Da 12:1-13. Conclusion of
the Vision (Tenth through Twelfth
Chapters) AND Epilogue to the
Compare Da 12:4, 13; as Da 12:6, 7 refer to Da 7:25, that is, to the time of Antichrist, so
the subsequent Da 12:8-12
treat of the time of Antiochus (compare Da 12:11 with Da 11:31), thus putting together in one
summary view the two great periods of distress. The political
resurrection of the Jews under the Maccabees is the starting-point of
transition to the literal resurrection about to follow the destruction
of Antichrist by Christ's coming in glory. The language passes here
from the nearer to the more remote event, to which alone it is fully
1. at that time—typically,
towards the close of Antiochus' reign; antitypically, the time
when Antichrist is to be destroyed at Christ's coming.
Michael—the guardian angel of Israel
("thy people"), (Da 10:13).
The transactions on earth affecting God's people have their
correspondences in heaven, in the conflict between good and bad angels;
so at the last great contest on earth which shall decide the ascendency
of Christianity (Re 12:7-10). An archangel, not the Lord Jesus; for
he is distinguished from "the Lord" in Jude 9.
there shall be—rather, "it shall
time of trouble, such as never
was—partially applicable to the time of Antiochus, who was
the first subverter of the Jews' religion, and persecutor of its
professors, which no other world power had done. Fully applicable to
the last times of Antichrist, and his persecutions of Israel restored
to Palestine. Satan will be allowed to exercise an unhindered,
unparalleled energy (Isa 26:20, 21; Jer 30:7; Mt
24:21; compare Da 8:24, 25;
thy people shall be delivered—(Ro 11:26). The same deliverance of Israel
as in Zec
13:8, 9, "the third part
… brought through the fire … refined as silver." The
remnant in Israel spared, as not having joined in the Antichristian
blasphemy (Re 14:9, 10); not to be confounded with those who
have confessed Christ before His coming, "the remnant according to the
election of grace" (Ro 11:5),
part of the Church of the first-born who will share His millennial
reign in glorified bodies; the spared remnant (Isa 10:21) will only know the Lord Jesus when they
see Him, and when the spirit of grace and supplication is poured out on
written in the book—namely, of God's
secret purpose, as destined for deliverance (Ps 56:8; 69:28; Lu 10:20; Re 20:15; 21:27). Metaphor from a muster-roll of
2. many … that sleep—"many from
among the sleepers … these shall be unto everlasting
life; but those (the rest of the sleepers who do not awake at
this time) shall be unto shame" [Tregelles]. Not the general resurrection, but
that of those who share in the first resurrection; the rest of the dead
being not to rise till the end of the thousand years (Re 20:3, 5, 6; compare 1Co 15:23;
1Th 4:16). Israel's national
resurrection, and the first resurrection of the elect Church, are
similarly connected with the Lord's coming forth out of His place to
punish the earth in Isa 26:19, 21; 27:6. Compare Isa 25:6-9. The Jewish commentators support Tregelles. Auberlen thinks the sole purpose for which the
resurrection is introduced in this verse is an incitement to faithful
perseverance in the persecutions of Antiochus; and that there is no
chronological connection between the time of trouble in Da 12:1 and the resurrection in Da 12:2; whence the phrase, "at that
time," twice occurs in Da 12:1, but
no fixing of time in Da 12:2, 3;
2 Maccabees 7:9, 14, 23, shows the fruit of this prophecy in
animating the Maccabean mother and her sons to brave death, while
confessing the resurrection in words like those here. Compare Heb 11:35. Newton's view that "many" means all, is not
so probable; for Ro 5:15, 19, which he quotes, is not in point, since
the Greek is "the many," that is, all, but there is no
article in the Hebrew here. Here only in the Old
Testament is "everlasting life" mentioned.
3. wise—(Pr 11:30). Answering to "they that understand"
11:33, 35), the same
Hebrew, Maskilim; Israelites who, though in Jerusalem when
wickedness is coming to a head, are found intelligent witnesses against
it. As then they appeared worn out with persecutions (typically,
of Antiochus; antitypically, of Antichrist); so now in the
resurrection they "shine as the brightness of the firmament." The
design of past afflictions here appears "to make them white" (Mt
13:43; Re 7:9, 14).
turn … to
righteousness—literally, "justify," that is, convert many to
justification through Christ (Jas 5:20).
stars—(1Co 15:41, 42).
