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No. XII.

ADAM WALLACE.

John Hamilton, Abbot of Paisley and Bishop-Elect of Dunkeld, was nominated by his brother the Governor to the See of St. Andrews, as Beaton's successor, in 1546; and after a considerable period, his appointment was confirmed at the Court of Rome. On the 19th March 1546-7, in the name of the Bishops and Kirkmen, he presented a Supplication to the Governor and Council, for "help and remeid against the Sacramentaris and those infected with the pestilential hersie of Luther;" while others, it is added, "abjurit and relapsit, baneist of auld, now comes pertlie [openly] without any dreidour, nocht allenarly in the far parts of the Realme, but als to the Court and presens of your Lordships, and sometimes preaches opinlie, and instructs utheris in the said dampnable heresies."—(Keith's History, vol. i. p. 147.) During his negociations with the Court of Rome, Hamilton transmitted an Information, urging his claims as Primate and Legatus Natus. He refers in it to the increasing number of heretics in the diocese of Glasgow, both in the time of the late Archbishop, (Gawin Dunbar, who died in 1547,) and during the vacancy in that See, and assumes credit to himself for having visited that diocese and purged it of many obnoxious heretics; and in particular, for having expelled that apostate Macbraire, from the house of Ochiltree, and inflicted heavy fines on his adherents, and for having caused (Vallasius) Wallace, a native of that diocese, after he had been convicted and condemned for heresy, before a convention of the nobility and clergy, to be delivered over to the secular power, to the flames. (Mackeson's MS. as quoted in MʻCrie's Life of Knox, vol. ii. p. 292.)

In addition to note [611, it may be mentioned, that Wallace had been employed in the family of Cockburn of Ormiston, in teaching his children after they had been deprived of Knox's instructions, and while Cockburn himself was forfeited and in exile.

The following account of Wallace's trial and condemnation is copied from Foxe's Actes and Monuments, and may be compared with that given by Knox, at pages 237-241. In reference to the formidable array of prelates and the nobility assembled in the Church of the Blackfriars' Monastery, to the trial of this "simple man," whom Knox celebrates as "zealous in godliness, and of an upright life," I find in544 the Treasurer's Accounts, that between July and September 1550, the sum of £2, 17s. 4d. was paid to James Dalyell, (who was "one of the Masters of Work,") "quhilk he debursit in preparing of ane scaffald the tyme of the accusatioun of Wallace."

"The Story and Martyrdome of Adam Wallace in Scotland.

"There was set vpon a scaffold made hard to the Chauncellary wall of the blacke Friers Church in Edinbrough on seates made thereupon, the Lord Gouernour. Aboue him at his backe sat M. Gawin Hamelton Deane of Glasgue, representing the Metropolitane Pastor thereof. Upon a seat on his right hand sat the Archbishop of S. Andrewes. At his backe, and aside somewhat stoode the Officiall [of] Lowthaine. Next to the Byshop of S. Andrewes, the bishop of Dumblane, the byshop of Murray, the Abbot of Dunfermling, the Abbot of Glenluce, wyth other Churchmen of lower estimation, as the Official of S. Andrewes and other Doctours of that nest and Citie. And at the other end of the seat sat Maister [of] Uchiltrie. On his left hand sat the Earle of Argyle Justice, with his deputye Syr John Campbell of Lundy vnder his feete. Next hym the Earle of Huntly. Then the Earle of Anguish, the Byshop of Gallaway, the Prior of S. Andrewes, the Bishop of Orknay, the Lord Forbes, Dane John Wynrime Suppriour of S. Andrewes, and behinde the seates stoode the whole senate, the Clarke of the Register, &c.

At the further end of the Chauncelary wall in the pulpit was placed M. John Lauder Parson of Marbottle, Accuser, clad in a surplice, and a red hood, and a great Congregation of the whole people in the body of the Church, standing on the ground. After that, Syr John Ker Prebendary of S. Gyles Church was accused, conuicted, and condemned, for the false making and geuing forth of a sentence of diuorce, and thereby falsly diuorced and parted a man and hys lawfull wyfe, in the name of the Deane of Roscalrige [Restalrig], and certayne other Judges appointed by the holy Father the Pope. He graunted the falshood, and that neuer any such thing was done in deede, nor yet ment nor moued by the foresayd Judges; and was agreed to be banished the realmes of Scotland and England for hys lyfe tyme, and to lose his right hand if he were found or apprehended therin hereafter, and in the meane time to leaue his benefices for euer, and they to be vacant.

