The Last Seven Vials of Plagues: Song of the Victors over the Beast.
1. the seven last plagues—Greek,
"seven plagues which are the last."
is filled up—literally, "was
finished," or "consummated": the prophetical past for the future, the
future being to God as though it were past, so sure of accomplishment
is His word. This verse is the summary of the vision that follows: the
angels do not actually receive the vials till Re 15:7; but here, in Re 15:1, by anticipation they are spoken of as
having them. There are no more plagues after these until the
Lord's coming in judgment. The destruction of Babylon (Re 18:2) is the last: then in Re 19:11-16 He appears.
2. sea of glass—Answering to the molten
sea or great brazen laver before the mercy seat of the earthly temple,
for the purification of the priests; typifying the baptism of water and
the Spirit of all who are made kings and priests unto God.
mingled with fire—answering to the
baptism on earth with fire, that is, fiery trial, as well
as with the Holy Ghost, which Christ's people undergo to purify them,
as gold is purified of its dross in the furnace.
them that had gotten the victory
over—Greek, "those (coming) off from (the conflict
with) the beast-conquerors."
over the number of his name—A, B, C,
Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic omit the words in English
Version, "over his mark." The mark, in fact, is the
number of his name which the faithful refused to receive, and so
were victorious over it.
stand on the sea of glass—Alford and De Burgh
explain "on (the shore of) the sea": at the sea. So the
preposition, Greek, "epi," with the accusative case, is
used for at, Re 3:20. It
has a pregnant sense: "standing" implies rest, Greek
"epi" with the accusative case implies motion "towards." Thus
the meaning is, Having come TO the sea,
and now standing AT it. In Mt 14:26, where Christ walks on the
sea, the Greek oldest manuscripts have the genitive, not the
accusative as here. Allusion is made to the Israelites standing on
the shore at the Red Sea, after having passed victoriously through
it, and after the Lord had destroyed the Egyptian foe (type of
Antichrist) in it. Moses and the Israelites' song of triumph (Ex 15:1) has its antitype in the saints'
"song of Moses and the Lamb" (Re 15:3). Still English Version is
consistent with good Greek, and the sense will then be: As the
sea typifies the troubled state out of which the beast arose, and which
is to be no more in the blessed world to come (Re 21:1), so the victorious saints stand on it,
having it under their feet (as the woman had the
moon, see on Re 12:1); but it is now no
longer treacherous wherein the feet sink, but solid like glass, as it
was under the feet of Christ, whose triumph and power the saints now
share. Firmness of footing amidst apparent instability is thus
represented. They can stand, not merely as victorious Israel at
the Red Sea, and as John upon the sand of the shore, but upon
the sea itself, now firm, and reflecting their glory as glass,
their past conflict shedding the brighter luster on their present
triumph. Their happiness is heightened by the retrospect of the dangers
through which they have passed. Thus this corresponds to Re 7:14, 15.
harps of God—in the hands of these
heavenly virgins, infinitely surpassing the timbrels of Miriam
and the Israelitesses.
3. song of Moses … and … the
Lamb—The New Testament song of the Lamb (that is, the song
which the Lamb shall lead, as being "the Captain of our salvation,"
just as Moses was leader of the Israelites, the song in which those who
conquer through Him [Ro 8:37]
shall join, Re 12:11) is
the antitype to the triumphant Old Testament song of Moses and the
Israelites at the Red Sea (Ex 15:1-21). The Churches of the Old and New
Testament are essentially one in their conflicts and triumphs. The two
appear joined in this phrase, as they are in the twenty-four elders.
Similarly, Isa 12:1-6
foretells the song of the redeemed (Israel foremost) after the second
antitypical exodus and deliverance at the Egyptian Sea. The
passage through the Red Sea under the pillar of cloud was Israel's
baptism, to which the believer's baptism in trials corresponds. The
elect after their trials (especially those arising from the beast)
shall be taken up before the vials of wrath be poured on the beast and
his kingdom. So Noah and his family were taken out of the doomed world
before the deluge; Lot was taken out of Sodom before its destruction;
the Christians escaped by a special interposition of Providence to
Pella before the destruction of Jerusalem. As the pillar of
cloud and fire interposed between Israel and the Egyptian
foe, so that Israel was safely landed on the opposite shore before the
Egyptians were destroyed; so the Lord, coming with clouds and in
flaming fire, shall first catch up His elect people "in the
clouds to meet Him in the air," and then shall with fire destroy the
enemy. The Lamb leads the song in honor of the Father amidst the great
congregation. This is the "new song" mentioned in Re 14:3. The singing victors are the 144,000 of
Israel, "the first-fruits," and the general "harvest" of the
servant of God—(Ex
14:31; Nu 12:7; Jos 22:5).
