Directions to Titus: How to Exhort Various Classes of Believers: The Grace of God in Christ Our Grand Incentive to
1. But … thou—in contrast to the
reprobate seducers stigmatized in Tit 1:11, 15, 16. "He deals more in exhortations, because
those intent on useless questions needed chiefly to be recalled to the
study of a holy, moral life; for nothing so effectually allays men's
wandering curiosity, as the being brought to recognize those duties in
which they ought to exercise themselves" [Calvin].
speak—without restraint: contrast
1:11, "mouths …
2. sober—Translated "vigilant," as
sober men alone can be (1Ti 3:2). But "sober" here answers to "not given
to wine," Tit 2:3; Tit 1:7.
grave—"dignified"; behaving with
"discreet" [Alford], (Tit 1:8; 1Ti
faith … charity [love] …
patience—combined in 1Ti 6:11. "Faith, hope, charity" (1Co 13:13). "Patience," Greek,
"enduring perseverance," is the attendant on, and is supported by,
"hope" (1Co 13:7; 1Th 1:3). It is the grace which especially
becomes old men, being the fruit of ripened experience derived
from trials overcome (Ro 5:3).
as becometh holiness—"as becometh
women consecrated to God" [Wahl]: being
by our Christian calling priestesses unto God (Eph 5:3; 1Ti
2:10). "Observant of sacred
not false accusers—not slanderers: a
besetting sin of some elderly women.
given to much wine—the besetting sin
of the Cretans (Tit 1:12).
Literally, "enslaved to much wine." Addiction to wine is slavery
6:16; 2Pe 2:19).
teachers—in private: not in public
(1Co 14:34; 1Ti 2:11, 12); influencing for good the younger women
by precept and example.
4. to be sober—Greek,
"self-restrained," "discreet"; the same Greek as in Tit 2:2, "temperate." (But see on Tit 2:2; compare Note, 2Ti
1:7). Alford therefore translates,
"That they school (admonish in their duty) the young women to be lovers
of their husbands," &c. (the foundation of all domestic happiness).
It was judicious that Titus, a young man, should admonish the young
women, not directly, but through the older women.
5. keepers at home—as "guardians of the
house," as the Greek expresses. The oldest manuscripts read,
"Workers at home": active in household duties (Pr 7:11; 1Ti
good—kind, beneficent (Mt 20:15; Ro 5:7; 1Pe 2:18). Not churlish and niggardly, but
thrifty as housewives.
obedient—rather "submissive," as the
Greek is translated; (see on Eph 5:21,
22; Eph 5:24).
their own—marking the duty of
subjection which they owe them, as being their own husbands
(Eph 5:22; Col 3:18).
blasphemed—"evil spoken of." That no
reproach may be cast on the Gospel, through the inconsistencies of its
professors (Tit 2:8, 10; Ro 2:24; 1Ti 5:14; 6:1). "Unless we are virtuous,
blasphemy will come through us to the faith" [Theophylact].
6. Young—Greek, "The younger
sober-minded—self-restrained [Alford]. "Nothing is so hard at this age as to
overcome pleasures and follies" [Chrysostom].
7. In—with respect to all
thyself a pattern—though but a young
man thyself. All teaching is useless unless the teacher's example
confirm his word.
in doctrine—in thy ministerial
teaching (showing) uncorruptness, that is, untainted
purity of motive on thy part (compare 2Co 11:3), so as to be "a pattern" to all. As
"gravity," &c., refers to Titus himself, so "uncorruptness";
though, doubtless, uncorruptness of the doctrine will be sure to
follow as a consequence of the Christian minister being of simple,
uncorrupt integrity himself.
gravity—dignified seriousness in
setting forth the truth.
sincerity—omitted in the oldest
8. speech—discourse in public and
he that is of the contrary part—the
adversary (Tit 1:9; 2Ti 2:25), whether he be heathen or Jew.
may be ashamed—put to confusion by the
power of truth and innocence (compare Tit 2:5, 10; 1Ti 5:14;
no evil thing—in our acts, or
of you—So one of the oldest
manuscripts. Other very old manuscripts read, "of US," Christians.
to please them well—"to give
satisfaction" [Alford]. To be
complaisant in everything; to have that zealous desire to gain the
master's goodwill which will anticipate the master's wish and do even
more than is required. The reason for the frequent recurrence of
injunctions to slaves to subjection (Eph 6:5, &c.; Col 3:22; 1Ti 6:1, &c.; 1Pe
2:18) was, that in no rank
was there more danger of the doctrine of the spiritual equality
and freedom of Christians being misunderstood than in that of slaves.
