Lu 19:1-10. Zaccheus the
The name is Jewish.
2-4. chief among the publicans—farming a
considerable district, with others under him.
rich—Ill-gotten riches some of it
certainly was. (See on Lu 19:8.)
3. who he was—what sort of person.
Curiosity then was his only motive, though his determination not
to be baulked was overruled for more than he sought.
4. sycamore—the Egyptian fig, with
leaves like the mulberry.
5, 6. looked up,—in the full knowledge
of who was in the tree, and preparatory to addressing him.
Zaccheus—whom he had never seen in the
flesh, nor probably heard of. "He calleth His own sheep by name
and leadeth them out" (Joh 10:3).
make haste, and come down—to which he
literally responded—"he made haste and came down."
for to-day, &c.—Our Lord
invites Himself, and in "royal" style, which waits not for
invitations, but as the honor is done to the subject, not the
sovereign, announces the purpose of royalty to partake of the subject's
hospitalities. Manifestly our Lord speaks as knowing how the privilege
would be appreciated.
to-day … abide—(Compare Joh 1:39), probably over night.
6. joyfully—Whence this so sudden "joy"
in the cold bosom of an avaricious publican? The internal revolution
was as perfect as instantaneous. "He spake and it was done." "Then
shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb sing"
7. to be guest—or lodge:
something more than "eating with" such (Lu 15:2).
a sinner—that was one but a minute
ago, but now is not. This mighty change, however, was all unknown to
them. But they shall know it presently. "Sinner" would refer both to
his office, vile in the eyes of a Jew, and to his character, which it
is evident was not good.
8-10. stood—before all.
said unto the Lord, Behold, Lord—Mark
how frequently Luke uses this title, and always where lordly
authority, dignity, or power is intended.
if I have—that is, "so far as I have,"
for evidently the "if" is so used (as in Php 4:8).
taken by false accusation—defrauded,
overcharged (Lu 3:12, 13).
fourfold—The Roman law required this;
the Jewish law, but the principal and a fifth more (Nu 5:7). There was no demand made for
either; but, as if to revenge himself on his hitherto reigning sin (see
on Joh 20:28), and to testify the change he had
experienced, besides surrendering the half of his fair gains to
the poor, he voluntarily determines to give up all that was ill-gotten,
quadrupled. He gratefully addressed this to the "Lord," to whom he owed
the wonderful change.
9. Jesus said unto him—but also before
This day, &c.—memorable saying!
Salvation already come, but not a day old.
to this house—so expressed probably to
meet the taunt, "He is gone to be guest," &c. The house is no
longer polluted; it is now fit to receive Me. But salvation to a
house is an exceedingly precious idea, expressing the new air that
would henceforth breathe in it, and the new impulses from its head
which would reach its members (Ps 118:15; Ac 16:15, 16,
son of Abraham—He was that by birth,
but here it means a partaker of his faith, being mentioned as
the sufficient explanation of salvation having come to him.
10. lost—and such "lost" ones as this
Zaccheus. (See on Lu 15:32.) What encouragement
is there in this narrative to hope for unexpected conversions?
Lu 19:11-27. Parable of the
A different parable from that of the Talents (Mt
25:14-30). For, (1) This
parable was spoken "when He was nigh to Jerusalem" (Lu 19:11); that one, some days after entering it,
and from the Mount of Olives. (2) This parable was spoken to the
promiscuous crowd; that, to the Twelve alone. Accordingly, (3) Besides
the "servants" in this parable, who profess subjection to Him, there is
a class of "citizens" who refuse to own Him, and who are treated
differently, whereas in the parable of the talents, spoken to the
former class alone, this latter class is omitted. (4) In the
Talents, each servant receives a different number of them (five, two,
one); in the Pounds all receive the same one pound, which is but about
the sixtieth part of a talent; also, in the talents, each shows the
same fidelity by doubling what he received (the five are made ten; the
two, four); in the Pounds, each receiving the same, render a
different return (one making his pound ten, another five).
