Jer 52:1-34. Written by Some
Other than Jeremiah (Probably
Ezra) AS AN Historical Supplement to the
(See on Jer 51:64). Jeremiah,
having already (thirty-ninth and fortieth chapters) given the history
in the proper place, was not likely to repeat it here. Its canonical
authority as inspired is shown by its being in the Septuagint
version. It contains the capture and burning of Jerusalem, &c.,
Zedekiah's punishment, and the better treatment of Jehoiachin under
Evil-merodach, down to his death. These last events were probably
subsequent to Jeremiah's time.
3. through … anger of … Lord …
Zedekiah rebelled—His "anger" against Jerusalem, determining
Him to "cast out" His people "from His presence" heretofore manifested
there, led Him to permit Zedekiah to rebel (2Ki 23:26, 27; compare Ex 9:12;
10:1; Ro 9:18). That
rebellion, being in violation of his oath "by God," was sure to bring
down God's vengeance (2Ch 36:13; Eze 17:15, 16, 18).
4. forts—rather, towers of wood
[Kimchi], for watching the movements of
the besieged from the height and annoying them with missiles.
7. (See on Jer
9. gave judgment upon him—as guilty of
rebellion and perjury (Jer 52:3;
compare Eze 23:24).
11. Eze 12:13: "I will bring him to Babylon …
yet shall he not see it."
prison—literally, "the house of
visitations," or "punishments," that is, where there was penal work
enforced on the prisoners, such as grinding. Hence the
Septuagint renders it "the house of the mill." So Samson, after
his eyes were put out, "ground" in the Philistine prison-house (Jud 16:21).
12. tenth day—But in 2Ki 25:8, it is said "the seventh day."
Nebuzara-dan started from Riblah on the "seventh" day and
arrived in Jerusalem on the "tenth" day. Seeming discrepancies,
when cleared up, confirm the genuineness of Scripture; for they show
there was no collusion between the writers; as in all God's works there
is latent harmony under outward varieties.
13. all the houses … and all the houses of
the great—the "and" defines what houses especially are meant,
namely, the houses of the great men.
15. poor of … people—added to the
account in 2Ki 25:11.
"The poor of the people" are of the city, as distinguished from
"the poor of the land," that is, of the country.
17. brake—that they might be more
portable. Fulfilling the prophecy (Jer 27:19). See 1Ki 7:15, 23, 27, 50. Nothing is so particularly related here
as the carrying away of the articles in the temple. The remembrance of
their beauty and preciousness heightens the bitterness of their loss
and the evil of sin which caused it.
brass … brazen—rather "copper
… of copper."
18. (Ex 27:3).
19. of gold in gold—implying that the
articles were of solid gold and silver respectively, not of a different
metal inside, or alloyed [Grotius].
Whole: not breaking them as was done to the "brass" (Jer 52:17).
20. bulls … under the bases—But
the bulls were not "under the bases," but under the
sea (1Ki 7:25, 27, 38); the ten bases were not under the sea,
but under the ten lavers. In English Version, "bases,"
therefore, must mean the lower parts of the sea under which the
bulls were. Rather, translate, "the bulls were in the place of
(that is, 'by way of'; so the Hebrew, 1Sa 14:9), bases," or supports to the sea [Buxtorf]. So the Septuagint. 2Ki 25:16 omits the "bulls," and has
"and the bases"; so Grotius here
reads "the bulls (which were) under (the sea) and the
21. eighteen cubits—but in 2Ch 3:15, it is "thirty-five cubits." The
discrepancy is thus removed. Each pillar was eighteen common
cubits. The two together, deducting the base, were thirty-five, as
stated in 2Ch 3:15
[Grotius]. Other ways (for example, by
reference to the difference between the common and the sacred cubit)
are proposed: though we are not able positively to decide now which is
the true way, at least those proposed do show that the discrepancies
are not irreconcilable.
22. five cubits—so 1Ki 7:16. But 2Ki 25:17 has "three cubits." There were two parts
in the chapiter: the one lower and plain, of two cubits; the other,
higher and curiously carved, of three cubits. The former is omitted in
25:17, as belonging to the
shaft of the pillar; the latter alone is there mentioned. Here the
whole chapiter of five cubits is referred to.