After that was brought in Adam Wallace, a simple poore man in appearance, conueyed by John of Cunnoke seruant to the Bishop of S. Andrewes, and set in the middest of the scaffold, who was com545maunded to looke to the accuser: who asked him what was hys name. He aunswered, Adam Wallace. The accuser said he had an other name, which he graunted, and sayd he was commonly called Feane. Then asked he where he was borne; Within two myle of Fayle (sayd he) in Kyle. Then sayd the accuser, I repent that euer such a poore man as you should put these noble Lordes to so great encumbrance thys day by your vayne speakyng. And I must speake (sayd he) as God geueth me grace, and I beleue I haue sayd no euill to hurt any body. Would God (sayd the Accuser) ye had neuer spoken, but you are brought forth for so horrible crimes of heresie, as neuer was imagined in thys countrey of before, and shall be sufficiently proued, that ye cannot deny it: and I forethinke that it should be heard, for hurting of weak consciences. Now I wyll ye thee no more, and thou shalt heare the pointes that thou art accused of.

Adam Wallace, alias Feane, thou art openly delated and accused for preaching, saying, and teaching of the blasphemies and abominable heresies vnderwritten. In the first, thou hast sayd and taught, that the bread and wyne on the altar, after the wordes of consecration, are not the body and bloud of Jesu Christ. He turned to the Lord Gouernour, and Lords aforesayd, saying: I sayd neuer nor taught nothyng, but that I found in this booke and writte (hauyng there a Bible at his belte, in French, Dutch, and English) which is the worde of God, and if you will be content that the Lord God and his worde be Judge to me and this his holy writ, here it is, and where I haue sayd wrong, I shall take what punishment you will put to me: for I neuer said nothyng concerning this that I am accused of, but that which I found in this writte.

What diddest thou say, sayd the Accuser? I sayd (quoth he) that after our Lord Jesus Christ had eaten the Pascall Lambe in hys latter Supper wyth his Apostles, and fulfilled the ceremonies of the olde law, he instituted a new Sacrament in remembrance of his death then to come. He tooke bread, he blessed, and brake it, and gaue it to hys Disciples, and sayde: "Take ye, eate ye, thys is my bodye, which shall be broken and geuen for you: And lykewise the cuppe, blessed, and badde them drinke all therof, for that was the cup of the new testament, which shoulde be shedde for the forgeuing of many. How oft ye do thys, do it in my remembraunce." (Matth. 26.)

Then sayd the Bishop of S. Andrewes, and the Officiall of Lowthaine, with the Deane of Glasgue, and many other Prelates: We know this well enough. The earle of Huntly sayd: Thou aunswerest not to that which is laide to thee: say either yea or nay therto. He546 aunswered, If ye wyll admitte God and his word spoken by the mouth of hys blessed sonne Jesus Christ our Lord and Sauiour, ye wyll admit that I haue sayd: for I haue sayd or taught nothing, but that the word, which is the triall and touchstone, sayth, whiche ought to be Judge to me, and to all the world.

Why (quoth the Earle of Huntly) hast thou not a Judge good enough; and trowest thou that we know not God and his worde; Aunswere to that is spoken to thee: and then they made the accuser speake the same thyng ouer agayne. Thou saydest (quoth the accuser) and hast taught, that the bread and wyne in the Sacrament of the aultar, after the wordes of the consecration, are not ye body and bloud of our Sauiour Jesus Christ.

He aunswered: I sayd neuer more then the write sayth, nor yet more then I haue sayd before. For I know well by S. Paule when he sayth: Whosoeuer eateth this bread, and drinketh of this cup vnworthely, receaueth to himselfe damnation. (1 Cor. xi.) And therfore when I taught (which was but seldome, and to them onely which required and desired me) I sayd, that if the Sacrament of the aultar were truly ministred, and vsed as the sonne of the liuyng God did institute it, where that was done, there was God himselfe by his divine power, by the which he is ouer all.

The Byshop of Orkney asked him: Beleuest thou not (sayd he) that the bread and wyne in the Sacrament of the aultar, after the wordes of the consecration, is the very body of God, flesh, bloud, and bone?

