Introductory Exhortation to Repentance. The
Visions. The man among the myrtles: Comforting explanation by
the angel, an encouragement to the Jews to build the city and temple:
The four horns and four artificers.
1. See Introduction.
2. God fulfilled His threats against your
fathers; beware, then, lest by disregarding His voice by me, as they
did in the case of former prophets, ye suffer like them. The
special object Zechariah aims at is that they should awake from their
selfish negligence to obey God's command to rebuild His temple (Hag 1:4-8).
"displeased with a displeasure," that is, vehemently, with no common
displeasure, exhibited in the destruction of the Jews' city and in
3. saith the Lord of hosts—a phrase
frequent in Haggai and Zechariah, implying God's boundless resources
and universal power, so as to inspire the Jews with confidence to
Turn ye unto me … and I will
turn—that is, and then, as the sure consequence, "I
will turn unto you" (Mal 3:7; Jas 4:8; compare also Jer
3:12; Eze 18:30; Mic 7:19).
Though God hath brought you back from captivity, yet this state will
not last long unless ye are really converted. God has heavier scourges
ready, and has begun to give symptoms of displeasure [Calvin]. (Hag 1:6).
4. Be ye not as your fathers—The Jews
boasted of their fathers; but he shows that their fathers were
refractory, and that ancient example and long usage will not justify
disobedience (2Ch 36:15, 16).
the former prophets—those who lived
before the captivity. It aggravated their guilt that, not only had they
the law, but they had been often called to repent by God's
5. Your fathers … and the prophets, do they
live for ever?—In contrast to "My words" (Zec 1:6), which "endure for ever" (1Pe 1:25). "Your fathers have perished, as was
foretold; and their fate ought to warn you. But you may say, The
prophets too are dead. I grant it, but still My words do not die:
though dead, their prophetical words from Me, fulfilled against your
fathers, are not dead with them. Beware, then, lest ye share their
6. statutes—My determined purposes to
punish for sin.
which I commanded my servants—namely,
to announce to your fathers.
did they not take hold—that is,
overtake, as a foe overtakes one fleeing.
they returned—Turning from
their former self-satisfaction, they recognized their punishment as
that which God's prophets had foretold.
thought to do—that is, decreed to do.
Compare with this verse La 2:17.
our ways—evil ways (Jer 4:18;
7. The general plan of the nine following
visions (Zec 1:8-6:15) is first to present the symbol; then,
on a question being put, to subjoin the interpretation. Though the
visions are distinct, they form one grand whole, presented in one night
to the prophet's mind, two or three months after the prophet's first
commission (Zec 1:1).
Sebat—the eleventh month of the Jewish
year, from the new moon in February to the new moon in March. The term
is Chaldee, meaning a "shoot," namely, the month when trees
begin to shoot or bud.
8. by night—The Jews begin their day
with sunset; therefore the night which preceded the twenty-fourth day
of the month is meant (Zec 1:7).
a man—Jehovah, the second person of
the Trinity, manifested in man's form, an earnest of the
incarnation; called the "angel of Jehovah" (Zec 1:11, 12), "Jehovah the angel of the
covenant" (Mal 3:1;
compare Ge 16:7 with Zec 1:13; Ge 22:11 with Zec 1:12; Ex 3:2 with Zec 1:4). Being at once divine and human, He
must be God and man in one person.
riding—implying swiftness in executing
God's will in His providence; hastening to help His people.
red horse—the color that represents
bloodshed: implying vengeance to be inflicted on the foes of
Israel (compare 2Ki 3:22; Isa 63:1, 2; Re 6:4); also fiery zeal.
among the myrtle trees—symbol of the
Jewish Church: not a stately cedar, but a lowly, though fragrant,
myrtle. It was its depressed state that caused the Jews to despond;
this vision is designed to cheer them with better hopes. The uncreated
angel of Jehovah's presence standing (as His abiding place,
132:14) among them, is
a guarantee for her safety, lowly though she now be.
in the bottom—in a low place or bottom
of a river; alluding to Babylon near the rivers Euphrates and Tigris,
the scene of Judah's captivity. The myrtle delights in low places and
the banks of waters [Pembellus]. Maurer translates, from a different root, "in
a shady place."