Plainly, therefore, the intended lesson is different; the one
illustrating equal fidelity with different degrees of advantage;
the other, different degrees of improvement of the same
opportunities; yet with all this difference, the parables are
12. a far country—said to put down the
notion that He was just on His way to set up His kingdom, and to
inaugurate it by His personal presence.
to receive … a kingdom—be
invested with royalty; as when Herod went to Rome and was there made
king; a striking expression of what our Lord went away for and
received, "sitting down at the right hand of the Majesty on high."
to return—at His second coming.
13. Occupy—"negotiate," "do business,"
with the resources entrusted.
14. his citizens—His proper subjects;
meaning the Jews, who expressly repudiating our Lord's claims said, "We
have no king but Cæsar" (Joh 19:15). In Christendom, these correspond to
infidel rejecters of Christianity, as distinguished from professed
15-26. (See on Mt
ten … five cities—different
degrees of future gracious reward, proportioned to the measure of
27. bring hither, &c.—(Compare 1Sa 15:32,
33). Referring to the awful
destruction of Jerusalem, but pointing to the final destruction of all
that are found in open rebellion against Christ.
Lu 19:28-44. Christ's
Triumphant Entry into Jerusalem and Tears over It.
(See on Mt 21:1-11.)
29-38. Bethphage—"house of figs," a
village which with Bethany lay along the further side of Mount Olivet,
east of Jerusalem.
30. whereon, &c.—(See on Joh 19:41).
31. the Lord hath need, &c.—He both
knew all and had the key of the human heart. (See on Lu 19:5.) Perhaps the owner was a disciple.
35. set Jesus on—He allowing this, as
befitting the state He was for the first and only time
37. whole multitude, &c.—The
language here is very grand, intended to express a burst of admiration
far wider and deeper than ever had been witnessed before.
38. Blessed be the King,
&c.—Mark (Mr 11:9, 10) more fully, "Hosanna," that is,
"Save now," the words of Ps 118:25, which were understood to refer to
Messiah; and so they add, "to the Son of David, blessed is He that
cometh in the name of the Lord (Ps 118:26), Hosanna in the highest." This was the
very loftiest style in which He could be saluted as the promised
peace, &c.—(See on Lu 2:13, 14).
40. the stones, &c.—Hitherto the
Lord had discouraged all demonstrations in His favor; latterly He had
begun an opposite course; on this one occasion He seems to yield
His whole soul to the wide and deep acclaim with a mysterious
satisfaction, regarding it as so necessary a part of the regal
dignity in which as Messiah He for this last time entered the city,
that if not offered by the vast multitude, it would have been wrung
out of the stones rather than be withheld (Hab 2:11).
41-44. when beheld … wept—Compare
La 3:51, "Mine eye affecteth mine heart";
the heart again affecting the eye. Under this sympathetic law of the
relation of mind and body, Jesus, in His beautiful, tender humanity,
was constituted even as we. What a contrast to the immediately
preceding profound joy! He yielded Himself alike freely to both. (See
on Mt 23:37.)
42. at least in this, &c.—even at
this moving moment. (See on Lu 13:9.)
thy peace—thinking perhaps of the name
of the city. (Heb 7:2)
[Webster and Wilkinson]. How much is included in this word!
now … hid—It was His among His
last open efforts to "gather them," but their eyes were
43. a trench—a rampart; first of wood,
and when this was burnt, a built wall, four miles in circuit, built in
three days—so determined were they. This "cut off all hope of
escape," and consigned the city to unparalleled horrors. (See Josephus, Wars of the Jews, 6.2;
12.3,4.) All here predicted was with dreadful literally fulfilled.
Lu 19:45-48. Second
Cleansing of the Temple and Subsequent Teaching.
45, 46. As the first cleansing was on
His first visit to Jerusalem (Joh 2:13-22), so this second cleansing was on His
den of thieves—banded together for
plunder, reckless of principle. The mild term "house of merchandise,"
used on the former occasion, was now unsuitable.
47. sought—continued seeking, that is,
daily, as He taught.
48. were very attentive to hear him—hung
upon His words.