Eze 30:1-26. Continuation of
the Prophecies against Egypt.
Two distinct messages: (1) At Eze 30:1-19, a repetition of Eze 29:1-16, with fuller details of lifelike
distinctness. The date is probably not long after that mentioned in
29:17, on the eve of
Nebuchadnezzar's march against Egypt after subjugating Tyre. (2) A
vision relating directly to Pharaoh and the overthrow of his kingdom;
communicated at an earlier date, the seventh of the first month of the
eleventh year. Not a year after the date in Eze 29:1, and three months before the taking of
Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar.
2. Woe worth the day!—that is, Alas for
3. the time of the heathen—namely, for
taking vengeance on them. The judgment on Egypt is the beginning of a
world-wide judgment on all the heathen enemies of God (Joe
1:15; 2:1, 2; 3:1-21; Ob 15).
4. pain—literally, "pangs with trembling
as of a woman in childbirth."
5. the mingled people—the mercenary
troops of Egypt from various lands, mostly from the interior of Africa
(compare Eze 27:10; Jer 25:20, 24; 46:9, 21).
Chub—the people named Kufa on
the monuments [Havernick], a people
considerably north of Palestine [Wilkinson]; Coba or Chobat, a city of
men of the land that is in league—too
definite an expression to mean merely, "men in league" with Egypt;
rather, "sons of the land of the covenant," that is, the
Jews who migrated to Egypt and carried Jeremiah with them (Jer
42:1-44:30). Even they shall
not escape (Jer 42:22; 44:14).
6. from the tower of Syene—(see on Eze 29:10).
7. in the midst of … countries …
desolate—Egypt shall fare no better than they (Eze 29:10).
9. messengers … in ships to …
Ethiopians—(Isa 18:1, 2). The cataracts interposing between them
and Egypt should not save them. Egyptians "fleeing from before Me" in
My execution of judgment, as "messengers" in "skiffs" ("vessels of
bulrushes," Isa 18:2)
shall go up the Nile as far as navigable, to announce the advance of
as in the day of Egypt—The day of
Ethiopia's "pain" shall come shortly, as Egypt's day came.
10. the multitude—the large
12. rivers—the artificial canals made
from the Nile for irrigation. The drying up of these would cause
scarcity of grain, and so prepare the way for the invaders (Isa
13. Noph—Memphis, the capital of Middle
Egypt, and the stronghold of "idols." Though no record exists of
Nebuchadnezzar's "destroying" these, we know from Herodotus and others, that Cambyses took Pelusium,
the key of Egypt, by placing before his army dogs, cats, &c., all
held sacred in Egypt, so that no Egyptian would use any weapon against
them. He slew Apis, the sacred ox, and burnt other idols of Egypt.
no more a prince—referring to the
anarchy that prevailed in the civil wars between Apries and Amasis at
the time of Nebuchadnezzar's invasion. There shall no more be a prince
of the land of Egypt, ruling the whole country; or, no
14. Pathros—Upper Egypt, with "No" or
Thebes its capital (famed for its stupendous buildings, of which grand
ruins remain), in antithesis to Zoan or Tanis, a chief city in Lower
Egypt, within the Delta.
15. Sin—that is, Pelusium, the frontier
fortress on the northeast, therefore called "the strength (that is, the
key) of Egypt." It stands in antithesis to No or Thebes at the opposite
end of Egypt; that is, I will afflict Egypt from one end to the
16. distresses daily—Maurer translates, "enemies during the day," that
is, open enemies who do not wait for the covert of night to make their
attacks (compare Jer 6:4; 15:8). However, the Hebrew, though
rarely, is sometimes rendered (see Ps 13:2) as in English Version.
17. Aven—meaning "vanity" or "iniquity":
applied, by a slight change of the Hebrew name, to On or
Heliopolis, in allusion to its idolatry. Here stood the temple of the
sun, whence it was called in Hebrew, Beth-shemesh (Jer 43:13). The Egyptian hieroglyphics call it,
Re Athom, the sun, the father of the gods, being impersonate in
Athom or Adam, the father of mankind.
Pi-beseth—that is, Bubastis, in Lower
Egypt, near the Pelusiac branch of the Nile: notorious for the worship
of the goddess of the same name (Coptic, Pasht), the granite
stones of whose temple still attest its former magnificence.
these cities—rather, as the
Septuagint, "the women," namely, of Aven and Pi-beseth, in
antithesis to "the young men." So in Eze 30:18, "daughters shall go into
18. Tehaphnehes—called from the queen of
Egypt mentioned in 1Ki 11:19.
The same as Daphne, near Pelusium, a royal residence of the Pharaohs
43:7, 9). Called Hanes (Isa 30:4).
break … the yokes of Egypt—that
is, the tyrannical supremacy which she exercised over other nations.
Compare "bands of their yoke" (Eze 34:7).
a cloud—namely, of calamity.
20. Here begins the earlier vision, not long
after that in the twenty-ninth chapter, about three months before the
taking of Jerusalem, as to Pharaoh and his kingdom.
21. broken … arm of Pharaoh—(Ps
37:17; Jer 48:25). Referring
to the defeat which Pharaoh-hophra sustained from the Chaldeans, when
trying to raise the siege of Jerusalem (Jer 37:5, 7); and previous to the deprivation of
Pharaoh-necho of all his conquests from the river of Egypt to the
Euphrates (2Ki 24:7; Jer 46:2); also to the Egyptian disaster in
22. arms—Not only the "one arm" broken
already (Eze 30:21)
was not to be healed, but the other two should be broken. Not a
corporal wound, but a breaking of the power of Pharaoh is
cause … sword to fall out of …
hand—deprive him of the resources of making war.