The Lamb is more: He is the SON.
Great and marvellous are thy works,
&c.—part of Moses' last song (De 32:3, 4). The vindication of the justice of God
that so He may be glorified is the grand end of God's dealings. Hence
His servants again and again dwell upon this in their praises (Re 16:7; 19:2; Pr 16:4; Jer 10:10; Da 4:37). Especially at the judgment (Ps
saints—There is no manuscript
authority for this. A, B, Coptic, and Cyprian read, "of the NATIONS." C reads "of the ages," and so
Vulgate and Syriac. The point at issue in the Lord's
controversy with the earth is, whether He, or Satan's minion, the
beast, is "the King of the nations"; here at the eve of the judgments
descending on the kingdom of the beast, the transfigured saints hail
Him as "the King of the nations" (Eze 21:27).
4. Who shall not—Greek, "Who is
there but must fear Thee?" Compare Moses' song, Ex 15:14-16, on the fear which God's judgments
strike into the foe.
thee—so Syriac. But A, B, C,
Vulgate, and Cyprian reject
all nations shall come—alluding to
22:27-31; compare Isa
66:23; Jer 16:19. The
conversion of all nations, therefore, shall be when Christ shall
come, and not till then; and the first moving cause will be Christ's
manifested judgments preparing all hearts for receiving Christ's
mercy. He shall effect by His presence what we have in vain tried to
effect in His absence. The present preaching of the Gospel is gathering
out the elect remnant; meanwhile "the mystery of iniquity" is at work,
and will at last come to its crisis; then shall judgment descend on the
apostates at the harvest-end of this age (Greek, Mt 13:39,
40) when the tares shall be
cleared out of the earth, which thenceforward becomes Messiah's
kingdom. The confederacy of 'the apostates against Christ becomes, when
overthrown with fearful judgments, the very means in God's overruling
providence of preparing the nations not joined in the Antichristian
league to submit themselves to Him.
are—literally, "were": the prophetical
past for the immediate future.
5. So Re 11:19; compare Re 16:17. "The tabernacle of the testimony"
appropriately here comes to view, where God's faithfulness in avenging
His people with judgments on their foes is about to be set forth. We
need to get a glimpse within the Holy place to "understand" the secret
spring and the end of God's righteous dealings.
behold—omitted by A, B, C,
Syriac, and Andreas. It is
supported only by Vulgate, Coptic, and Primasius, but no manuscript.
6. having—So B reads. But A and C, read
"who have": not that they had them yet (compare Re 15:7), but they are by anticipation described
according to their office.
linen—So B reads. But A, C, and
Vulgate, "a stone." On the principle that the harder reading is
the one least likely to be an interpolation, we should read, "a stone
pure ('and' is omitted in A, B, C, and Andreas), brilliant" (so the Greek): probably
the diamond. With English Version, compare Ac 1:10;
golden girdles—resembling the Lord in
this respect (Re 1:13).
7. one of the four beasts—Greek,
"living creatures." The presentation of the vials to the angels by one
of the living creatures implies the ministry of the Church as the
medium for manifesting to angels the glories of redemption (Eph 3:10).
vials—"bowls"; a broad shallow cup or
bowl. The breadth of the vials in their upper part would tend to cause
their contents to pour out all at once, implying the
overwhelming suddenness of the woes.
full of … wrath—How sweetly do
the vials full of odors, that is, the incense-perfumed prayers
of the saints, contrast with these!
8. temple … filled—(Isa 6:4); compare Ex 40:34; 2Ch 5:14, as to the earthly temple, of which this
is the antitype.
the glory of God and …
power—then fully manifested.
no man was able to enter … the
temple—because of God's presence in His manifested glory and
power during the execution of these judgments.