It was natural for the slave who had become a Christian, to forget his
place and put himself on a social level with his master. Hence
the charge for each to abide in the sphere in which he was when
converted (1Co 7:20-24).
not answering again—in
contradiction to the master: so the Greek, "not
10. Not purloining—Greek, "Not
appropriating" what does not belong to one. It means "keeping
back" dishonestly or deceitfully (Ac 5:2, 3).
showing—manifesting in acts.
good—really good; not so in mere
appearance (Eph 6:5, 6; Col 3:22-24). "The heathen do not judge of the
Christian's doctrines from the doctrine, but from his actions and life"
[Chrysostom]. Men will write, fight, and
even die for their religion; but how few live for it! Translate,
"That they may adorn the doctrine of our Saviour God," that is, God the
Father, the originating author of salvation (compare Note, see
on 1Ti 1:1). God deigns to have His
Gospel-doctrine adorned even by slaves, who are regarded by the world
as no better than beasts of burden. "Though the service be rendered to
an earthly master, the honor redounds to God, as the servant's goodwill
flows from the fear of God" [Theophylact]. Even slaves, low as is their status,
should not think the influence of their example a matter of no
consequence to religion: how much more those in a high position. His
love in being "our Saviour" is the strongest ground for our adorning
His doctrine by our lives. This is the force of "For" in Tit 2:11.
11. the grace of God—God's gratuitous
favor in the scheme of redemption.
hath appeared—Greek, "hath been
made to appear," or "shine forth" (Isa 9:2; Lu
1:79). "hath been
manifested" (Tit 3:4),
after having been long hidden in the loving counsels of God (Col
1:26; 2Ti 1:9, 10). The image
is illustrated in Ac 27:20.
The grace of God hath now been embodied in Jesus, the brightness
of the Father's glory," manifested as the "Sun of
righteousness," "the Word made flesh." The Gospel dispensation is hence
termed "the day" (1Th 5:5, 8;
there is a double "appearing," that of "grace" here, that of "glory,"
2:13; compare Ro 13:12). Connect it not as English
Version, but, "The grace … that bringeth salvation to all
men hath appeared," or "been manifested" (1Ti 2:4; 4:10). Hence God is called "our
Saviour" (Tit 2:10).
The very name Jesus means the same.
to all—of whom he enumerated the
different classes (Tit 2:2-9):
even to servants; to us Gentiles, once aliens from God. Hence arises
our obligation to all men (Tit 3:2).
12. Teaching—Greek, "disciplining
us." Grace exercises discipline, and is imparted in connection
with disciplining chastisements (1Co 11:32; Heb 12:6, 7). The education which the
Christian receives from "the grace" of God is a discipline often trying
to flesh and blood: just as children need disciplining. The
discipline which it exercises teaches us to deny
ungodliness and worldly lusts, and to live soberly, righteously, and
godly, in this present world (Greek, "age," or course of
things) where such self-discipline is needed, seeing that its spirit is
opposed to God (Tit 1:12, 16; 1Co 1:20; 3:18, 19): in the coming world we may gratify
every desire without need of self-discipline, because all desires there
will be conformable to the will of God.
that—Greek, "in order that";
the end of the "disciplining" is "in order that … we may
live soberly," &c. This point is lost by the translation,
denying … lusts—(Lu 9:23). The Greek aorist expresses
"denying once for all." We deny "worldly lusts" when we withhold
our consent from them, when we refuse the delight which they suggest,
and the act to which they solicit us, nay, tear them up by the roots
out of our soul and mind [ST. Bernard,
worldly lusts—The Greek article
expresses, "the lusts of the world," "all worldly lusts"
[Alford], (Ga 5:16; Eph 2:3; 1Jo 2:15-17; 5:19). The world (cosmos) will
not come to an end when this present age (aeon) or course
of things shall end.
