Symbolical Vision of the Siege and the
1. tile—a sun-dried brick, such as are
found in Babylon, covered with cuneiform inscriptions, often two feet
long and one foot broad.
2. fort—rather, "watch-tower" (Jer 52:4) wherein the besiegers could watch
the movements of the besieged [Gesenius]. A wall of circumvallation
[Septuagint and Rosenmuller]. A
kind of battering-ram [Maurer]. The
first view is best.
a mount—wherewith the Chaldeans could
be defended from missiles.
"through-borers." In Eze 21:22
the same Hebrew is translated "captains."
3. iron pan—the divine decree as to the
Chaldean army investing the city.
set it for a wall of iron between thee and the
city—Ezekiel, in the person of God, represents the wall of
separation between him and the people as one of iron: and the Chaldean
investing army. His instrument of separating them from him, as one
impossible to burst through.
set … face against it—inexorably
34:16). The exiles envied
their brethren remaining in Jerusalem, but exile is better than the
straitness of a siege.
4. Another symbolical act performed at the
same time as the former, in vision, not in external action, wherein it
would have been only puerile: narrated as a thing ideally done, it
would make a vivid impression. The second action is supplementary to
the first, to bring out more fully the same prophetic idea.
left side—referring to the
position of the ten tribes, the northern kingdom, as
Judah, the southern, answers to "the right side" (Eze 4:6). The Orientals facing the east in their
mode, had the north on their left, and the south on their
right (Eze 16:46).
Also the right was more honorable than the left: so Judah as being the
seat of the temple, was more so than Israel.
bear the iniquity—iniquity being
regarded as a burden; so it means, "bear the punishment
of their iniquity" (Nu 14:34). A
type of Him who was the great sin-bearer, not in mimic show as
Ezekiel, but in reality (Isa 53:4, 6, 12).
5. three hundred and ninety days—The
three hundred ninety years of punishment appointed for Israel, and
forty for Judah, cannot refer to the siege of Jerusalem. That siege is
referred to in Eze 4:1-3,
and in a sense restricted to the literal siege, but comprehending the
whole train of punishment to be inflicted for their sin;
therefore we read here merely of its sore pressure, not of its result.
The sum of three hundred ninety and forty years is four hundred thirty,
a period famous in the history of the covenant-people, being that of
their sojourn in Egypt (Ex 12:40, 41; Ga 3:17). The forty alludes to the forty years
in the wilderness. Elsewhere (De 28:68; Ho 9:3), God threatened to bring them back to
Egypt, which must mean, not Egypt literally, but a bondage as bad as
that one in Egypt. So now God will reduce them to a kind of new
Egyptian bondage to the world: Israel, the greater transgressor, for a
longer period than Judah (compare Eze 20:35-38). Not the whole of the four hundred
thirty years of the Egypt state is appointed to Israel; but this
shortened by the forty years of the wilderness sojourn, to imply, that
a way is open to their return to life by their having the Egypt state
merged into that of the wilderness; that is, by ceasing from idolatry
and seeking in their sifting and sore troubles, through God's covenant,
a restoration to righteousness and peace [Fairbairn]. The three hundred ninety, in reference
to the sin of Israel, was also literally true, being the years
from the setting up of the calves by Jeroboam (1Ki 12:20-33), that is, from 975 to 583 B.C.: about the year of the Babylonians
captivity; and perhaps the forty of Judah refers to that part of
Manasseh's fifty-five years' reign in which he had not repented, and
which, we are expressly told, was the cause of God's removal of Judah,
notwithstanding Josiah's reformation (1Ki 21:10-16; 2Ki 23:26,
6. each day for a year—literally, "a day
for a year, a day for a year." Twice repeated, to mark more distinctly
the reference to Nu 14:34.
The picturing of the future under the image of the past, wherein the
meaning was far from lying on the surface, was intended to arouse to a
less superficial mode of thinking, just as the partial veiling of truth
in Jesus' parables was designed to stimulate inquiry; also to remind
men that God's dealings in the past are a key to the future, for He
moves on the same everlasting principles, the forms alone
7. arm … uncovered—to be ready for
action, which the long Oriental garment usually covering it would
prevent (Isa 52:10).
thou shalt prophesy against it—This
gesture of thine will be a tacit prophecy against it.
8. bands—(Eze 3:25).
not turn from … side—to imply
the impossibility of their being able to shake off the punishment.
9. wheat … barley, &c.—Instead
of simple flour used for delicate cakes (Ge 18:6), the Jews should have a coarse mixture
of six different kinds of grain, such as the poorest alone would
fitches—spelt or dhourra.
three hundred and ninety—The forty
days are omitted, since these latter typify the wilderness
period when Israel stood separate from the Gentiles and their
pollution, though partially chastened by stint of bread and water
4:16), whereas the eating of
the polluted bread in the three hundred ninety days implies a forced
residence "among the Gentiles" who were polluted with idolatry
4:13). This last is said of
"Israel" primarily, as being the most debased (Eze 4:9-15); they had spiritually sunk
to a level with the heathen, therefore God will make their condition
outwardly to correspond. Judah and Jerusalem fare less severely,
being less guilty: they are to "eat bread by weight and with care,"
that is, have a stinted supply and be chastened with the milder
discipline of the wilderness period. But Judah also is secondarily
referred to in the three hundred ninety days, as having fallen, like
Israel, into Gentile defilements; if, then, the Jews are to escape from
the exile among Gentiles, which is their just punishment, they
must submit again to the wilderness probation (Eze 4:16).
10. twenty shekels—that is, little more
than ten ounces; a scant measure to sustain life (Jer 52:6). But it applies not only to the siege,
but to their whole subsequent state.
11. sixth … of … hin—about a
pint and a half.
12. dung—as fuel; so the Arabs use
beasts' dung, wood fuel being scarce. But to use human dung so implies
the most cruel necessity. It was in violation of the law (De 14:3;
23:12-14); it must therefore
have been done only in vision.
13. Implying that Israel's peculiar
distinction was to be abolished and that they were to be outwardly
blended with the idolatrous heathen (De 28:68; Ho 9:3).
14. Ezekiel, as a priest, had been accustomed
to the strictest abstinence from everything legally impure. Peter felt
the same scruple at a similar command (Ac 10:14; compare Isa 65:4). Positive precepts, being
dependent on a particular command can be set aside at the will of the
divine ruler; but moral precepts are everlasting in their
obligation because God cannot be inconsistent with His unchanging moral
abominable flesh—literally, "flesh
that stank from putridity." Flesh of animals three days killed was
prohibited (Le 7:17, 18; 19:6, 7).
15. cow's dung—a mitigation of the
former order (Eze 4:12); no
longer "the dung of man"; still the bread so baked is "defiled," to
imply that, whatever partial abatement there might be for the prophet's
sake, the main decree of God, as to the pollution of Israel by exile
among Gentiles, is unalterable.
16. staff of bread—bread by which life
is supported, as a man's weight is by the staff he leans on (Le 26:26; Ps 105:16; Isa 3:1).
by weight, and with care—in scant
measure (Eze 4:10).
17. astonied one with another—mutually
regard one another with astonishment: the stupefied look of despairing