red horses—that is, horsemen
mounted on red horses; Zec 1:10, 11, confirm this view.
speckled … white—The "white"
implies triumph and victory for Judah; "speckled" (from a root "to
intertwine"), a combination of the two colors white and
red (bay [Moore]), implies a
state of things mixed, partly prosperous, partly otherwise [Henderson]; or, the connection of the wrath
(answering to the "red") about to fall on the Jews' foes, and triumph
(answering to the "white") to the Jews themselves in God's arrangements
for His people [Moore]. Some angels
("the red horses") exercised offices of vengeance; others ("the
white"), those of joy; others ("the speckled"), those of a mixed
character (compare Zec 6:2, 3).
God has ministers of every kind for promoting the interests of His
9. the angel that talked with me—not the
"man upon the red horse," as is evident from Zec 1:10, where he (the Divine Angel) is
distinguished from the "angel that talked with me" (the phrase used of
him, Zec 1:13, 14; Zec 2:3; 4:1, 4, 5;
5:5, 10; 6:4), that is, the
interpreting angel. The Hebrew for "with me," or,
"in me" (Nu 12:8),
implies internal, intimate communication [Jerome].
show thee—reveal to thy mental
10. answered—The "angel of the covenant"
here gives the reply instead of the interpreting angel, to imply that
all communications through the interpreting angel come from Him as
Lord hath sent to walk to and fro through the
earth—If "Satan walks to and fro in the earth" (implying
restless activity) on errands of mischief to God's people (Job 1:7), the Lord sends other
angels to "walk to and fro" with unceasing activity everywhere to
counterwork Satan's designs, and to defend His people (Ps 34:7; 91:11; 103:20, 21; Heb 1:14).
11. The attendant angels report to the Lord of
angels, "the earth … is at rest." The flourishing state of the
heathen "earth," while Judah was desolate and its temple not yet
restored, is the powerful plea in the Divine Angel's intercession with
God the Father in Zec 1:12.
When Judah was depressed to the lowest point, and the heathen elated to
the highest, it was time for Jehovah to work for His people.
sitteth still—dwells surely.
12. Not only does Messiah stand among
His people (the "myrtles," Zec 1:8), but
intercedes for them with the Father ("Lord," or "Jehovah of hosts")
effectively (Zec 1:13; Heb 7:25). Compare Ps 102:13-20; Isa 62:6,
7, as to Judah's restoration
in answer to prayer.
answered and said—said in
continuation of the discourse: proceeded to say.
how long—Messiah's people pray
similarly to their Head. Re 6:10, "How
long," &c. Heretofore it was vain to pray, but now that the
divinely appointed "threescore and ten years" (Jer 25:11;
29:10) are elapsed, it is
time to pray to Thee for the fulfilment of Thy promise, seeing that Thy
grace is not yet fully manifested, nor Thy promise fulfilled. God's
promises are not to make us slothful, but to quicken our prayers. Henderson, dating the seventy years from the
destruction of Jerusalem (588 B.C.),
supposes two years of the seventy had yet to run (520 B.C.).
13. the Lord—Jehovah, called "the angel of the Lord (Jehovah)"
good words and comfortable
words—literally, "words, consolations." The subject of these
consolatory words is stated in Zec 1:14, &c.; the promise of full
re-establishment, Jer 29:10, 11 (compare Isa 57:18; Ho 11:8).
14. Cry—Proclaim so as to be heard
clearly by all (Isa 40:6; 58:1).
I am jealous for Jerusalem—As a
husband jealous for his wife, wronged by others, so Jehovah is for
Judah, who has been injured wantonly by the heathen (Zec 8:2; Nu 25:11, 13; 1Ki 19:10; Joe 2:18).
15. very sore displeased with the
heathen—in contrast with "I was but a little
displeased" with My people. God's displeasure with His people is
temporary and for their chastening; with the heathen oppressors, it is
final and fatal (Jer 30:11).