4. shut up … seal the book—John,
on the contrary, is told (Re 22:10)
not to seal his visions. Daniel's prophecy refers to a distant
time, and is therefore obscure for the immediate future, whereas John's
was to be speedily fulfilled (Re 1:1, 3; 22:6). Israel, to whom Daniel
prophesied after the captivity, with premature zeal sought after signs
of the predicted period: Daniel's prophecy was designed to restrain
this. The Gentile Church, on the contrary, for whom John wrote,
needs to be impressed with the shortness of the period, as it is, owing
to its Gentile origin, apt to conform to the world, and to forget the
coming of the Lord (compare Mt 25:13, 19; Mr
13:32-37; 2Pe 3:8, 12; Re 22:20).
run to and fro—not referring to the
modern rapidity of locomotion, as some think, nor to Christian
missionaries going about to preach the Gospel to the world at large
[Barnes], which the context scarcely
admits; but, whereas now but few care for this prophecy of God, "at the
time of the end," that is, near its fulfilment, "many shall run to and
fro," that is, scrutinize it, running through every page. Compare Hab 2:2 [Calvin]: it is thereby that "the knowledge
(namely, of God's purposes as revealed in prophecy) shall be
increased." This is probably being now fulfilled.
5. A vision of two other angels, one on one
side of the Hiddekel or Tigris, the other on the other side, implying
that on all sides angels attend to execute God's commands. The angel
addressing Daniel had been over the river "from above" (Da 12:6, Margin).
6. one—namely, of the two (Da 12:5).
man … in linen—who had spoken up
to this point. God impelled the angel to ask in order to waken us out
of our torpor, seeing that the very "angels desire to look into" the
things affecting man's redemption (1Pe 1:12), as setting forth the glory of their
Lord and ours (Eph 3:10).
How long … to the end of these
wonders—This question of the angel refers to the final
dealings of God in general, Antichrist's overthrow, and the
resurrection. Daniel's question (Da 12:8) refers to the more immediate future of
his nation [Auberlen].
7. held up … right … and … left
hand—Usually the right hand was held up in affirmation as an
appeal to heaven to attest the truth (De 32:40; Re 10:5, 6). Here both hands are lifted up
for the fuller confirmation.
time, times, and a half—(See on Da 7:25). Newton,
referring this prophecy to the Eastern apostasy, Mohammedanism, remarks
that the same period of three and a half years, or 1260 prophetic days,
is assigned to it as the Western apostasy of the little horn (Da 7:25); and so, says Prideaux, Mohammed began to forge his imposture,
retiring to his cave, A.D. 606, the very
year that Phocas made the grant to the bishop of Rome, whence he
assumed the title, The Universal Pastor; Antichrist thus setting both
his feet on Christendom together, the one in the East, and the other in
the West. Three and a half is the time of the world power, in which the
earthly kingdoms rule over the heavenly [Auberlen]. "Three and a half" represents the idea
of spiritual trial; (besides this certain symbolical
meaning, there is doubtless an accurate chronological meaning,
which is as yet to us uncertain): it is half of "seven," the complete
number, so a semi-perfect state, one of probation. The holy city is
trodden by the Gentiles forty-two months (Re 11:2), so the exercise of the power of the
13:5). The two witnesses
preach in sackcloth 1260 days, and remained unburied three days and
a half: so the woman in the wilderness: also the same for a "time,
times, and a half" (Re 11:3, 9, 11; 12:6, 14). Forty-two connects the Church
with Israel, whose haltings in the wilderness were forty-two
33:1-50). The famine and
drought on Israel in Elijah's days were for "three years and six
months" (Lu 4:25; Jas 5:17); there same period as Antiochus'
persecution: so the ministry of the Man of Sorrows, which ceased in the
midst of a week (Da 9:27)
scatter … holy
people—"accomplished" here answers to "the consummation"
9:27), namely, the "pouring
out" of the last dregs of the curse on the "desolated holy people."
Israel's lowest humiliation (the utter "scattering of her power") is
the precursor of her exaltation, as it leads her to seek her God and
8. understood not—Daniel "understood"
the main features of the vision as to Antiochus (Da 10:1, 14), but not as to the times.
