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Sect. CLI. — LET us now bring forward that example of Abraham which Paul afterwards adduces. “If (saith he) Abraham were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory, but not before God. For what saith the Scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness.” (Rom. iv. 2-3.).

Mark here again, I pray you, the distinction of Paul, where he is shewing the two-fold righteousness of Abraham. — The one, is of works; that is, moral and civil; but he denies that he was justified by this before God, even though he were justified by it before men. Moreover, by that righteousness, “he hath whereof to glory” before men, but is all the while himself without the glory of God. Nor can any one here say, that they are the works of the law, or of ceremonies, which are here condemned; seeing that, Abraham existed so many years before the law. Paul plainly speaks of the works of Abraham, and those his best works. For it would be ridiculous to dispute, whether or not any one were justified by evil works. .

If therefore, Abraham be righteous by no works whatever, and if both he himself and all his works be left under sin, unless he be clothed with another righteousness, even with the righteousness of faith, it is quite manifest, that no man can do any thing by works towards his becoming righteous: and moreover, that no works, no devoted efforts, no endeavours of “Free-will,” avail any thing in the sight of God, but are all judged to be ungodly, unrighteous, and evil. For if the man himself be not righteous, neither will his works or endeavours be righteous: and if they be not righteous, they are damnable, and merit wrath.

The other righteousness is that of faith; which consists, not in any works, but in the favour and imputation of God through grace. And mark how Paul dwells upon the word “imputed;” how he urges it, repeats it, and inculcates it. — “Now (saith he) to him that worketh, is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt. But to him that worketh not, but believeth in Him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness,” (Rom. iv. 4-5), according to the purpose of the grace of God. Then he adduces David, saying the same thing concerning the imputation through grace. “Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin,” &c. (Rom. iv. 6-8).

In this chapter, he repeats the word “impute” above ten times. In a word, he distinctively sets forth “him that worketh,” and “him that worketh not,” leaving no medium between them. He declares, that righteousness is not imputed “to him that worketh,” but asserts that righteousness is imputed “to him that worketh not,” if he believe! Here is no way by which “Free-will,” with its devoted efforts and endeavours, can escape or get off: it must be numbered with “him that worketh,” or with “him that worketh not.” If it be numbered with “him that worketh,” you hear that righteousness is not imputed unto it; if it be numbered with “him that worketh not, but believeth” in God, righteousness is imputed unto it. And then, it will not be the power of “Free-will,” but the new creature by faith. But if righteousness be not imputed unto it, being “him that worketh,” then, it becomes manifest, that all its works are nothing but sins, evils, and impieties before God.

Nor can any Sophist here snarl, and say, that, although man be evil, yet his work may not be evil. For Paul speaks not of the man simply, but of “him that worketh,” to the very intent that, he might declare in the plainest words, that the works and devoted efforts themselves of man are condemned, whatever they may be, by what name soever they may be called, or under what form soever they may be done. He here also speaks of good works; because, the points of his argument are, justification, and merits. And when he speaks of “him that worketh,” he speaks of all workers and of all their works; but more especially of their good and meritorious works. Otherwise, his distinction between “him that worketh,” and “him that worketh not,” will amount to nothing.

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