He aunswered: I wot not what that word consecration meaneth. I haue not much Latin, but I beleue that the sonne of God was conceaued of the holy Ghost, and borne of the virgine Mary, and hath a naturall body with handes, feete, and other members, and in the same body hee walked vp and downe in the world, preached, and taught, he suffered death vnder Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried, and that by his godly power hee raysed that same body agayne the thyrd day: and the same body ascended into heauen, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father, whiche shall come agayne to iudge both the quicke and the dead. And that this body is a naturall body with handes and feete, and can not be in two places at once, hee sheweth well him selfe: For the whiche euerlastyng thankes be to hym that maketh this matter cleare. When the woman brake the oyntment on hym, aunsweryng to some of his Disciples whiche grudged thereat, hee sayd: The poore shall you haue alwayes with you, but me shall you not haue alwayes, (Math. 26.) meanyng of his naturall body.547 And likewise at his Ascension sayd he to the same Disciples that were fleshly, and would euer haue had him remainyng with them corporally: It is needefull for you that I passe away, for if I passe not away, the comforter the holy Ghost shall not come to you (John 16.) (meanyng that his naturall body behoued to be taken away from them): But be stoute and of good cheare, for I am with you vnto the worldes end. (Math. 28. John 16.) And that the eatyng of his very flesh profiteth not, may well be knowen by his wordes whiche he spake in the vj. of John, where after that he had sayd: Except ye eate my flesh and drinke my bloud, ye shal not haue life in you: they murmuryng thereat, he reproued them for their grosse & fleshly takyng of his wordes, and sayd: What will ye thinke when ye see the sonne of man ascend to the place that it came fro? It is the spirite that quickneth, the flesh profiteth nothyng, (John. 6,) to be eaten as they tooke it, and euen so take ye it.

It is an horrible heresie, sayd the Byshop of Orknay. When he began to speake agayne, and the Lord Gouernour iudge if hee had right by the write, the Accuser cryed: Ad Secundam. Nunc ad Secundam, aunswered the Archbyshop of S. Andrewes.

Then was he bidden to heare the Accuser, who propounded the second Article, and sayd: Thou saydedst lykewise, and openly byddest teach, that the Masse is very Idolatry, and abhominable in the sight of God.

He aunswered and sayd: I haue read the Bible and word of God in three tounges, and haue vnderstand them so farre as God gaue me grace, and yet read I neuer that word Masse in it all: but I found (sayd he) that the thyng that was hyghest and most in estimation amongest men, and not in the word of God, was Idolatry, and abhominable in the sight of God. And I say the Masse is holden greatly in estimation, and hygh amongest men, and is not founded in the word, therefore I sayd it was Idolatry and abhominable in the sight of God. But if any man will finde it in the Scripture, and proue it by Gods word, I will graunt myne errour, and that I haue fayled: otherwise not, and in that case I will submit me to all lawfull correction and punishment. Ad Tertiam, sayd the Archbyshop.

Then sayd the Accuser: Thou hast sayd and openly taught that the GOD which we worshyp, is but bread, sowen of corne, growyng of the earth, baked of mens handes, and nothyng els.

He aunswered, I worshyp the Father, the Sonne, and the Holy Ghost, three persons in one Godhead, whiche made and fashioned the heauen and earth, and all that is therein of naught, but I know not548 which God you worship: and if you will shewe me whom you worship, I shall shewe you, what he is, as I can by my iudgemene.

Beleuest thou not (sayd the Accuser) that the sacrament of the alter, after the wordes of the consecration betwixt the Priestes handes, is the very body and bloud of the sonne of God, & God hymself? What the body of God is, sayd he, & what kynde of body he hath, I haue shewed you, so farre as I haue found in scripture.

Then sayd the Accuser: Thou hast preached, sayd, and openly taught diuers and sundry other great errours and abhominable heresies agaynst all the vij. sacraments, which for shortnes of tyme I pretermit and ouer pass. Whether doest thou graunt thy foresayd Articles that thou art accused of, or no, and thou shalt heare them shortly? and then repeted the accuser the iij. Articles aforesayde shortly ouer, and asked him whether he graunted or denied them.

