by,

necessar', necessary,

neebour, neighbour,

needcessity, necessity; state of need,

needfu', needful; necessary; needy,

needna, do not need; need not,

neepers, neighbours,

negleckit, neglected,

neiper, neighbour,

neist, next; nearest,

nepkin, large handkerchief,

nestie, little nest, diminutive

'neth, beneath; under,

neuk, nook; recess; interior angle,

news, talk; gossip,

nicht, night; evening,

nichts, nights,

nick, score; mark (as signature), also cut

nickum, mischievous and tricky boy,

niffer, exchange; barter,

nigher, nearer; closer,

nipperty, mincing; affected,

no, not,

no', not,

noo, now,

nor, than; although; if, also nor

nor'-easter, north-east wind,

notwithstan'in', notwithstanding,

noucht, nothing; not,

nowt, cattle; oxen,

o', of; on,

obleeged, obliged,

obligatit, obligated; obliged,

o'er, over; upon; too,

offerin', offering,

ohn, without; un-, uses past participle not present progressive

ohn expeckit, unexpected,

on't, on it,

ony, any,

onybody, anybody; anyone,

onything, anything,

oogliest, ugliest,

oogly, ugly,

ook, week,

ooks, weeks,

oolets, owls,

oonprovidit, unprovided,

oor, our,

oor lanes, on our own,

oors, ours,

oorsel's, ourselves,

oot, out,

ootcast, outcast,

or, before; ere; until; by, also or

ordinar', ordinary; usual; natural, also custom; habit

orra, odd job (man), also idle; having no settled occupation

o't, of it,

ou, oh,

oucht, anything; all, also ought

ow, oh, exclamation of surprise

ower, over; upon; too,

owershot, very fast; racing; exploding, also excess

owre, over; upon; too,

owse, ox,

oye, grandchild; grandson; nephew,

pairt, part,

pairts, parts,

pale, pointed piece of wood for fencing,

paling, fence of pales,

passin', passing; occasional,

pastern, ankle (between hoof and fetlock),

pasturs, pastures,

pat, put; made,

pawkiness, shrewdness; cunning,

peelt, skinned,

peeramid, pyramid,

peetied, pitied,

peety, pity,

percaution, precaution,

perfec', perfect; thorough; utter,

perfeckly, perfectly; thoroughly; utterly,

perplexin', perplexing,

perris, parish,

persuaudit, persuaded,

perswaud, persuade,

perswaudin', persuading,

perswaudit, persuaded,

pey, pay,

peyed, paid,

peyin', paying,

pit, put; make,

pitawtas, potatoes,

pits, puts; makes,

pitten, put; made,

plaguit, plagued; troubled,

plet, plate; dish,

plooed, ploughed,

plottin', plotting; planning,

ploy, amusement; sport; escapade,

poassible, possible,

pooch, pocket; pouch,

pooer, power,

poun', pound (sterling),

practeesed, practised,

prankit, played tricks on, also played fast and loose with

prayin', praying,

prayt, prayed,

preachin', preaching,

preacht, preached,

prech, preach,

precher, preacher,

pree, taste; try; prove; experience,

preevileeges, privileges,

prentit, printed,

press, wall-cupboard with shelves,

press-bed, box-bed with doors,

prest, pressed,

preten'it, pretended,

priestie, little priest, diminutive

pris'ner, prisoner,

prood, proud,

provokin', provoking,

pruv, prove,

pruv't, proven; proved,

pu', pull,

puckle, small quantity; granule,

puir, poor,

pump, beer-shop, also pump

putten, put,

pyke, pick; pluck,

quaiet, quiet,

quaiet sough, quiet tongue,

quaietest, quietest,

quaitet, quieted; silenced,

quest'ons, questions,

quo', swore; said; quoth,

railly, really,

raither, rather,

rale, real; true; very,

randy, rough; wild; riotous, also coarse-tongued; abusive

rant, make merry; revel,

rase, rose,

rave, tore,

rax, extend; overdo it; stretch,

raxed, extended; overdone it; stretched,

reacht, reached,

readin', reading,

red, rid; free,

redd, set in order; tidy; clean,

reef, roof,

refar, refer,

refeese, refuse,

reid, red,

reik, smoke; vapour,

releast, released,

repentit, repented,

reyn, rein,

richt, right; correct, also mend

richtly, certainly; positively,

ridic'lous, ridiculous; unseasonable (weather),

riggin', ridge; roof,

rigs, ridges (in a ploughed field),

rin, run,

rinnin', running,

rins, runs,

rintherroot, gadabout; homeless vagrant; tramp,