God's instruments for chastising His people, when He has done with
them, He casts into the fire.
are at ease—carnally secure. A
stronger phrase than "is at rest" (Zec 1:11). They are "at ease," but as I am "sore
displeased" with them, their ease is accursed. Judah is in
"affliction," but as I love her and am jealous for her, she has every
reason to be encouraged in prosecuting the temple work.
helped forward the
affliction—afflicted My people more than I desired. The
heathen sought the utter extinction of Judah to gratify their own
ambition and revenge (Isa 47:6; Eze 25:3, 6; Ob
16. I am returned—whereas in anger I had
before withdrawn from her (Ho 5:15).
with mercies—not merely of one kind,
nor once only, but repeated mercies.
my house shall be built—which at this
time (the second year of Darius, Zec 1:1) had only its foundations laid (Hag 2:18). It was not completed till the
sixth year of Darius (Ezr 6:15).
line—(Job 38:5). The measuring-line for building, not
hastily, but with measured regularity. Not only the temple, but
Jerusalem also was to be rebuilt (Ne 2:3, &c.; compare Zec 2:1, 2). Also, as to the future temple and
city, Eze 41:3; 42:1-44:31; 45:6.
17. yet—though heretofore lying in
My cities—not only Jerusalem, but the
subordinate cities of Judah. God claims them all as peculiarly
His, and therefore will restore them.
through prosperity … spread
abroad—or overflow; metaphor from an overflowing
vessel or fountain (compare Pr 5:16)
[Pembellus]. Abundance of fruits of the
earth, corn and wine, and a large increase of citizens, are meant; also
comfort Zion—(Isa 40:1, 2;
choose—(Zec 2:12; 3:2; Isa 14:1). Here meaning, "show by acts
of loving-kindness that He has chosen." His immutable choice
from everlasting is the fountain whence flow all such particular acts
Zec 1:18-21. Second
Vision. The power of the Jews foes shall be
18. four horns—To a pastoral people like
the Jews the horns of the strongest in the herd naturally
suggested a symbol of power and pride of conscious
strength: hence the ruling powers of the world (Re 17:3, 12). The number four in
Zechariah's time referred to the four cardinal points of the horizon.
Wherever God's people turned, there were foes to encounter (Ne 4:7); the Assyrian, Chaldean, and Samaritan
on the north; Egypt and Arabia on the south; Philistia on the west;
Ammon and Moab on the east. But the Spirit in the prophet looked
farther; namely, to the four world powers, the only ones which
were, or are, to rise till the kingdom of Messiah, the fifth,
overthrows and absorbs all others in its universal dominion. Babylon
and Medo-Persia alone had as yet risen, but soon Græco-Macedonia
was to succeed (as Zec 9:13
foretells), and Rome the fourth and last, was to follow (Da 2:1-49;
7:1-28). The fact that the
repairing of the evils caused to Judah and Israel by all four
kingdoms is spoken of here, proves that the exhaustive fulfilment is
yet future, and only the earnest of it given in the overthrow of the
two world powers which up to Zechariah's time had "scattered" Judah
(Jer 51:2; Eze 5:10, 12). That only two of the four had as yet
risen, is an argument having no weight with us, as we believe God's
Spirit in the prophets regards the future as present; we therefore are
not to be led by Rationalists who on such grounds deny the reference
here and in Zec 6:1 to the
four world kingdoms.
19. Judah, Israel—Though some of the ten
tribes of Israel returned with Judah from Babylon, the
full return of the former, as of the latter, is here foretold and must
be yet future.
20. four carpenters—or "artificers." The
several instrumentalities employed, or to be employed, in crushing the
"Gentile" powers which "scattered" Judah, are hereby referred to. For
every one of the four horns there was a cleaving "artificer" to
beat it down. For every enemy of God's people, God has provided a
counteracting power adequate to destroy it.
21. These are the horns—rather,
Those, namely, the horns being distinguished from the
"carpenters," or destroying workmen ("skilful to destroy," Ex 21:31), intended in the "these" of the
no man … lift up his head—so
depressed were they with a heavy weight of evils (Job 10:15).
to fray—to strike terror into
lifted up … horn—in the
haughtiness of conscious strength (Ps 75:4, 5) tyrannizing over Judah (Eze 34:21).