23. on a side—literally, (on the side)
towards the air or wind, that is, the outside of the
capitals of the pillars conspicuous to the eye, opposed to the four
remaining pomegranates which were not seen from the outside. The
pomegranates here are ninety-six; but in 1Ki 7:20 they are two hundred on each chapiter,
and four hundred on the two (2Ch 4:13). It seems there were two rows of
them, one above the other, and in each row a hundred. They are here
said to be ninety-six, but immediately following one hundred, and so in
7:20. Four seem to
have been unseen to one looking from one point; and the ninety-six are
only those that could be seen [Vatablus]; or, the four omitted here are
those separating the four sides, one pomegranate at each point of
separation (or at the four corners) between the four sides [Grotius].
24. Seraiah—different from the Seraiah
51:59), son of Neriah;
probably son of Azariah (1Ch 6:14).
Zephaniah—son of Maaseiah (see on Jer 21:1; Jer 29:25).
25. seven men—but in 2Ki 25:19 it is "five." Perhaps two were
less illustrious persons and are therefore omitted.
principal scribe of the host—(Isa 33:18). His office was to preside over
the levy and enroll recruits. Rawlinson
observes that the Assyrian records are free from the exaggerated
expressions found in the Egyptian. A minute account was taken of the
spoil. Two "scribes of the host" are seen in every bas-relief, writing
down the various objects brought to them: the heads of the slain, the
prisoners, cattle, sheep, &c.
28. seventh year—in 2Ki 24:12, 14,
16, it is said "the eighth
year" of Nebuchadnezzar. No doubt it was in part about the end of
the seventh year, in part about the beginning of the eighth. Also in
24:1-20, ten thousand (Jer 52:14), and seven thousand men of might,
and a thousand craftsmen (Jer 52:16),
are said to have been carried away, But here three thousand
twenty-three. Probably the latter three thousand twenty-three were of
the tribe of Judah, the remaining seven thousand out of the ten
thousand were of the other tribes, out of which many Israelites still
had been left in the land. The thousand "craftsmen" were exclusive of
the ten thousand, as appears, by comparing 2Ki 24:14
with Jer 52:16. Probably the
three thousand twenty-three of Judah were first removed in the end of
"the seventh year"; the seven thousand and a thousand craftsmen in the
"eighth year." This was at the first captivity under Jehoiachin.
29. eighteenth year—when Jerusalem was
taken. But in Jer 52:15, and 2Ki 25:8, "the nineteenth year." Probably it was
at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth [Lyra].
eight hundred and thirty and two—The
most illustrious persons are meant, who no doubt were carried away
first, at the end of the eighteenth year.
30. Not recorded in Kings or Chronicles.
Probably it took place during the commotions that followed the death of
Gedaliah (Jer 41:18; 2Ki 25:26).
four thousand and six hundred—The
exact sum-total of the numbers specified here, namely, three thousand
twenty-three, eight hundred thirty-two, seven hundred forty-five, not
including the general multitude and the women and children (Jer 52:15; Jer 39:9; 2Ki 25:11).
31. (2Ki 25:27-30).
five and twentieth day—but in 2Ki 25:27, it is "the twenty-seventh day."
Probably on the twenty-fifth the decree for his elevation was given,
and the preparations for it made by releasing him from prison; and on
the twenty-seventh day it was carried into effect.
Evil-merodach—son and successor of
Nebuchadnezzar [Lyra]; and the
Hebrew writers say that during Nebuchadnezzar's exclusion from
men among beasts, Evil-merodach administered the government. When
Nebuchadnezzar at the end of seven years was restored, hearing of his
son's misconduct and that he had exulted in his father's calamity, he
threw him into prison, where the latter met Jeconiah and contracted a
friendship with him, whence arose the favor which subsequently he
showed him. God, in his elevation, rewarded his having surrendered to
Nebuchadnezzar (compare Jer 38:17 with 2Ki 24:12).
lifted up … head—(Compare Ge
40:13, 20; Ps 3:3; 27:6).
32. set his throne above—a mark of
the kings—The Hebrew text reads
(the other) "kings." "The kings" is a Masoretic correction.
33. changed … garments—gave him
garments suitable to a king.
did … eat bread before
34. every day a portion—rather,
"its portion," (compare 1Ki 8:59, Margin).