live soberly, righteously, and
godly—the positive side of the Christian character; as
"denying … lusts" was the negative. "Soberly," that is,
with self-restraint, in relation to one's self:
"righteously" or justly, in relation to our neighbor;
"godly" or piously, in relation to God (not merely
amiably and justly, but something higher, godly,
with love and reverence toward God). These three comprise our
"disciplining" in faith and love, from which he passes to
hope (Tit 2:13).
13. (Php 3:20, 21).
Looking for—with constant
expectation (so the Greek) and with joy (Ro 8:19). This will prove the antidote to
worldly lusts, and the stimulus to "live in this present world"
conformably to this expectation. The Greek is translated,
"waiting for," in Lu 2:25.
blessed—bringing blessedness (Ro 4:7, 8).
hope—that is, object of hope (Ro
8:24; Ga 5:5; Col 1:5).
the glorious appearing—There is but
one Greek article to both "hope" and "appearing," which marks
their close connection (the hope being about to be realized only
at the appearing of Christ). Translate, "The blessed hope
and manifestation (compare Note, see on Tit 2:11) of the glory." The Greek for
"manifestation" is translated "brightness" in 2Th 2:8. As His "coming" (Greek,
"parousia") expresses the fact; so "brightness, appearing," or
"manifestation" (epiphaneia) expresses His personal
visibility when He shall come.
the great God and our Saviour
Jesus—There is but one Greek article to "God" and
"Saviour," which shows that both are predicated of one and the same
Being. "Of Him who is at once the great God and our Saviour." Also (2)
"appearing" (epiphaneia) is never by Paul predicated of God the
Father (Joh 1:18; 1Ti 6:16), or even of "His glory" (as Alford explains it): it is invariably
applied to Christ's coming, to which (at
His first advent, compare 2Ti 1:10) the
kindred verb "appeared" (epephanee), Tit 2:11, refers (1Ti 6:14; 2Ti 4:1, 8). Also (3) in the context (Tit 2:14) there is no reference to the Father,
but to Christ alone; and here there is no occasion for reference to
the Father in the exigencies of the context. Also (4) the
expression "great God," as applied to Christ, is in accordance with the
context, which refers to the glory of His appearing; just as
"the true God" is predicated of Christ, 1Jo 5:20. The phrase occurs nowhere else in the
New Testament, but often in the Old Testament. De 7:21;
10:17, predicated of Jehovah,
who, as their manifested Lord, led the Israelites through the
wilderness, doubtless the Second Person in the Trinity. Believers now
look for the manifestation of His glory, inasmuch as they shall share
in it. Even the Socinian explanation, making "the great God" to be
the Father, "our Saviour," the Son, places God and Christ
on an equal relation to "the glory" of the future appearing: a
fact incompatible with the notion that Christ is not divine; indeed it
would be blasphemy so to couple any mere created being with God.
14. gave himself—"The forcible 'Himself,
His whole self, the greatest gift ever given,' must not be
for us—Greek, "in our
redeem us—deliver us from
bondage by paying the price of His precious blood. An
appropriate image in addressing bond-servants (Tit 2:9, 10):
from all iniquity—the essence of sin,
namely, "transgression of the law": in bondage to which we were till
then. The aim of His redemption was to redeem us, not merely from the
penalty, but from the being of all iniquity. Thus he reverts to the
"teaching" in righteousness, or disciplining effect of the grace
of God that bringeth salvation (Tit 2:11, 12).
peculiar—peculiarly His own, as
Israel was of old.
zealous—in doing and promoting "good
15. with all authority—Translate,
"authoritativeness" (compare "sharply," Tit 1:13).
Let no man despise thee—Speak with
such vigor as to command respect (1Ti 4:12). Warn them with such authority that no
one may think himself above (so the Greek literally) the
need of admonition [Tittmann, Greek
Synonyms of the New Testament].