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Chapter XI

Rebuking the Pharisees

SummaryTeaching the Disciples to Pray. Parable of the Three Loaves. Earnestness in Prayer. The Charge That Jesus Cast Out Demons by the Aid of Beelzebub. The Sign of Jonas. Dining with a Pharisee. The Pharisees and Lawyers Denounced.

1–4. Praying in a certain place. Luke neither tells where nor when. Teach us to pray. Matt. 6:9–13, gives the Lord's prayer, but does not say that the prayer was taught in response to a request. See the notes on Matthew. 268

5–8. Friend, lend me three loaves. This parable is uttered to teach earnestness in prayer. My children are with me in bed. He could not rise to give the bread without disturbing them. Because of his importunity. When he should continue knocking and asking. How much more will the loving Father yield to the importunity of his children. Compare Gen. 32:28; Psa. 55:17; 1 Thess. 3:10 and 5:17; 1 Tim. 5:5; 2 Tim. 1:3.

9–13. Ask, and it shall be given. See notes on Matt. 7:7–11. These verses are a part of the Sermon on the Mount. It is probable that Luke, who does not give a chronological history, incorporates them here, though not the time when they were spoken. The same may be said of various utterances given by Luke. Luke says instead of good things (Matthew) that the Father will give the Holy Spirit, the best possible gift.

14–26. He casteth out devils through Beelzebub. See notes on Matt. 12:22–29; 43–45. This discourse was given in Galilee (Matthew). 269

27, 28. Blessed is the womb that bare thee. This woman, in her untaught enthusiasm, comes nearer the adoration of the mother of Jesus than anything elsewhere in the New Testament. The Lord rebukes it by saying: “Rather are they blessed who hear and keep the word of God.” Mariolatry is idolatry. There is not the slightest foundation for it in the New Testament.

29–32. They seek a sign. See notes on Matt. 12:38–42, where we have the same language reported. 270

33–36. When he hath lighted a lamp. See notes on Matt. 5:15 and 6:22, 23. If thy whole body be full of light. If it were thus the whole body would be luminous, and if our souls be full of light, of the light of Christ, then our light shall shine as that of a lamp.

37, 38. A certain Pharisee besought him. Jesus did not refuse invitations of Pharisees, or of publicans and sinners. Marvelled that he had not first washed. Dipped his hands. The tradition of the elders required those who came in from without to immerse their hands before eating. See Matt. 15:2 and Mark 7:2–5, for notes.

39–52. The Lord said unto him. The denunciation of the Pharisees and lawyers contained in these verses is found in similar language in Matthew, chapter 23. That address was spoken in the temple. 271There is no improbability about the Lord speaking the same discourse twice to the same class of opposers. See the notes on Matt. 23:1–36. Verse 41 is peculiar to Luke. Give for alms, etc. The Pharisees were careful for the outside; careless for what was within; but the Lord says: “Give for alms the within;i. e., let your hearts and lives be full of compassion, and it will make you clean. Ye tithe mint. See note on Matt. 23:23. Ye love the uppermost seats. See note on Matt. 23:6. Ye build the sepulchres. See notes on Matt. 23:29, 30. Taken away the key of knowledge. Matt. 23:13, in different words, gives the thought. See note there.

53, 54. The scribes and the Pharisees. For the manner in which they tried to entrap Jesus, see the 22d chapter of Matthew, and the 8th and 10th of John. 272

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