risin', rising,

rist, rest,

ristet, rested,

rizon, reason,

roamin', roaming,

roarin', roaring,

ro'd, road; course; way,

roomie, little room, diminutive

roon', around; round,

rottan, rat,

rouch, rough,

roun, whisper,

roun', around; round,

rovin', roving,

rowtin', bellowing; roaring; lowing,

rucks, ricks; (hay)stacks,

run k-nots, slip knots (that can not be untied),

runkle, wrinkle; crease,

's, us; his; as; is, also has

s', shall,

sab, sob,

sae, so; as,

safe, safely, also safe

safity, safety,

sair, sore; sorely; sad; hard; very; greatly, also serve

sairer, harder; sadder; sorer,

saitisfee, satisfy,

saiven, seven,

sall, shall,

san', sand,

sang, song,

sangie, little song, diminutive

sangna, did not sing,

sangs, songs,

sangy, little song, diminutive

sankna, did not sink,

sarious, serious,

sark, shirt,

sattle, settle,

sattled, settled,

saugh, sallow; willow (type of tree),

saven, wise; knowledgeable,

savet, saved,

savin', saving, also except

Sawbath,Sabbath; Sunday,

sawmon, salmon,

sawna, did not see,

saw't, saw it,


saxpence, sixpence,

sayin', saying,

says't, says it,

say't, say it,

'scape, escape,

scatter't, scattered,

schuil, school,

schuilin', schooling; education,

schuilmaister, schoolmaster,

schuilmaisterin', school mastering; teaching,

scomfished, suffocated; smothered; choked,

scoorin', scampering,

scornin', mocking; ridiculing,


scrape, scrape; shave,

scrattit, scratched; dug,

scrimp, stunted; sparing; scanty, also short in weight or measure


scunner, disgust; disgusting; revolting,

scunnerfu', disgusting; loathsome; sickening,

seein', seeing,

seemile, simile,

seemin', seeming,

seener, sooner,

see't, see it,

sen', send,

set, set out; start off; become,

set doon Bony an' set up Louy, lowers one; exalts another,Psalm 75:7

setna, do not set,



settin', setting,

settisfaction, satisfaction,

shaidow, shadow,

shal't, shelled,

shaw, show; reveal, also grove

shee, shoe,

sheen, shoes,

sherp, sharp,

shillin', shilling,

shillin's, shillings,

shirra, sheriff,

shirra', sheriff,

shoothers, shoulders,

shot, speed; blasting; heavy breakers (sea), also shoot

shottin', shooting,

shuitable, suitable,

sic, such; so; similar,

sich, sigh,

sicht, sight,

sids, husks of oats,

siller, silver; money; wealth,


simmerin', simmering,

sin, since; ago; since then, also sin; sun

sin', since; ago; since then,

singin', singing,

sitten, sat,

sittin', sitting,

sizon, season,

skirlin', screaming; singing shrilly,

sklet,(school) slate, also roofing slate

sklet-pike, slate pencil,

sma', small; little; slight; narrow; young,

smokin', smoking; smouldering,

smokin' flax, smouldering wick, reference to Matthew 12:20

snap, sharp blow; sudden stumble,

snawba', snowball,

sneck, door-latch; catch (gate),

snot, small lump (of soot),

soary, sorry,

some, somewhat; rather; quite; very, also some

somehoo, somehow,

soo, ache; throb,

soomin', swimming; floating,

soon', sound,

soopit, swept; brushed,

soucht, sought,

sough, sigh; sound of wind; deep breath,

soughie, little sough, diminutive

sowens, sour pudding of oats and water,

sowl, soul,

sowls, souls,

spak, spoke,

spate, spate; flood,

speat, spate; flood,

speerin', asking about; enquiring; questioning,

speerit, spirit,

speerits, spirits,

speir, ask about; enquire; question,

speirin', asking about; enquiring; questioning,

speirs, asks about; enquires; questions,

speirt, asked about; enquired; questioned,

spen', spend,

spendrife, spendthrift; extravagant,

speyk, speak,

speykin', speaking,

spier, ask about; enquire; question,

spune, spoon,

spunks, sparks; matches,

spurtle, porridge stick, also wooden rod for turning oatcakes

stair, stairs; staircase,

stan, stand,

stan', stand; stop,

stane, stone; measure of weight,1 stone = 14 pounds

stanes, stones,

stan'in, standing,

stap, stop; stuff, also step

stappit, stopped; stuffed, also stepped

steek, shut; close; clench, also stitch (as in clothing)