He aunswered that before he had said of his aunsweres, and that he sayd nothyng, but agreeing to the holy word as he vnderstoode, so God iudge him, and his owne conscience accuse hym, and thereby woulde he abide vnto the tyme he were better instructed by scripture, and the contrary proued, euen to the death: and said to the Lord Gouernour and other Lordes: if you condemne me for holding by Gods word, my innocent bloud shalbe required at your handes, when ye shalbe brought before the iudgement seat of Christ, who is mightie to defend my innocent cause, before whome ye shall not denye it, nor yet be able to resiste hys wrath: to whom I referre the vengeaunce, as it is written: "Vengeaunce is myne, and I will rewarde." (Heb. 10.)

Then gaue they forth sentence, and condemned him by the lawes, and so left him to the secular power, in the handes of Syr John Campbell Justice deputie, who deliuered hym to the Prouost of Edenbrough to be burnt on the Castlehill; who incontinent made hym to be put in the vppermost house in the towne wyth irons about his legges and necke, and gaue charge to Syr Hew Terrye to keepe the key of the sayde house, an ignoraunt minister and impe of Sathan, and of the Byshops; who by direction, sent to the poore man two Gray Friers to instructe hym, wyth whom he woulde enter into no commoning. Soone after that was sent in two blacke Friers, an Englishe Frier & an other subtile sophister called Arbircromy, with the which Englishe Frier he would haue reasoned and declared hys fayth by the scriptures. Who aunswered, he had no commission to enter in disputation with hym, and so departed and left him.

Then was sent to hym a worldly wise man, and not vngodly in the549 vnderstanding of the truth, the Deane of Roscalrige,10741074Mr. John Sinclair, Dean of Restalrig, who became Bishop of Brechin. See supra, p. 265. who gaue hym Christian consolation, amongest the which he exhorted him to beleue the realtie of the sacrament after the consecration. But he would consent to nothing that had not euidence in the holy scripture, and so passed ouer that night in singing, and lauding God to the eares of diuers hearers, hauing learned the Psalter of Dauid without booke, to his consolation: For before they had spoyled hym of hys Bible, which alwaies til after he was condemned, was with him where euer he went. After that, Syr Hew knew that he had certaine bookes to read and comfort his spirit, who came in a rage & tooke the same from him, leauing him desolate (to his power) of all consolation, and gaue diuers vngodly & injurious prouocations by his deuilishe venome, to haue peruerted him a poore innocent, from the patience & hope he had in Christ hys Sauiour: but God suffered him not to be moued therewith, as plainely appeared to the hearers and seers for the tyme.

So all the next morning abode this poore man in yrons, and prouision was commaunded to be made for his burnyng agaynst the next day. Which day the Lord Gouernour, and all the principall both spirituall and temporall Lords departed from Edenbrough to their other busines.

After they were departed, came the Deane of Roscalrige to him againe & reasoned with him after his wit. Who aunswered as before, he would say nothing concerning his faith, but as the scripture testifieth, yea though an Aungell came from heauen to perswade him to the same: sauing that he confessed himselfe to haue receaued good consolation of the said Deane in other behalfes, as becommeth a Christian.

Then after came in the said Terry again & examined him after his old maner, and said he would garre deuils to come forth of him ere euen. To whom he aunswered: you should be a godly man to geue me rather consolation in my case. When I knewe you were come, I prayed God I myght resiste your temptations, which I thanke him, he hath made me able to doe: therefore I pray you let me alone in peace. Then he asked of one of the Officers that stoode by, Is your fire makyng ready? Who tolde hym it was. He aunswered, as it pleaseth God: I am ready soone or late, as it shall please him: and then he spake to one faythfull in that company, & bad him commend him to all the faythfull, beyng sure to meete together with them in heauen. From that tyme to his forth commyng to the fire, spake no man with him.550

At his forth commyng, the Prouost with great manasing wordes forbad him to speake to any man or any to him, as belyke he had commaundement of his superiours. Commyng from the towne to the Castle hill, the common people sayd, God haue mercy vpon him. And on you to (sayd he). Beyng beside the fire he lifted vp his eyn to heauen twise or thrise, and sayd to the people: Let it not offend you, that I suffer the death this day, for the truthes sake, for the Disciple is not aboue his Master. Then was the Prouost angry that he spake. Then looked he to heauen agayne, and sayd: They will not let me speake. The corde beyng about hys necke, the fire was lighted, and so departed he to God constauntly, and with good countenaunce to our sightes. Ex testimonijs & literis e Scotia petitis, an. 1550."


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