1:10-12 refers mainly to
Daniel: for it is he who foretells "the sufferings of Christ and the
glory that should follow"; it is he who prophesies "not unto himself,
but unto us"; it is he who "searched what, or what manner of
time the Spirit of Christ in him did signify."
9. Daniel's desire of knowing more is thus
deferred "till the time of the end." John's Revelation in part reveals
what here is veiled (see on Da 12:4; Da 8:26).
10. There is no need of a fuller explanation
as to the time; for when the predictions so far given shall have
come to pass, the godly shall be "purified" by the foretold trials and
shall understand that the end is at hand; but the wicked shall not
understand, and so shall rush on to their own ruin (Da 11:33-35) [Maurer]. The "end" is primarily, of Antiochus'
persuasion; antitypically, the end of Antichrist's. It is the very
clearness in the main which renders necessary the obscurity. The
fulfilment of God's decree is not a mere arithmetical problem which the
profane may understand by arithmetical calculations, but a holy enigma
to stimulate to a faithful observance of God's ways, and to a diligent
study of the history of God's people [Auberlen]. To this Christ refers (Mt 24:15), "Whose readeth, let him
11. from … sacrifice … taken way
… abomination—(Da 11:31). As to this epoch, which probably is
prophetically germinant and manifold; the profanation of the temple
by Antiochus (in the month Ijar of the year 145 B.C., till the restoration of the worship by Judas
Maccabeus on the twenty-fifth day of the ninth month [Chisleu] of 148
B.C., according to the Seleucid era,
1290 days; forty-five days more elapsed before Antiochus' death in the
month Shebat of 148 B.C., so ending the
Jews' calamities [Maurer]); by pagan
Rome, after Christ's death; by Mohammed; by Antichrist, the
culmination of apostate Rome. The "abomination" must reach its climax
(see Auberlen's translation, "summit,"
Da 9:27), and the measure of iniquity be
full, before Messiah comes.
thousand two hundred and ninety days—a
month beyond the "time, times, and a half" (Da 12:7). In Da 12:12, forty-five days more are added, in all
1335 days. Tregelles thinks Jesus at His
coming will deliver the Jews. An interval elapses, during which their
consciences are awakened to repentance and faith in Him. A second
interval elapses in which Israel's outcasts are gathered, and then the
united blessing takes place. These stages are marked by the 1260, 1290,
and 1335 days. Cumming thinks the 1260
years begin when Justinian in A. D.
533 subjected the Eastern churches to John II, bishop of Rome; ending
in 1792, when the Code Napoleon was established and the Pope was
dishonored. 1290 reach to 1822, about the time of the waning of the
Turkish power, the successor to Greece in the empire of the East.
Forty-five years more end in 1867, the end of "the times of the
Gentiles." See Le 26:24,
"seven times," that is, 7 X 360, or 2520 years: 652 B.C. is the date of Judah's captivity, beginning
under Manasseh; 2520 from this date end in 1868, thus nearly
harmonizing with the previous date, 1867. See on Da
8:14. The seventh millenary of the world [Clinton] begins in 1862. Seven years to 1869 (the
date of the second advent) constitute the reign of the personal
Antichrist; in the last three and a half, the period of final
tribulation, Enoch (or else Moses) and Elijah, the two witnesses,
prophesy in sackcloth. This theory is very dubious (compare Mt 24:36; Ac 1:7; 1Th 5:2; 2Pe 3:10); still the event alone can tell whether
the chronological coincidences of such theories are fortuitous, or
solid data on which to fix the future times. Hales makes the periods 1260, 1290, 1335, begin with
the Roman destruction of Jerusalem and end with the precursory dawn of
the Reformation, the preaching of Wycliffe and Huss.
13. rest—in the grave (Job 3:17; Isa
57:2). He, like his people
Israel, was to wait patiently and confidently for the blessing till
God's time. He "received not the promise," but had to wait until the
Christian elect saints should be brought in, at the first resurrection,
that he and the older Old Testament saints "without us should not be
made perfect" (Heb 11:40).
unto life, as opposed to condemnation (Ps 1:5).
thy lot—image from the
allotment of the earthly Canaan.