stert, start; jump with surprise,

sterve, starve,

stick, stick; gore; butt with horns,

stickin', sticking; goring,

stickit, stuck; gored,

stippety-stap, short mincing gait,

stirks, steers,

stockin', stocking,

stockins, stockings,

stockin's, stockings,

stoot, stout; healthy; strong; plucky,

strae, straw,

straik, streak; stroke; caress,

strang, strong,

stray, lost; not at home,

stude, stood,

subjec', subject,

subjec's, subjects,

sucklin's, sucklings,

sud, should,

sudna, should not,

sune, soon; early,

suner, sooner,

sune's, soon as,

sunest, soonest,

supposit, supposed,

sutor, shoemaker; cobbler,

sweem, swim; float,

sweir, swear,

sweirin', swearing,

swoord, sword,

syne, ago; since; then; at that time, also in (good) time

't, it,

tae, toe; also tea, also the one; to

taeless, toeless,

taen, taken; seized,

ta'en, taken; seized,

tailie, little tail, diminutive

tak, take; seize,

tak a lug, have a dish, lit. have a fin

tak tent, look out; pay attention; watch,

takin', taking,

takna, do not take,

taks, takes; seizes,

tane, the one,

tap, top; tip; head,

tarn, mountain lake,

tarns, mountain lakes,

taucht, taught,

tay, tea,

tee, to ye i. e. to you, also tea; too; also

teetle, title,

tellin', telling,

tellt, told,

tent, attention; care; heed; notice,

teuch, tough; hard; dry,

teuk, took,

than, then, also than

thankit, thanked,

the day, today,

the morn, tomorrow,

the morn's, tomorrow is,

the nicht, tonight,

the noo, just now; now,

thegither, together,

themsels, themselves,

themsel's, themselves,

thereoot, outside; out there; out-of-doors,

thestreen, last night,

think, feel; experience; expect; wonder,

Think ye?,Do you think so?,

thinkin', thinking,

this lang time, for a long time,

tho', though,

thoo, thou; you (God),

thoom, thumb,

thoosan', thousand,

thoosan's, thousands,

thouch, though,

thoucht, thought,

thouchts, thoughts,

thrapple, windpipe; throat,

thrapples, windpipes; throats,

thraw, throw; turn; twist,

thraw one's lug, twist one's ear; punish,

three-fauld, threefold; three times,

threep, argue obstinately, also maintain by dint of assertion

threip, argue obstinately, also maintain by dint of assertion

thro't, throat,

throt-ro'd, throat, i. e. be drunk

throts, throats,

throu', through,

thunner, thunder,

tice, entice; coax,

'tice, entice; coax,

till, to; till; until; about; at; before,

till's, to his; to us,

till't, to it,

ting-a-ling, jingle; sound of a small bell,

tint, lost; got lost,

tiret, tired,

'tis, it is,

tither, the other,

tod, fox,

toom, empty; unload,

toom-heidit, empty headed,

toon, town; village,

tow, rope; string; cable,

tows, ropes; strings; cables,

trail, drag forcibly; haul along,

trailin', dragging forcibly; hauling along,

traivel, travel,

trible, trouble,

tribled, troubled,

tribles, troubles,

trifflin', trifling,

trim'le, tremble,

trimmin', beating; scolding,

troth, truth; indeed, also used as an exclamation

trouth, truth; indeed, also used as an exclamation

trowth, truth; indeed, also used as an exclamation

trustit, trusted,

tryin', trying,

'ts, its,

tuck, beat (a drum),

tuik, took,

tum'ler, tumbler; glass (of whisky),

turnin', turning,

turnt, turned,

twa, two; a few,

twa three, several,

'twar, it were,

'twarna, it were not,

'twas, it was,

twise, twice,

twistet, twisted,

tyauve, strive; struggle,

tyne, lose; get lost; miss,

ugsome, disgusting; frightful; ghastly,

umbrell, umbrella,

unco, unknown; odd; strange; uncouth, also very great

un'er, under,

un'erstan', understand,

up the stair, upstairs, also to heaven

upliftit, uplifted; elated,

upo', upon; on to; at,

up-road, road (to heaven),

up's, up his,

vailue, value,

vainity, vanity,

verra, very; true; real,

v'ice, voice,

vreet, write,

vroucht, wrought; worked,

wa', wall, also way; away

wad, would,

wadna, would not,

wae, woe; sad; sorrowful,

waggin', wagging; nodding,

waitin', waiting,

waitit, waited,

walcome, welcome,

walkin', walking,

w'alth, wealth; abundance,

wan, reached; gained; got,

wantin', wanting; lacking; without; in want of,

wantit, wanted,

war, were,

wark, work; labour,

warks, works,

warl', world; worldly goods, also a large number

warl' 's gear, worldly goods,

warld, world,

warna, were not,

warran', warrant; guarantee,

warrin', warring,

warst, worst,

warstle, wrestle,

warstlin', wrestling,

wa's, walls, also ways

washen, washed,

washin', washing,

wasna, was not,

was't, was it,

wasterfu', wasteful; extravagant,

water-brose, oatmeal stirred into boiling, water until thick

wather, weather,

watter, water,

watters, waters,

waur, worse, also spend money

wee, small; little; bit, also short time; while

weel, well; fine,

weel-behaved, well-behaved,

weel's, well as,

weet, wet; dew; rain,

weetin', wetting; getting wet,

weicht, weight,

weir, wear, also hedge; fence; enclosure

weird, doom; disaster, also destiny; fate

weirs, wears,

weyve, weave; knit,

weyver, weaver; knitter, also knitter of stockings; spider

wha, who,

whae'er, whoever,

wha'll, who will,

whan, when,

wharfor, what for; why; for what reason,

wha's, who is, also whose

What ca' they ye?,What is your name?,

What for no?,Why not?,

What for?,Why?,

whaten,(on; by) what; what kind of,

what-for, why; reason, also punishment; retribution

whaul, whale,

whaur, where,

whause, whose,

wheel, eddy; pool; deep still part of the river,

wheen, little; few; number; quantity,

whiles, sometimes; at times; now and then,

whilk, which,

Whisht!,Quiet! Silence! Hush!,

whiskin', whisking; dusting,

whumled, whelmed; overwhelmed; upset,

whup, whip,

whups, whipping,

whusky, whisky,

whustle, whistle,

wi', with,

wice-like, becoming; seemly; fitting; proper,

wicket, backdoor of a barn,

wickit, wicked,

wifie, little woman, term of endearment

willin', willing,

willin'est, willingest,

win, reach; gain; get; go; come,

win', wind,

win'le strae, straw or grass dried on its root, weak; unhealthy

winna, will not,

wins, reaches; gains; gets,

winsome, large; comely; merry,

wi'oot, without,

wires, knitting needles,

wis, was,

wi't, with it,

wither, weather,

won'er, wonder; marvel,

won'erfu', wonderful; great; large,

won'erin', wondering,

workin', working,

worryin', worrying,

worset, woollen fabric; wool; worsted,

worum, worm,

wrang, wrong; injured,

writch, rich,

wuddie, gallows, also willow

wuds, woods; forests,

wull, will; wish; desire, also astray; stray; wild

wullin', willing; wanting,

wulls, wills; wishes; desires,

wuman, woman,

wunna, would not; will not,

wur, lay out, also were

wuss, wish,

wussed, wished,

wut, wit; intelligence; sense,

wuts, wits; senses,

w'y, way,

wydin', wading,

w'ys, ways,

wyte, blame; reproach; fault,

yaird, yard; garden; farmyard,

yairds, yards; gardens,

ye, you; yourself,

year, years, also year

ye'll, you will,

yer, your,

yer lane, on your own,

yerd, yard; garden,

ye're, you are,

yersel, yourself,

yersel', yourself,

ye't, it to you,

yett, gate,

yeuks, itches,

ye've, you have,

yewky, itchy,

yon, that; those; that there; these,

yon'er, yonder; over there; in that place,

yon'll, that will; that (thing) there will,

yon's, that is; that (thing) there is,

yoong, young,


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